Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 257

Search results for: flavonoids

257 Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina


The article represents the results of research of antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor medicines on their basis have been substantiated.

Keywords: antitumor activity, cytotoxicity, flavonoids, Polygonum L., secondary metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
256 Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Prunus persica L. Leaves

Authors: K. Fellah, H. Benmehdi, A. Amrouche, H. Malainine, F. Memmou, H. Dalile, W. Siata


This work aims to evaluate the antioxidant of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Prunus persica L. A phytochemical screening allowed us to highlight the different phytochemicals present in the leaves of the studied plant. The selective extraction of flavonoids gave yields of 0.71, 1.5, and 4.8% for the fractions ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n- butanol, respectively. The reading of the antioxidant activity of different extracts of flavonoids by HPLTC method revealed positive reaction (yellow spots) on the TLC plates sprayed with DPPH. Using the DPPH method, the fractions of flavonoids (bunanol, ethyl acetate and Diethyl ether) showed a potent scavenging activity with IC50 = 0.22; 0.27 and 0.76 mg / ml, respectively. Furthermore, our findings revealed the extracts under study exhibited higher reducing potential which depends upon extract concentration. These results obtained from this investigation confirm that the Prunus persica remains a major resource of bioactive molecules.

Keywords: Prunus persica L., phytochemical study, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, TLC bioautographic, FRAP, DPPH

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255 Chemical Constituents of Silene Arenarioides Desf

Authors: Haba Hamada, Lavaud Cathrine, Benkhaled Mohammed


The Silene genus is the most representative of the caryophyllaceae family for their rich content in secondary metabolites; saponins, flavonoids and flavonoids glycosides, phytoecdysones, oligosaccharides have been isolated and identified. The Silene genus represented by about 700 species in the temrerate region of the word, the main concentration of spcies is Europe, Asia and North Africa. Three known compounds 1-3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. by using different chromatographic methods. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as stigmasterolglycoside, Soyacerebroside, maltol glycoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using the NMR (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) techniques and mass spectroscopy. The antimicrobial and antioxydant activities of the different extracts and compound have been reported.

Keywords: caryophyllaceae, flavonoids, saponosids, flavonoids glycosides

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
254 Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Nusrat Masood, Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman


Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.

Keywords: Caspase 3, terpenoids, flavonoids, activation constant, binding energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
253 Study of Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Algerian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Khadri Sihem, Abbaci Nafissa, Zerari Labiba


In the context of the search for new bioactive natural products, we were interested in evaluating some antibacterial properties of two plant extracts: total phenols and flavonoids of Algerian medicinal plant. Our study occurs in two axes: The first concerns the extraction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by quantification of the levels of these compounds in the end the analysis of the chemical composition of extracts. In the second axis, we studied the antibacterial power of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, flavonoids, medicinal plants, polyphenols

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252 Hypoglycemic Effect of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Olea europaea L. in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Benhabyles, K. Arab, O. Bouchenak, A. Baz


The hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of flavonoids rich extract obtained from leaves of Olea europaea L. was analyzed in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extraction was performed by confrontation with organic solvents method, which yielded four extracts: Di ethyl Ether, Ethyl Acetate, Butanolic, and Aqueous extract. A single oral dose of 100 mg/kg of the different extract was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in a glucose tolerance test in normal rats and 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg of AE for anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced (125 mg/kg) diabetic rats. Dosage of 100 mg/kg of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test after 120 min. However, a better activity is obtained with the AE. For the anti-hyperglycemic study, the results showed a substantial decrease in blood glucose during the 2 h of treatment for all groups treated with different doses of flavonoids. From the results it can be concluded that flavonoids of O. europaea can be a potential candidate in treating the hyperglycemic conditions.

Keywords: alloxan, antihyperglycemic effect, diabetes mellitus, flavonoids, hypoglycemic effect, Olea europaea L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
251 Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Four Indian Aromatic Plants

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Richa


Plants produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Phenolics are the compounds that contain hydroxyl functional group on an aromatic ring. These are chemically heterogeneous compounds. Some are soluble only in organic solvents, some are water soluble and others are large insoluble polymers. Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant phenolics. The carbon skeleton of a flavonoid contains 15 carbons arranged in two aromatic rings connected by a three carbon ridge. Both phenolics and flavonoids are good natural antioxidants. Four Indian aromatic plants were selected for the study i.e, Achillea species, Jasminum primulinum, Leucas cephalotes and Leonotis nepetaefolia. All the plant species were collected from Chail region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The identifying features and anatomical studies were done of the part containing the essential oils. Phenolic cotent was estimated by Folin Ciocalteu’s method and flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. Antioxidant property was checked by using DPPH method. Maximum antioxidant potential was found in Achillea species, followed by Leonotis nepetaefolia, Jaminum primulinum and Leucas cephalotes. Phenolics and flavonoids are important compounds that serve as defences against herbivores and pathogens. Others function in attracting pollinators and absorbing harmful radiations.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH, flavonoids, phenolics

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250 Effectiveness of the Flavonoids Isolated from Thymus inodorus by Different Solvents against Some Pathogenis Microorganisms

Authors: N. Behidj, K. Benyounes, T. Dahmane, A. Allem


The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the aerial part of a medicinal plant which is Thymus inodorusby the middle agar diffusion method on following microorganisms. We have Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, AspergillusNiger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. During this study, flavonoids extracted by stripping with steam are performed. The yields of flavonoids is 7.242% for the aqueous extract and 28.86% for butanol extract, 29.875% for the extract of ethyl acetate and 22.9% for the extract of di - ethyl. The evaluation of the antibacterial effect shows that the diameter of the zone of inhibition varies from one microorganism to another. The operation values obtained show that the bacterial strain P fluoresces, and 3 yeasts and molds; A. Niger, A. fumigatus and C. albicansare the most resistant. But it is noted that, S. aureus is shown more sensitive to crude extracts, the stock solution and the various dilutions. Finally for the minimum inhibitory concentration is estimated only with the crude extract of Thymus inodorus flavonoid.Indeed, these extracts inhibit the growth of Gram + bacteria at a concentration varying between 0.5% and 1%. While for bacteria to Gram -, it is limited to a concentration of 0.5%.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, organic extracts, aqueous extracts, Thymus numidicus

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249 Geoclimatic Influences on the Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Fruit of Arbutus unedo L.

Authors: Khadidja Bouzid, Fouzia Benali Toumi, Mohamed Bouzouina


We made a comparison between the total phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of four different extracts (butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, water) of Arbutus unedo L. fruit (Ericacea) of El Marsa and Terni area. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 26.57 and 48.23 gallic acid equivalents mg/g of dry weight of extract. The concentrations of flavonoids in plant extracts varied from 17.98 to 56.84 catechin equivalents mg/g. The antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using the DPPH reagent; among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction from El Marsa area showed the highest antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L., fruit flavonoids, phenols, Western Algeria

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248 Optimisation of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida, Algeria, NW

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud Dif, Fouzia Benali-Toumi, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza, Abbes Dellal, Slimane Baha


L. multifida is applied to treat rheumatism and cold and has hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida. The influences of parameters including temperature (decoction and maceration) and extraction time (15min to 45 min) on the flavonoids concentration are studied. The optimal conditions are determined and the quadratic response surfaces draw from the mathematical models. Total phenols were evaluated using Folin sicaltieu methods, total flavonoids were estimated using the Tri chloral aluminum method. The maximum concentration extracted, for total flavonoids, equal to 0.043 mg/g was achieved with decoction and extraction time of 41.55 min. However, for total phenol compounds highest concentration of 0.218 mg/g, is obtained with 45 min at 49.99°C.

Keywords: L multifidi, phenolic content, optimization, time, temperature

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247 Study of the in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Roots of the Barks of Zizyphus lotus

Authors: Djemai Zoughlache Soumia, Yahia Mouloud, Lekbir Adel, Meslem Meriem, Maouchi Madiha, Bahi Ahlem, Benbia Souhila


Natural extracts is known for their contents of biologically active molecules. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract prepared from the bark of the roots of Zizyphus lotus. The quantitative analysis based on the dosage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins provided following values: 0.39 ± 0.007 ug EAG/mg of extract for phenolic compounds, 0.05 ± 0.02ug EQ/mg extract for flavonoids and 0.0025 ± 7.071 E-4 ECT ug/mg extract for tannins. The study of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH test in vitro showed a powerful antiradical power with an IC50 = 8,8 ug/ml. For the DPPH test in vivo we used two rats lots, one lot with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract and a control lot. We found a significant difference in antiradical activity with p < 0.05.

Keywords: Zizyphus lotus, antioxidant activity, DPPH, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins

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246 In situ Ortho-Quinone Methide Reactions for Construction of Flavonoids with Fused Ring Systems

Authors: Vidia A. Nuraini, Eugene M. H. Yee, Mohan Bhadbhade, David StC. Black, Naresh Kumar


Flavonoids are naturally occurring compounds that have been shown to exhibit a wide range of biological properties including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, flavonoids suffer from low bioavailability, which limits their overall utility for therapeutic applications. One of the methods to overcome this limitation is through structural modification of natural flavonoids. In this study, flavanone, isoflavanone, and isoflavene, were structurally modified through the introduction of additional fused-ring systems via ortho-quinone methide intermediates (o-QMs). These intermediates can readily undergo a [4+2] cycloaddition through an inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction with electron-rich dienophiles. A regioselective Mannich reaction using bis-(N,N-dimethylamino)methane was employed to generate the o-QM precursors of flavanone, isoflavanone, and isoflavene. The o-QM intermediates were subsequently generated in situ through thermal elimination of the dimethylamine functionality and reacted with a variety of dienophiles to produce novel flavonoids with fused-ring systems. A total of 21 novel flavonoid analogs were successfully synthesized. The X-ray crystal structure of cycloaddition adducts, particularly those derived from 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran and p-methoxystyrene revealed a special case of enantiomeric disorder, where two enantiomers in equal amounts superpose with one another, with the exception for atoms that have opposite configuration. The anticancer properties of fused-ring systems derived from isoflavene were evaluated against the neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2)C, the triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and the glioblastoma U87 cancer cell lines. One of these cycloaddition adducts had displayed improved anti-proliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 and U87 cancer cell lines as compared to the parent compound. Further anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of the flavanone and isoflavanone analogs are currently being investigated.

Keywords: Diels-Alder reaction, flavonoids, Mannich reaction, ortho-quinone methide.

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245 Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from the Aerial Parts of Alyssum alyssoides

Authors: Olga St. Tsiftsoglou, Diamanto M. Lazari, Eugene L. Kokkalou


Most of Alyssum species of Brassicaceae family have been mainly studied for their contribution in ecology. In this study, A. alyssoides was examined for its chemical substitutes. The methanol extract of its aerial parts was fractionated with liquid-liquid extraction (distribution) with four different solvents of increasing polarity: diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts were further studied for their chemical composition. So far, secondary metabolites which belong to phenolics were isolated by using several chromatographic methods (C.C. and HPLC) and were identified by using spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, NMR and MS): two phenolic acids (p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (vanillic acid)), and five flavonoids, which are derivatives of flavonol: kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin), kaempferol 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercetin), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and isoramnetin 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (narcissin).

Keywords: Alyssum, chemical substitutes, flavonoids, phenolic acids

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244 Total Phenols, Total Flavonoids Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Seeds Extracts of Lawsonia alba (henna) from Algeria

Authors: Rekia. Cherbi, Mokhtar. Saidi, Mohamed. Yousfi, Zhor. Rahmani


Lawsonia alba (Henna) is widely used in folkloric medicinal for a treatment of various skin diseases such as Eczema (atopic dermatitis), boils and sores. The aim of the present study is to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content of extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba grown in Algeria and selected from three different regions (Adrar, Biskra, and Ouargla). Total phenolics content ranged from 68,42 ± 0,54 to 88,31 ± 0,78mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight, the flavonoids content varied from 1,13 ± 0,0035 to 1,367 ± 0,002mg quercetin equivalents (Q)/ g dry weight and condensed tannins (14,47 ± 0,138 to 25,50 ± 0,076 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry weight). The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that all extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba seem to be good trappers of radicals, the IC50 values of the extracts ranged between 0,00826 and 0,01 g/l.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Lawsonia. alba, phenolic compounds, seeds

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243 Genoprotective Effect of Lepidium sativum L. Seed Methanolic Extract on Cyclophosphamide-Induced DNA Damage in Mice and Characterization of Its Flavonoidal Content

Authors: Iman A. A. Kassem, Ayman A. Farghaly, Zeinab M. Hassan, Farouk R. Melek, Neveen S. Ghaly


Lipidium sativum L, an annual herb that grows to 50 cm, is known as an important member of family Brassicaceae. Besides its nutritional value, the seeds were widely used in folk medicine for treatment of cough, asthma, and headache. It was also reported to possess hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. In this study, the genoprotective properties of L. sativum seed methanolic extract (LSME) were evaluated in vivo. Three groups of mice were given LSME for five consecutive days at the three dose levels 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. The three groups were then injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.wt. to induce DNA damage. A group received only cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg b.wt.) served as control. LSME significantly inhibited the DNA aberrations in mice caused by cyclophosphamide in a dose-dependent manner in the two groups that received LSME at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. dose levels. The chromosomal aberrations' inhibitory indices were calculated as 18 and 31 in mice bone marrow cells and 27 and 48 in mice spermatocytes, respectively. Phytochemical examination carried out by us revealed that flavonoids were the main chemical constituents of LSME. The major flavonoids kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were isolated and characterized. It was concluded that the genoprotective effect of LSME might be attributed to the presence of flavonoids which are well-known for their antioxidant properties.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, flavonoids, genoprotective effect, Lepidium sativum

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242 Study of the Effect of Extraction Solvent on the Content of Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids and the Antioxidant Activity of an Endemic Medicinal Plant Growing in Morocco

Authors: Aghoutane Basma, Naama Amal, Talbi Hayat, El Manfalouti Hanae, Kartah Badreddine


Aromatic and medicinal plants are used by man for different needs, including food and medicinal needs for their biological properties attributed mainly to phenolic compounds and for their antioxidant capacity. In our study, the aim is to compare three extraction solvents by evaluating the contents of phenolic compounds, the contents of flavonoids, and the antioxidant activities of extracts from different methods of extracting the aerial part of an endemic medicinal plant from Morocco. This activity was also confirmed by three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidant reducing power of iron (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (CAT)). The results showed that this plant is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, as well as it has a very important antioxidant capacity in whatever the solvent or the extraction method. This suggests the importance of using extracts from this plant as a new natural source of food additives and potent antioxidants in the food industry.

Keywords: endemic plant of Morocco, phenolic compound, solvent, extraction technique, antioxidant activity

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241 Biological Activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract

Authors: Chanasit Chaocharoenphat


Hibiscus sabdariffa is a herbal plant that is commonly used for home remedies in Thailand. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of polyphenols, as oxidative stress plays a vital role in the development of cancer, and H. sabdariffa was used in this study. The total flavonoids content was determined using the aluminium chloride colourimetric method and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g and the antioxidant capacity of the flavonoids using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The IC50 values of H. sabdariffa extract were 167.14 μg/mL ± 0.843 and 77.59 μg/mL ± 0.798, respectively. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. To summarise, H. sabdariffa extract contains a high concentration of total flavonoids and exhibits potent antioxidant activity. However, additional antioxidant activity assays such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging assays and in vitro antioxidant experiments should be carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of the compound.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Gracilaria fisheri, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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240 Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids from Corn Silk (Zea mays L.) in Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Authors: Fitri Ayu, Nadia, Tanti, Putri, Fatkhan, Pasid Harlisa, Suparmi


Acne is a skin abnormal conditions experienced by many teens, this is caused by various factors such as the climate is hot, humid and excessive sun exposure can aggravate acne because it will lead to excess oil production. Flavonoids form complex compounds against extracellular proteins that disrupt the integrity of bacterial cell membrane in a way denature bacterial cell proteins and bacterial cell membrane damage. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of corn silk extract with a concentration of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % in vitro by measuring the inhibition of the growth of bacteria Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis then compared with the standard antibiotic clindamycin. Extracts tested by Disk Diffusion Method, in which the blank disc soaked with their respective corn silk extract concentration for 15-30 minutes and then the medium of bacteria that have been planted with Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis in the given disk that already contains extracts with various concentration. Incubated for 24 hours and then measured the growth inhibition zone Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Corn silk contains flavonoids, is shown by the test of flavonoids in corn silk extract by using a tube heating and without heating. Flavonoid in corn silk potentially as anti acne by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause acne. Corn silk extract concentration which has the highest antibacterial activity is then performed in a cream formulation and evaluation test of physical and chemical properties of the resulting cream preparation.

Keywords: antibacterial, flavonoid, corn silk, acne

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239 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai


Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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238 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid


Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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237 Effect of Nitrogen and/or Bio-Fertilizer on the Yield, Total Flavonoids, Carbohydrate Contents, Essential Oil Quantity and Constituents of Dill Plants

Authors: Mohammed S. Aly, Abou-Zeid N. El-Shahat, Nabila Y. Naguib, Huussie A. Said-Al Ahl, Atef M. Zakaria, Mohamed A. Abou Dahab


This study was conducted during two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to evaluate the response of Anethum graveolens L. plants to nitrogen fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizer on fruits yield, total flavonoids and carbohydrates content, essential oil yield and constituents. Results cleared that the treatment of 60 Kg N/feddan without and with bio-fertilizer gave the highest umbels number per plant through the two seasons and these increments were significant in comparison with control plants. Meanwhile, fruits weight (g/plant) showed significant increase with the treatments of nitrogen fertilizers alone and combined with bio-fertilizers compared with control plants in the first and second season. Maximum increments were resulted with the previous treatment (60 Kg N/fed). Fruits yield (Kg/fed) revealed the same trend of fruits weight (g/plant). Total flavonoids contents were significantly increased with all of used treatments. Maximum increase was noticed with bio-fertilizers combined with 60 Kg N/fed during two seasons. Total carbohydrate contents showed significant increase with applied nitrogen fertilizers treatments as alone, meanwhile total carbohydrate contents were increased non-significantly with the other used treatments during the two seasons in comparison with control plants content. The treatment of bio-fertilizer and in most of nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly increased essential oil percentage, content and yield. The treatment of 60 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizer gave the best values. All identified compounds were observed in the essential oil of all treatments. The major compounds were limonene, carvone and dillapiole. The most effective fertilization on limonene content was 40 Kg N/fed and/or bio-fertilizers. Meanwhile 20 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizers increased carvone, but most of fertilization treatments except those of bio-fertlizers and 40 Kg N/fed increased dillapiole content.

Keywords: carbohydrates, dill, essential oil, fertilizer, flavonoids

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236 Antioxydant Activity of Flavonoïd’s Extracts of Rhamnus alaternus L. Leaves of Tessala Mountains (Occidental Algeria)

Authors: Benchiha Walid, Mahroug Samira


Rhamnus alaternus L. is a shrub that belongs to the family of Rhamnaceae. It is a medicinal plant that is largely used in traditional medicine in Algeria. Five flavonoic extracts obtained of Rhamnus alaternus L. leaves. The flavonoids were evaluated by a method that uses aluminum chloride AlCl3 of each extract; the content is estimated at 19.33 (Hexanic. Extract), 18.42 (Chlroformic.extract), 16.75 (Acetate. Extract), 3.9 (Brute. Extract), and 3.02 (Aqueous. Extract) mg Equivalent quercetine/gram of extract (mg QE/ g extract). The antioxidant activity was realized by the antiradical test that was evaluated by using DPHH (2.2 diphenyl-1-1picrylhdrazile), the inhibitory concentration at 50% (CI50) were estimated at 74.78 (Vitamin.C), 143.78 (Catechine), 101.78 (Gallic acid), 205.41 (Tannic acid), 210 (Caffeic acid) µg/ml; 74.16 (Br.extr), 9.98 (Aq.extr), 54.08 (Hèx.extr), 8.64 (Ac.extr), 30.49 (Ch.extr) mg/ml.

Keywords: Rhamnus alaternus L., flavonoids, antioxydant activity, Tessala

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235 Assessment of Antioxidant Activities in Roots of Miswak (Salvadora persica) Plants Grown at Two Different Locations in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed M. Ibrahima, Abdul Aziz A.AL Sahli, Ibrahim A. Alaraidh, Ali A. Al-Homaidan, E.M. Mostafa, G.A. EL-Gaaly


Traditionally, in Middle Eastern countries, many cultures use chewing sticks of arak for medicinal purposes especially, for oral cleanliness care. It was used by Muslims for the treatment of teeth and highly recommended to be used by muslims during the whole day. Therefore, the present work aimed to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoids in two Miswak extracts obtained from arak roots collected from two different localities in Saudi Arabia. They were extracted with aqueous ethanol (80%) and used to estimate in vitro their antioxidative abilities. The new findings showed that the two tested extracts contained significantly different amounts of both total phenolic content and total flavonoids. According to the increase of total phenolic contents and total flavonoids obtained from the two extracts, Miswak collected from the southern region was found to contain more contents than those collected from the middle region. The results of antioxidant activities of Miswak root extract obtained by using different in vitro methods were varied depending on the technique used. According to the malondialdehyde (MDA) method, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging ability and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, the two Miswak extracts exhibited to have high to very high antioxidant activities. Mostly, the values of antioxidant activities of Southern region have been shown to be always the highest.

Keywords: Arak, antioxidant, medicinal plants, Saudi Arabia

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234 In vitro and invivo Antioxidant Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N.Ukwuani, A. K. Abdulfatah


G. crenata is used locally for the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extracts of the leaves of G. crenata were assessed. The phytochemical analysis shows the presence of phenols, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An in vitro quantitative analysis of phenols, flavonoids and tannins respectively were (164±1.20, 199±0.88 and 88.67±0.88 mg/100g FW). In vivo studies of hydromethanolic extract demonstrated a dose dependent increase in hepatic superoxide dismutase (1.14±0.14, 2.13±0.11, 2.55±0.11 U/mg Protein) with improvement in hepatic glutathione (6.98±0.42, 8.91±0.37, 11.07±0.46 µM/mg Protein) and Catalase (4.47±0.05, 6.24±0.02, 7.17±0.04 U/mg Protein) and Total protein (6.18±0.08, 6.69±0.18, 7.27±0.16 mg/ml) respectively at 100-300mg/kg body weight Grewia crenata leaves when compared to the control and standard drug. It can be concluded from the present findings of that G. crenata leaves possess antioxidant potential.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, antioxidant, hydromethanolic extract, in vivo, in vitro

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233 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi


Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: zinc oxide, copper oxide, phenolic compounds, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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232 Acerola and Orange By-Products as Sources of Bioactive Compounds for Probiotic Fermented Milks

Authors: Tatyane Lopes de Freitas, Antonio Diogo S. Vieira, Susana Marta Isay Saad, Maria Ines Genovese


The fruit processing industries generate a large volume of residues to produce juices, pulps, and jams. These residues, or by-products, consisting of peels, seeds, and pulps, are routinely discarded. Fruits are rich in bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, which have positive effects on health. Dry residues from two fruits, acerola (M. emarginata D. C.) and orange (C. sinensis), were characterized in relation to contents of ascorbic acid, minerals, total dietary fibers, moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, and also high performance liquid chromatographic profile of flavonoids, total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins contents, and antioxidant capacity by three different methods (Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay-FRAP, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity-ORAC, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity). Acerola by-products presented the highest acid ascorbic content (605 mg/100 g), and better antioxidant capacity than orange by-products. The dry residues from acerola demonstrated high contents of proanthocyanidins (617 µg CE/g) and total polyphenols (2525 mg gallic acid equivalents - GAE/100 g). Both presented high total dietary fiber (above 60%) and protein contents (acerola: 10.4%; orange: 9.9%), and reduced fat content (acerola: 1.6%; orange: 2.6%). Both residues showed high levels of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, and were considered sources of these minerals. With acerola by-product, four formulations of probiotics fermented milks were produced: F0 (without the addition of acerola residue (AR)), F2 (2% AR), F5 (5% AR) and F10 (10% AR). The physicochemical characteristics of the fermented milks throughout of storage were investigated, as well as the impact of in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions on flavonoids and probiotics. The microorganisms analyzed maintained their populations around 8 log CFU/g during storage. After the gastric phase of the simulated digestion, the populations decreased, and after the enteric phase, no colonies were detected. On the other hand, the flavonoids increased after the gastric phase, maintaining or suffering small decrease after enteric phase. Acerola by-products powder is a valuable ingredient to be used in functional foods because is rich in vitamin C, fibers and flavonoids. These flavonoids appear to be highly resistant to the acids and salts of digestion.

Keywords: acerola, orange, by-products, fermented milk

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231 Characterization of Main Phenolic Compounds in Eleusine indica L. (Poaceae) by HPLC-DAD and 1H NMR

Authors: E. M. Condori-Peñaloza, S. S. Costa


Eleusine indica L, known as goose-grass, is considered a troublesome weed that can cause important economic losses in the agriculture worldwide. However, this grass is used as a medicinal plant in some regions of Brazil to treat influenza and pneumonia. In Africa and Asia, it is used to treat malaria and as diuretic, anti-helminthic, among other uses. Despite its therapeutic potential, little is known about the chemical composition and bioactive compounds of E. indica. Hitherto, two major flavonoids, schaftoside and vitexin, were isolated from aerial part of the species and showed inhibitory activity on lung neutrophil influxes in mice, suggesting a beneficial effect on airway inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the chemical profile of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Eleusine indica specimens using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), with emphasis on phenolic compounds. Specimens of E. indica were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Aerial parts of fresh plants were extracted by decoction (10% p/v). After spontaneous precipitation of the aqueous extract at 10-12°C for 24 hours, the supernatant obtained was frozen and lyophilized. After that, 1 g of the extract was dissolved into 25 mL of water and fractionated on a reverse phase chromatography column (RP-2), eluted with a gradient of H2O/EtOH. Five fractions were obtained. The extract and fractions had their chemical profile analyzed by using HPLC-DAD (C-18 column: 20 μL, 256 -365 nm; gradient water 0.01% phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile. The extract was also analyzed by NMR (1H, 500 MHz, D2O) in order to access its global chemical composition. HPLC-DAD analyses of crude extract allowed the identification of ten phenolic compounds. Fraction 1, eluted with 100% water, was poor in phenolic compounds and no major peak was detected. In fraction 2, eluted with 100% water, it was possible to observe one major peak at retention time (RT) of 23.75 minutes compatible with flavonoid; fraction 3, also eluted with 100% water, showed four peaks at RT= 21.47, 23.52, 24.33 and 25.84 minutes, all of them compatible with flavonoid. In fraction 4, eluted with 50%/ethanol/50% water, it was possible to observe 3 peaks compatible with flavonoids at RT=24.65, 26.81, 27.49 minutes, and one peak (28.83 min) compatible with a phenolic acid derivative. Finally, in fraction 5, eluted with 100% ethanol, no phenolic substance was detected. The UV spectra of all flavonoids detected were compatible with the flavone subclass (λ= 320-345 nm). The 1H NMR spectra of aerial parts extract showed signals in three regions: δ 0.8-3.0 ppm (aliphatic compounds), δ 3.0-5.5 ppm corresponding to carbohydrates (signals most abundant and overlapped), and δ 6.0-8.5 ppm (aromatic compounds). Signals compatible with flavonoids (rings A and B) could also be detected in the crude extract spectra. These results suggest the presence of several flavonoids in E. indica, which reinforces their therapeutic potential. The pharmacological activities of Eleusine indica extracts and fractions will be further evaluated.

Keywords: flavonoids, HPLC, NMR, phenolic compounds

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230 Exploring Polypnenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of R. damascena Dry Extract by Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Techniques

Authors: Daniela Nedeltcheva-Antonova, Kamelia Getchovska, Vera Deneva, Stanislav Bozhanov, Liudmil Antonov


Rosa damascena Mill. (Damask rose) is one of the most important plants belonging to the Rosaceae family, with a long historical use in traditional medicine and as a valuable oil-bearing plant. Many pharmacological effects have been reported from this plant, including anti-inflammatory, hypnotic, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-depressant, antianxiety, antitussive, antidiabetic, relaxant effects on tracheal chains, laxative, prokinetic and hepatoprotective activities. Pharmacological studies have shown that the various health effects of R. damascena flowers can mainly be attributed to its large amount of polyphenolic components. Phenolics possess a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidants, free-radical scavengers, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antidepressant, with flavonoids being the most numerous group of natural polyphenolic compounds. According to the technological process in the production of rose concrete (solvent extraction with non-polar solvents of fresh rose flowers), it can be assumed that the resulting plant residue would be as rich of polyphenolics, as the plant itself, and could be used for the development of novel products with promising health-promoting effect. Therefore, an optimisation of the extraction procedure of the by-product from the rose concrete production was carried out. An assay of the extracts in respect of their total polyphenols and total flavonoids content was performed. HPLC analysis of quercetin and kaempferol, the two main flavonoids found in R. damascena, was also carried out. The preliminary results have shown that the flavonoid content in the rose extracts is comparable to that of the green tea or Gingko biloba, and they could be used for the development of various products (food supplements, natural cosmetics and phyto-pharmaceutical formulation, etc.). The fact that they are derived from the by-product of industrial plant processing could add the marketing value of the final products in addition to the well-known reputation of the products obtained from Bulgarian roses (R. damascena Mill.).

Keywords: gas chromatography-mass-spectromrtry, dry extract, flavonoids, Rosa damascena Mill

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229 Experimental Study for Examination of Nature of Diffusion Process during Wine Microoxygenation

Authors: Ilirjan Malollari, Redi Buzo, Lorina Lici


This study was done for the characterization of polyphenols changes of anthocyanins, flavonoids, the color intensity and total polyphenols index, maturity and oxidation index during the process of micro-oxygenation of wine that comes from a specific geographic area in the southeastern region of the country. Also, through mathematical modeling of the oxygen distribution within solution of wort for wine fermentation, was shown the strong impact of carbon dioxide present in the liquor. Analytical results show periodic increases of color intensity and tonality, reduction level of free anthocyanins and flavonoids free because of polycondensation reactions between tannins and anthocyanins, increased total polyphenols index and decrease the ratio between the flavonoids and anthocyanins offering a red stabilize wine proved by sensory degustation tasting for color intensity, tonality, body, tannic perception, taste and remained back taste which comes by specific area associated with environmental indications. Micro-oxygenation of wine is a wine-making technique, which consists in the addition of small and controlled amounts of oxygen in the different stages of wine production but more efficiently after end of alcoholic fermentation. The objectives of the process include improved mouth feel (body and texture), color enhanced stability, increased oxidative stability, and decreased vegetative aroma during polyphenols changes process. A very important factor is polyphenolics organic grape composition strongly associated with the environment geographical specifics area in which it is grown the grape.

Keywords: micro oxygenation, polyphenols, environment, wine stability, diffusion modeling

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228 In vitro Assessment of Bioactive Properties and Dose-Dependent Antioxidant Activities of Commercial Grape Cultivars in Taiwan

Authors: Kandi Sridhar, Charles Albert Linton


Grapes are excellent sources of bioactive compounds, which have been suggested to be responsible for lowering the risk of chronic diseases. Fresh and freeze-dried extracts of Kyoho and Jubilee, commercial grape varieties available in Taiwan and attractive for their quality berries, were investigated for their total phenolics and total flavonoids contents and related dose-dependent antioxidants properties using various in vitro assays. The efficiency of the extraction yield ranged from 7.10 % to 25.53 % (w/w), depending on solvent used. Fresh samples of Kyoho and Jubilee exhibited total polyphenolic contents (351.56 ± 23.08 and 328.67 ± 16.54 µg GAE/mL, respectively), whereas Kyoho freeze-dried methanol: water extracts contains the good levels of total flavonoids (4767.82 ± 22.20 µg QE/mL). Kyoho and Jubilee freeze-dried extracts exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents. There was a weak correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid assays (r= -0.05, R2 = 0.02, p > 0.05). Kyoho fresh and freeze-dried samples showed the DPPH (11.51 – 77.82 %), superoxide scavenging activity (33.61 – 81.95 %), and total antioxidant inhibition (92.01 – 99.28 %), respectively. Total flavonoids were statistically correlated with EC50 DPPH scavenging radicals (r =0.91, p < 0.01), EC50 nitric oxide (r = 0.25, p > 0.05), and EC50 lipid peroxidation radicals (r = 0.38, p > 0.05). These results suggested that the two commercial grape cultivars in Taiwan could be used as a good source of natural antioxidants. Thus, consumption of grapes as a source antioxidant might lower the risk of chronic diseases. Moreover, future studies will investigate and develop phenolic acid profile for the cultivars in Taiwan.

Keywords: antioxidants, EC50 radical scavenging activity, grape cultivars, total phenolics

Procedia PDF Downloads 90