Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: threonine

31 Effect of Serine/Threonine Kinases on Autophagy Mechanism

Authors: Ozlem Oral, Seval Kilic, Ozlem Yedier, Serap Dokmeci, Devrim Gozuacik

Abstract:

Autophagy is a degradation pathway, activating under stress conditions. It digests macromolecules, such as abnormal proteins and long-lived organelles by engulfing them and by subsequent delivery of the cargo to lysosomes. The members of the phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinases, involved in many signaling pathways, which are necessary for the regulation of cellular metabolic activation. Previous studies implicate that, serine/threonine kinases have crucial roles in the mechanism of many diseases depend on the activated and/or inactivated signaling pathway. Data indicates, the signaling pathways activated by serine/threonine kinases are also involved in activation of autophagy mechanism. However, the information about the effect of serine/threonine kinases on autophagy mechanism and the roles of these effects in disease formation is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of activated serine/threonine kinases on autophagic pathway. We performed a commonly used autophagy technique, GFP-LC3 dot formation and by using microscopy analyses, we evaluated promotion and/or inhibition of autophagy in serine/threonine kinase-overexpressed fibroblasts as well as cancer cells. In addition, we carried out confocal microscopy analyses and examined autophagic flux by utilizing the differential pH sensitivities of RFP and GFP in mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe. Based on the shRNA-library based screening, we identified autophagy-related proteins affected by serine/threonine kinases. We further studied the involvement of serine/threonine kinases on the molecular mechanism of newly identified autophagy proteins and found that, autophagic pathway is indirectly controlled by serine/threonine kinases via specific autophagic proteins. Our data indicate the molecular connection between two critical cellular mechanisms, which have important roles in the formation of many disease pathologies, particularly cancer. This project is supported by TUBITAK-1001-Scientific and Technological Research Projects Funding Program, Project No: 114Z836.

Keywords: autophagy, GFP-LC3 dot formation assay, serine/threonine kinases, shRNA-library screening

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30 The Effects of Arginine, Glutamine and Threonine Supplementation in the Starting Phase on Subsequent Performance of Male Broile

Authors: Jalal Fazli Amiri, Mohammad Hossein Shahir, Mohammad Hossein Nemati, Afshin Heidarinia

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The current study was performed to investigate the effects of arginine, threonine, and glutamine supplementation in excess of requirements in the starter period (17 days) on performance, intestinal morphology, and immune response of broilers. Four hundred and sixteen male day-old chicks were assigned in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement to a completely randomized design with four replicates (13 birds per replicate ). Treatments were: a control group that received the basal diet, basal diet plus 1% glutamine, basal diet plus 0.2% threonine, basal diet plus 0.75 % arginine, and combination of these three amino acids (glutamine+arginine, glutamine+threonine, arginine+threonine and arginine+ glutamine+threonine). The effect of glutamine supplementation on feed intake was significant in week 4 (p < 0.05), week 6 (p < 0.001), and total feed intake (p < 0.05) and caused declined feed intake. No significant differences of glutamine addition were observed on intestinal morphology (villi height, crypt depth, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi width). Threonine supplementation caused increased weight gain in week 2 (p < 0.001) and 3 and a decrease of total feed intake (p < 0.05). Duodenum and jejunum villi height, crypt depth, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi width were not affected. The effect of arginine supplementation was the increase of breast percentage (p < 0.05) and a decrease of jejunum villi high (p < 0.05) and Jejunum crypt depth (p < 0.05). Supplementation of arginine, threonine, and glutamine had no significant effects on blood titer of antibodies against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza. Overall, it seems that the supplementation of arginine, threonine, and glutamine in excess of requirements in the starter period had no effect on performance in subsequent periods and intestinal morphology.

Keywords: intestinal morphology, immunity, broiler chickens, glutamine, arginine, threonine

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29 Impact of Dietary L-Threonine Supplementation on Performance and Health of Broiler Chickens, a Review

Authors: Mandana Hoseini

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During last decades, intensive selection for higher growth rate in broiler chickens has accelerated daily body weight gain, which this has changed/increased the trends and amounts of nutrient requirements in the diet. As a result, considerable studies have been focused on the better determination of protein/amino acids requirements in modern broiler diets. One approach to minimize dietary crude protein inclusion levels is substitution of some of the dietary crude protein with synthetic amino acids. In addition, using synthetic forms of limiting essential amino acids in the diet could help better coincidence of dietary protein with ideal protein concept, which this in turn, minimizes nitrogen dissipation and environmental pollution. Threonine is usually considered as the third limiting amino acid in broiler diets. Recent studies have been demonstrated that dietary supplemental threonine would optimize growth performance, immune system, intestinal morphology, as well as oxidative defense in broiler chickens. In this review, threonine metabolism and its effects in relation with different aspects of broiler performance have been discussed.

Keywords: immune system, intestine, performance, requirement, threonine

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28 A Derivative of L-allo Threonine Alleviates Asthmatic Symptoms in vitro and in vivo

Authors: Kun Chun, Jin-Chun Heo, Sang-Han Lee

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Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells and tissue remodeling. In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic activity of a derivative of L-allo threonine by in vitro and in vivo anti-asthmatic assays. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced C57BL/6 mice were used to analyze lung inflammation and cytokine expressions for exhibiting anti-atopic activity of the derivative. LX519290, a derivative of L-allo threonine, induced an increased IFN-γ and a decreased IL-10 mRNA level. This compound exhibited potent anti-asthmatic activity by decreasing immune cell infiltration in the lung, and IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine levels in the serum of OVA-induced mice. These results indicated that chronic airway injury was decreased by LX519290. We also assessed that LX519290 inhibits infiltration of immune cell, mucus release and cytokine expression in an in vivo model. Our results collectively suggest that the L-allo threonine is effective in alleviating asthmatic symptoms by treating inflammatory factors in the lung.

Keywords: asthma, L -allo threonine, LX519290, mice

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27 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah

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This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial

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26 Rice Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 Is Required for the Stimulation of OsNug2 GTPase Activity

Authors: Jae Bok Heo, Yun Mi Lee, Hee Rang Yun

Abstract:

Several GTPases are required for ribosome biogenesis and assembly. We recently characterized rice (Oryza sativa) nuclear/nucleolar GTPase 2 (OsNug2), belonging to the YlqF/YawG family of GTPases, as playing a role in pre-60S ribosomal subunit maturation. To investigate the potential factors involved in regulating the function of OsNug2, yeast two-hybrid screens were carried out using OsNug2 as bait. Rice serine/threonine kinase 1 (OsSTK1) was identified as a potential interacting protein candidate. In vitro pull down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction between OsNug2 and OsSTK1, and like green fluorescent protein-tagged OsNug2, green fluorescent protein-tagged OsSTK1 was targeted to the nucleus of Arabidopsis protoplasts. OsSTK1 was not found to affect the GTP-binding activity of OsNug2; however, when recombinant OsSTK1 was included in OsNug2 assay reaction mixtures, OsSTK1 increased the GTPase activity of OsNug2. To test whether OsSTK1 phosphorylates OsNug2 in vitro, a kinase assay was performed. OsSTK1 was found to have weak autophosphorylation activity and strongly phosphorylated serine 209 of OsNug2. Yeast complementation testing resulted in a GAL::OsNug2(S209N) mutant-harboring yeast strain exhibiting a growth-defective phenotype on galactose medium at 39°C, divergent from that of a yeast strain harboring GAL::OsNug2. The intrinsic GTPase activity of mutant OsNug2(S209N) was found to be similar to that of OsNug2, was not fully enhanced upon weak binding of OsSTK1. Our findings reported here indicate that OsSTK1 functions as a positive regulator protein of OsNug2 by enhancing the GTPase activity of OsNug2, and that the phosphorylation of serine 209 of OsNug2 is essential for the complete function of OsNug2 in ribosome biogenesis.

Keywords: OsSTK1, OsNug2, GTPase activity, GTP binding activity, phosphorylation

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25 Use of an Insecticidal-Iridovirus Kinase towards the Development of Aphid-Resistant Plants

Authors: Saranya Ganapathy, Megha N. Parajulee, Michael San Francisco, Hong Zhang

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Insect pests are a serious threat to agricultural productivity. Use of chemical pesticides, the predominant control method thus far, has resulted in environmental damage, pest resurgence, and negative effects on non-target species. Genetically modified (GM) crops offer a promising alternative, and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin genes have played a major role in this respect. However, to overcome insect tolerance issues and to broaden the target range, it is critical to identify alternative-insecticidal toxins working through novel mechanisms. Our research group has identified a kinase from Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; Family Iridoviridae) that has insecticidal activity and designated it as ISTK (Iridovirus Serine/Threonine Kinase). A 35 kDa truncated form of ISTK, designated iridoptin, was obtained during expression and purification of ISTK in the yeast system. This yeast-expressed CIV toxin induced 50% mortality in cotton aphids and 100% mortality in green peach aphids (GPA). Optimized viral genes (o-ISTK and o-IRI) were stably transformed into the model plant, Arabidopsis. PCR analysis of genomic DNA confirmed the presence of the gene insert (oISTK/oIRI) in selected transgenic lines. The further screening was performed to identify the PCR positive lines that showed expression of respective toxins at the polypeptide level using Western blot analysis. The stable lines expressing either of these two toxins induced moderate to very high mortality in GPAs and significantly affected GPA development and fecundity. The aphicidal potential of these transgenic Arabidopsis lines will be presented.

Keywords: Chilo iridescent virus, insecticidal toxin, iridoviruses, plant-incorporated protectants, serine/threonine kinase

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24 Unravelling of the TOR Signaling Pathway in Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

Authors: Yee-Seul So, Guiseppe Ianiri, Alex Idnurm, Yong-Sun Bahn

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Tor1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is widely conserved across eukaryotic species. Tor1 was first identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a target of rapamycin (TOR). The TOR pathway has been implicated in regulating cellular responses to nutrients, proliferation, translation, transcription, autophagy, and ribosome biogenesis. Here we identified two homologues of S. cerevisiae Tor proteins, CNAG_06642 (Tor1) and CNAG_05220 (Tlk1, TOR-like kinase 1), in Cryptococcus neoformans causing a life-threatening fungal meningoencephalitis. Both Tor1 and Tlk1 have rapamycin-binding (RB) domains but Tlk1 has truncated RB form. To study the TOR-signaling pathway in the fungal pathogen, we attempt to construct the tor1Δ and tlk1Δ mutants and phenotypically analyze them. Although we failed to construct the tor1Δ mutant, we successfully construct the tlk1Δ mutant. The tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any discernable phenotypes, suggesting that Tlk1 is dispensable in C. neoformans. The essentiality of TOR1 is independently confirmed by constructing the TOR1 promoter replacement strain by using a copper transporter 4 (CTR4) promoter and the TOR1/tor1 heterozygous mutant in diploid C. neoformans strain background followed by sporulation analysis. To further analyze the function of Tor1, we construct TOR1 overexpression mutant using a constitutively active histone H3 in C. neoformans. We find that the Tor1 overexpression mutant is resistant to rapamycin but the tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any altered resistance to rapamycin, further confirming that Tor1, but not Tlk1, is critical for TOR signaling. Furthermore, we found that Tor1 is involved in response to diverse stresses, including genotoxic stress, oxidative stress, thermo-stress, antifungal drug treatment, and production of melanin. To identify any TOR-related transcription factors, we screened C. neoformans transcription factor library that we constructed in our previous study and identified several potential downstream factors of Tor1, including Atf1, Crg1 and Bzp3. In conclusion, the current study provides insight into the role of the TOR signaling pathway in human fungal pathogens as well as C. neoformans.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, serine/threonine kinase, target of rapamycin, transcription factor

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23 Exploration Study of Civet Coffee: Amino Acids Composition and Cup Quality

Authors: Murna Muzaifa, Dian Hasni, Febriani, Anshar Patria, Amhar Abubakar

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Coffee flavour is influenced by many factors such as processing techniques. Civet coffee is known as one of premium coffee due to its unique processing technique and its superior cupping quality. The desirable aroma of coffee is foremost formed during roasting step at a high temperature from precursors that are present in the green bean. Sugars, proteins, acids and trigonelline are the principal flavor precursors compounds in green coffee bean. It is now widely accepted that amino acids act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. To investigate amino acids on civet coffee, concentration of 20 amino acids (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine, L-Alanine and Glycine) were determined in green and roasted bean of civet coffee by LCMS analysis. The cup quality of civet coffee performed using professional Q-grader followed SCAA standard method. The measured parameters were fragrance/aroma, flavor, acidity, body, uniformity, clean up, aftertaste, balance, sweetness and overall. The work has been done by collecting samples of civet coffee from six locations in Gayo Higland, Aceh-Indonesia. The results showed that 18 amino acids were detected in green bean of civet coffee (L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-Phenylalanine, L-Arginine, L-Asparagine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, L-Leucine, L-Serine, L-Glutamine, L-Methionine, L-Histidine, Aspartic acid, L-Tyrosine, L-Lysine, L-Glutamic acid, and L-Cysteine) and 2 amino acids were not detected (L-Alanine and Glycine). On the other hand, L-Tyrosine and Glycine were not detected in roasted been of civet coffee. Glutamic acid is the amino acid with highest concentration in both green and roasted bean (21,02 mg/g and 24,60 mg/g), followed by L- Valine (19,98 mg/g and 20,22 mg/g) and Aspartic acid (14,93 mg/g and 18,58 mg/g). Civet coffee has a fairly high cupping value (cup quality), ranging from 83.75 to 84.75, categorized as speciality coffee. Moreover, civet coffee noted to have nutty, chocolaty, fishy, herby and watery.

Keywords: amino acids, civet coffee, cupping quality, luwak

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22 Changes in Amino Acids Content in Muscle of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Relation to Body Size

Authors: L. Gómez-Limia, I. Franco, T. Blanco, S. Martínez

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European eels (Anguilla anguilla) belong to Anguilliformes order and Anguillidae family. They are generally classified as warm-water fish. Eels have a great commercial value in Europe and Asian countries. Eels can reach high weights, although their commercial size is relatively low in some countries. The capture of larger eels would facilitate the recovery of the species, as well as having a greater number of either glass eels or elvers for aquaculture. In the last years, the demand and the price of eels have increased significantly. However, European eel is considered critically endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The biochemical composition of fishes is an important aspect of quality and affects the nutritional value and consumption quality of fish. In addition, knowing this composition can help predict an individual’s condition for their recovery. Fish is known to be important source of protein rich in essential amino acids. However, there is very little information about changes in amino acids composition of European eels with increase in size. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different weight categories on the amino acids content in muscle tissue of wild European eels. European eels were caught in River Ulla (Galicia, NW Spain), during winter. The eels were slaughtered in ice water immersion. Then, they were purchased and transferred to the laboratory. The eels were subdivided into two groups, according to the weight. The samples were kept frozen (-20 °C) until their analysis. Frozen eels were defrosted and the white muscle between the head and the anal hole. was extracted, in order to obtain amino acids composition. Thirty eels for each group were used. Liquid chromatography was used for separation and quantification of amino a cids. The results conclude that the eels are rich in glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, threonine, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine. The analysis showed that there are significant differences (p < 0.05) among the eels with different sizes. Histidine, threonine, lysine, hydroxyproline, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine and proline were higher in small eels. European eels muscle presents between 45 and 46% of essential amino acids in the total amino acids. European eels have a well-balanced and high quality protein source in the respect of E/NE ratio. However, eels with higher weight showed a better ratio of essential and non-essential amino acid.

Keywords: European eels, amino acids, HPLC, body size

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21 The Effects of pH on p53 Phosphorylation by Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase

Authors: Serap Pektas

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Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine-threonine kinase, which is the major regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is activated upon the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the cells. ATM phosphorylates the proteins involved in apoptotic responses, cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, etc. Tumor protein p53, known as p53 is one of these proteins that phosphorylated by ATM. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 residue leads to p53 stabilization in the cells. Often enzymes activity is affected by hydrogen ion concentration (pH). In order to find the optimal pH range for ATM activity, steady-state kinetic assays were performed at acidic and basic pH ranges. Ser15 phosphorylation of p53 is determined by using ELISA. The results indicated that the phosphorylation rate was better at basic pH range compared with the acidic pH range. This could be due to enzyme stability, or enzyme-substrate interaction is pH dependent.

Keywords: ataxia telangiectasia mutated, DNA double strand breaks, DNA repair, tumor protein p53

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20 Identification of Target Receptor Compound 10,11-Dihidroerisodin as an Anti-Cancer Candidate

Authors: Srie Rezeki Nur Endah, Richa Mardianingrum

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Cancer is one of the most feared diseases and is considered the leading cause of death worldwide. Generally, cancer drugs are synthetic drugs with relatively more expensive prices and have harmful side effects, so many people turn to traditional medicine, for example by utilizing herbal medicine. Erythrina poeppigiana is one of the plants that can be used as a medicinal plant containing 10,11-dihidroerisodin compounds that are useful anticancer etnofarmakologi. The purpose of this study was to identify the target of 10,11 dihydroerisodin receptor compound as in silico anticancer candidate. The pure isolate was tested physicochemically by MS (Mass Spectrometry), UV-Vis (Ultraviolet – Visible), IR (Infra Red), 13C-NMR (Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 1H-NMR (Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), to obtain the structure of 10,11-dihydroerisodin alkaloid compound then identified to target receptors in silico. From the results of the study, it was found that 10,11-dihydroerisodin compound can work on the Serine / threonine-protein kinase Chk1 receptor that serves as an anti-cancer candidate.

Keywords: anti-cancer, Erythrina poeppigiana, target receptor, 10, 11- dihidroerisodin

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19 Modified Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Escherichia coli by Adding Hyaluronic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes (GLMU2 and HYAD) from Pasteurella multocida

Authors: P. Pasomboon, P. Chumnanpuen, T. E-kobon

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Hyaluronic acid (HA) consists of linear heteropolysaccharides repeat of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. HA has various useful properties to maintain skin elasticity and moisture, reduce inflammation, and lubricate the movement of various body parts without causing immunogenic allergy. HA can be found in several animal tissues as well as in the capsule component of some bacteria including Pasteurella multocida. This study aimed to modify a genome-scale metabolic model of Escherichia coli using computational simulation and flux analysis methods to predict HA productivity under different carbon sources and nitrogen supplement by the addition of two enzymes (GLMU2 and HYAD) from P. multocida to improve the HA production under the specified amount of carbon sources and nitrogen supplements. Result revealed that threonine and aspartate supplement raised the HA production by 12.186%. Our analyses proposed the genome-scale metabolic model is useful for improving the HA production and narrows the number of conditions to be tested further.

Keywords: Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, hyaluronic acid, genome-scale metabolic model, bioinformatics

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18 Effect of Nitrogen Source on Production of CMCase by Bacillus megaterium 1295S Isolated from Sewage Treatment Plants

Authors: Adel A. S. Al-Gheethi, M. O. Abdul-Monem

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Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from wastewater and sludge, and identified as Bacillus megaterium 1295S, Sporosarcina pasteurii 586S, Bacillus subtilis 117S, Burkholderia cepacia 120S and Staphylococcus xylosus 222W. Among bacteria, B. megaterium 1295S was the best cellulase producer under the catabolic repression and was therefore selected to study the factors affecting cellulase production. The optimum conditions for cellulase production were observed in CMC-Yeast Extract (CYE) agar medium (pH 6.5) inoculated with 0.4 mL of bacterial culture and incubated at 45˚C for 72 h. Twenty amino acids were introduced into the production medium as nitrogen source to investigate the production of cellulase in presence of amino acids in comparison to peptone (as an organic source) and sodium nitrate (as an inorganic source). The results found that the maximum production of cellulase was recorded at 50 ppm when L-hydroxy proline, L-arginine, glycine, L-histidine, L-leucine, DL-isoleucine, DL-β-phenylalanine were used as sole nitrogen sources and at 100 ppm when DL-threonine, L-ornithine 12.29, L-proline were used as sole nitrogen sources. The highest biomass yield was found when glycine 5 ppm and DL-serine 100 ppm used as a nitrogen source.

Keywords: CMCase, Bacillus megaterium 1295S, factors, amino acids

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17 Physicochemical and Functional Characteristics of Hemp Protein Isolate

Authors: El-Sohaimy Sobhy A., Androsova Natalia, Toshev Abuvali Djabarovec

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The conditions of the isolation of proteins from the hemp seeds were optimized in the current work. Moreover, the physicochemical and functional properties of hemp protein isolate were evaluated for its potential application in food manufacturing. The elastin protein is the most predominant protein in the protein profile with a molecular weight of 58.1 KDa, besides albumin, with a molecular weight of 31.5 KDa. The FTIR spectrum detected the absorption peaks of the amide I in 1750 and 1600 cm⁻¹, which pointed to C=O stretching while N-H was stretching at 1650-1580 cm⁻¹. The peak at 3250 was related to N-H stretching of primary aliphatic amine (3400-3300 cm⁻¹), and the N-H stretching for secondary (II) amine appeared at 3350-3310 cm⁻¹. Hemp protein isolate (HPI) was showed high content of arginine (15.52 g/100 g), phenylalanine+tyrosine (9.63 g/100 g), methionine + cysteine (5.49 g/100 g), leucine + isoleucine (5.21 g/100 g) and valine (4.53 g/100 g). It contains a moderate level of threonine (3.29 g/100 g) and lysine (2.50 g/100 g), with the limiting amino acid being a tryptophan (0.22 g/100 g HPI). HPI showed high water-holding capacity (4.5 ± 2.95 ml/g protein) and oil holding capacity (2.33 ± 1.88 ml/g) values. The foaming capacity of HPI was increased with increasing the pH values to reach the maximum value at pH 11 (67.23±3.20 %). The highest emulsion ability index of HPI was noted at pH 9 (91.3±2.57 m2/g) with low stability (19.15±2.03).

Keywords: Cannabis sativa ssp., protein isolate, isolation conditions, amino acid composition, chemical properties, functional properties

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16 Metabolomics Profile Recognition for Cancer Diagnostics

Authors: Valentina L. Kouznetsova, Jonathan W. Wang, Igor F. Tsigelny

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Metabolomics has become a rising field of research for various diseases, particularly cancer. Increases or decreases in metabolite concentrations in the human body are indicative of various cancers. Further elucidation of metabolic pathways and their significance in cancer research may greatly spur medicinal discovery. We analyzed the metabolomics profiles of lung cancer. Thirty-three metabolites were selected as significant. These metabolites are involved in 37 metabolic pathways delivered by MetaboAnalyst software. The top pathways are glyoxylate and dicarboxylate pathway (its hubs are formic acid and glyoxylic acid) along with Citrate cycle pathway followed by Taurine and hypotaurine pathway (the hubs in the latter are taurine and sulfoacetaldehyde) and Glycine, serine, and threonine pathway (the hubs are glycine and L-serine). We studied interactions of the metabolites with the proteins involved in cancer-related signaling networks, and developed an approach to metabolomics biomarker use in cancer diagnostics. Our analysis showed that a significant part of lung-cancer-related metabolites interacts with main cancer-related signaling pathways present in this network: PI3K–mTOR–AKT pathway, RAS–RAF–ERK1/2 pathway, and NFKB pathway. These results can be employed for use of metabolomics profiles in elucidation of the related cancer proteins signaling networks.

Keywords: cancer, metabolites, metabolic pathway, signaling pathway

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15 Akt: Isoform-Specific Regulation of Cellular Signaling in Cancer

Authors: Bhumika Wadhwa, Fayaz Malik

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The serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt, is one of the multifaceted kinase in human kinome, existing in three isoforms. Akt plays a vital role in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mediated oncogenesis in various malignancies and is one of the attractive targets for cancer drug discovery. The functional significance of an individual isoform of Akt is not redundant in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis instead Akt isoforms play distinct roles during metastasis; thereby regulating EMT. This study aims to determine isoform specific functions of Akt in cancer. The results obtained suggest that Akt1 restrict tumor invasion, whereas Akt2 promotes cell migration and invasion by various techniques like MTT, wound healing and invasion assay. Similarly, qRT-PCR also revealed that Akt3 has shown promising results in promoting cancer cell migration. Contrary to pro-oncogenic properties attributed to Akt, it is to be understood how various isoforms of Akt compensates each other in the regulation of common pathways during cancer progression and drug resistance. In conclusion, this study aims to target selective isoforms which is essential to inhibit cancer. However, the question now is whether, and how much, Akt inhibition will be tolerated in the clinic remains to be answered and the experiments will have to address the question of which combinations of newly devised Akt isoform specific inhibitors exert a favourable therapeutic effect in in vivo models of cancer to provide the therapeutic window with minimal toxicity.

Keywords: Akt isoforms, cancer, drug resistance, epithelial mesenchymal transition

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14 Study of the Genes Involved in the Resistance of Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Fluoroquinolone

Authors: Rosetta Moshirian Farahi, Ahya Abdi Ali, Sara Gharavi

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The major mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to fluoroquinolones is the alteration of target enzymes, type II and IV topoisomerases due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes coding A subunits of these enzymes. 37 isolates from patients with burn wounds and 20 isolates from blood, urine and sputum specimen were selected to evaluate mutations involved in antibiotic resistance and were subsequently verified for their resistance to ciprofloxacin. QRDRs regions of gyrA and parC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were subsequently sequenced. 90% of isolates with MIC≥8 µg/ml to ciprofloxacin had a mutation in gyrA gene in which threonine at position 83 changed to isoleucine. 87.5% of isolates had mutation in parC, Serine 87 changed. 75% had Ser87Leu and 12.5% possessed Serin87Trp. Various silent mutations were also detected such as Val103Val, Ala118Ala, Ala136Ala, His132His in gyrA and Ala115Ala in parC. The data indicates that the common mutation in gyrA is Thr83Ile and in parC is Ser87Leu/Trp. No individual parC mutation was observed while mutations in gyrA and parC occurred simultaneously and appears to be the main reason of high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in patients with burn wounds and urine infection. The vast majority of P.aeruginosa isolates had mutation in parC which can play a crucial role in increased resistance of these isolates. This is a report of parC mutations from resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Iran, Tehran.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, fluoroquinolones, gyrA, parC, antibiotic resistance

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13 Underivatized Amino Acid Analyses Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Scalp Hair of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Ayat Bani Rashaid, Zain Khasawneh, Mazin Alqhazo, Shreen Nusair, Mohammad El-Khateeb, Mahmoud Bashtawi

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Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) is a psychiatric disorder with unknown etiology that mainly affects children in the first three years of life. Alterations of amino acid levels are believed to contribute to ASD. The levels of six essential amino acids (methionine, histidine, valine, leucine, threonine, and phenylalanine), five conditional amino acids (proline, tyrosine, glutamine, cysteine, and cystine), and five non-essential amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, alanine, serine, and glutamic acid) in hair samples of children with ASD (n = 25) were analyzed and compared to corresponding levels in healthy age-matched controls (n = 25). The results showed that the levels of methionine, alanine, and asparagine were significantly lower in the hair samples of ASD group compared to those of the control group (p ≤ 0.05). However, the levels of glutamic acid were significantly higher in the ASD group than the control group (p ≤ 0.05). The current findings could contribute towards further understanding of ASD etiology and provide specialists with a hair amino acid profile utilized as a biomarker for early diagnosis of ASD. Such biomarkers could participate in future developments of therapies that reduce ASD-related symptoms.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, amino acids, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, human hair

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12 Anticancer Activity of Calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through Downregulation of Cyclin D1 Protein Level in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

Authors: Jin Boo Jeong

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In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. DKC-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29. Although DKC-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by DKC-E70 occurred at the earlier time than that of cyclin D1 mRNA, which indicates that DKC-E70-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 protein may be a consequence of the induction of degradation and transcriptional inhibition of cyclin D1. In cyclin D1 degradation, we found that cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, DKC-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1 and T286A abolished cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70. We also observed that DKC-E70-mediated T286 phosphorylation and subsequent cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β. In cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition, DKC-E70 inhibited the expression of β-catenin and TCF4, and β–catenin/TCF-dependent luciferase activity. Our results suggest that DKC-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through cyclin D1 degradation by T286 phosphorylation dependent on ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β, and cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition through Wnt signaling. From these findings, DKC-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A3B03931713).

Keywords: anticancer, calyx of persimmon, cyclin D1, Diospyros kaki Thunb., human colorectal cancer

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11 The Increase in Functionalities of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Mycelia Depending on the Increase in Nutritional Components

Authors: Hye-Sung Park, Eun-Ji Lee, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong

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This study was conducted to research king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) mycelia with reinforced functionalities. 0 to 4% of saccharide components, such as glucose (glu), lactose (lac), mannitol (man), xylose (xyl), and fructose (fru) and 0 to 0.04% of amino acid components, such as aspartic acid (asp). Cysteine (cys), threonine (thr), glutamine (gln), and serine (ser) were added to liquid media, and antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents of the cultured mycelia were measured. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had high antioxidant activities when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 73.9%, which was the highest value. In the amino acid-added group, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 66.3% that was the highest value when 0.2% of ser was added. But all the 5 strains had lower antioxidant activities than the saccharide-added group overall. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had higher nitrite scavenging activities than other group when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the nitrite scavenging activity of ASI 2824 was 57.8% that was the highest value. It was revealed that the saccharide-added group and the amino acid-added group had a similar efficiency of nitrite scavenging activity. Although the same component-added group did not show a certain increase or decrease in total polyphenol contents, ASI 2839 with the highest antioxidant activity had 6.8mg/g, which was the highest content when 1% of xyl was added. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when 1% of xyl was added, functionalities of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents improved.

Keywords: king oyster mushroom, saccharide, amino acid, mycelia

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10 The Potency of Sandfish (Holothuria scraba) Flesh Powder to Improve Reproduction Quality of Man

Authors: E. Riani, T. T. Irawadi, S. Nurjanah, K. Syamsu, E. G. Said, Suprihatin, M. R. Cordova

Abstract:

Especially coastal, Indonesian and Chinese communities have utilized sandfish to improve reproduction quality of men. This study aimed to examine the nutrition on sandfish flesh that has the potency to improve reproduction quality of men. The materials used were sandfish with weight of 200-500 g, and then analysis of proximate, analysis of amino acid, analysis of fatty acid and analysis of mineral contained in the sandfish were performed. The results showed that protein content (39.96%) was the main component of the flesh; the carbohydrate and fat were 25.43% and 4.18%, respectively. Sandfish powder contains several essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids. Nine of ten amino acids needed by human body are contained in sandfish powder, i.e. arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine and valine; only tryptophan that are not contained in sandfish powder. Sandfish powder contains saturated fatty acid kaproat, kaprilat, kaprat, laurat, miristat, stearat, arakhidat and behenat; monosaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). MUFA is composed of fatty acid oleat, while PUFA is composed fatty acid omega 3 (linonenat, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) and omega 6 (linoleat and arakhidonat). The minerals contained in sandfish powder are macrominerals and microminerals. Based on the findings, the nutrition in sandfish powder has a good potency to improve reproduction of men, especially PUFA for the maturation of spermatozoa, zinc for production function and spermatogenesis, motility of spermatozoa, acromoson reaction; Mg for transformation of genetic information and motility of spermatozoa; calcium for spermatogenesis, capacity and fertilization of spermatozoa. Thus, sandfish flesh powder has the potency to improve reproduction quality of men.

Keywords: sandfish flesh powder, nutrition, reproduction quality, men

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9 Re-Engineering of Traditional Indian Wadi into Ready-to-Use High Protein Quality and Fibre Rich Chunk

Authors: Radhika Jain, Sangeeta Goomer

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In the present study an attempt has been made to re-engineer traditional wadi into wholesome ready-to-use cereal-pulse-based chunks rich in protein quality and fibre content. Chunks were made using extrusion-dehydration combination. Two formulations i.e., whole green gram dhal with instant oats and washed green gram dhal with whole oats were formulated. These chunks are versatile in nature as they can be easily incorporated in day-to-day home-made preparations such as pulao, potato curry and kadhi. Cereal-pulse ratio was calculated using NDpCal%. Limiting amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cysteine and threonine were calculated for maximum amino acid profile in cereal-pulse combination. Time-temperature combination for extrusion at 130oC and dehydration at 65oC for 7 hours and 15 minutes were standardized to obtain maximum protein and fibre content. Proximate analysis such as moisture, fat and ash content were analyzed. Protein content of formulation was 62.10% and 68.50% respectively. Fibre content of formulations was 2.99% and 2.45%, respectively. Using a 5-point hedonic scale, consumer preference trials of 102 consumers were conducted and analyzed. Evaluation of chunks prepared in potato curry, kadi and pulao showed preferences for colour 82%, 87%, 86%, texture and consistency 80%, 81%, 88%, flavour and aroma 74%, 82%, 86%, after taste 70%, 75%, 86% and overall acceptability 77%, 75%, 88% respectively. High temperature inactivates antinutritional compounds such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins, saponins etc. Hence, availability of protein content was increased. Developed products were palatable and easy to prepare.

Keywords: extrusion, NDpCal%, protein quality, wadi

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8 Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Maria Del Carmen Millan-Linares, Ana Lemus Conejo, Rocio Toscano, Alvaro Villanueva, Francisco Millan, Justo Pedroche, Sergio Montserrat-De La Paz

Abstract:

GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide, BV-2 cell line, neuroinflammation, cytokines, high-fat-diet

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7 Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Investigation of Novel 2-Phenazinamine Derivatives as a Mutant BCR-ABL (T315I) Inhibitor

Authors: Gajanan M. Sonwane

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Nowadays, the entire pharmaceutical industry is facing the challenge of increasing efficiency and innovation. The major hurdles are the growing cost of research and development and a concurrent stagnating number of new chemical entities (NCEs). Hence, the challenge is to select the most druggable targets and to search the equivalent drug-like compounds, which also possess specific pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties that allow them to be developed as drugs. The present research work includes the studies of developing new anticancer heterocycles by using molecular modeling techniques. The heterocycles synthesized through such methodology are much effective as various physicochemical parameters have been already studied and the structure has been optimized for its best fit in the receptor. Hence, on the basis of the literature survey and considering the need to develop newer anticancer agents, new phenazinamine derivatives were designed by subjecting the nucleus to molecular modeling, viz., GQSAR analysis and docking studies. Simultaneously, these designed derivatives were subjected to in silico prediction of biological activity through PASS studies and then in silico toxicity risk assessment studies. In PASS studies, it was found that all the derivatives exhibited a good spectrum of biological activities confirming its anticancer potential. The toxicity risk assessment studies revealed that all the derivatives obey Lipinski’s rule. Amongst these series, compounds 4c, 5b and 6c were found to possess logP and drug-likeness values comparable with the standard Imatinib (used for anticancer activity studies) and also with the standard drug methotrexate (used for antimitotic activity studies). One of the most notable mutations is the threonine to isoleucine mutation at codon 315 (T315I), which is known to be resistant to all currently available TKI. Enzyme assay planned for confirmation of target selective activity.

Keywords: drug design, tyrosine kinases, anticancer, Phenazinamine

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6 MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human Vitiligoa

Authors: Anupama Sahoo, Bongyong Lee, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Sanjaya K. Sahoo, Tatsuya Seki, Chunyan Wang, Soumen Das, Xianlin Han, Michael Steppie, Sudipta Seal, Alain Taieb, Ranjan J. Perera

Abstract:

Vitiligo is a common, chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has a complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical etiology, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. Here we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocytes, HEM-l by RNA-sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics. Melanocyte-enriched miR-211, a known metabolic switch in non-pigmented melanoma cells, was severely downregulated in vitiligo cell line PIG3V and skin biopsies from vitiligo patients, while its novel predicted targets transcriptional co-activator PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2), and serine-threonine protein kinase TAO1 (TAOK1) were reciprocally upregulated. miR-211 binds to PGC1-α 3’UTR locus and represses it. Although mitochondrial numbers were constant, mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV and respiratory responses were defective in vitiligo cells. Nanoparticle-coated miR-211 partially augmented the oxygen consumption rate in PIG3V cells. The lower oxygen consumption rate, changes in lipid and metabolite profiles, and increased reactive oxygen species production observed in vitiligo cells appear to be partly due to abnormal regulation of miR-211 and its target genes. These genes represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human vitiligo.

Keywords: metabolism, microRNA, mitochondria, vitiligo

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5 Expression of ULK-1 mRNA in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Remzi Yiğiter

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Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. At present, diagnosis of AD is rather late in the disease. Therefore, we attempted to find peripheral biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AD. Herein, we conducted a study to investigate the unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase-1 (ULK1) mRNA expression levels in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Method: To determine whether ULK1 gene expression are altered in AD patients, we measured their gene expression in human peripheral blood cell in 50 patients with AD and 50 age and gender matched healthy controls by quantitative real-time PCR technique. Results: We found that both ULK1 gene expression in peripheral blood cell were significantly decreased in patients with AD as compared with controls (p <0.05). Lower levels of ULK1 gene expression were significantly associated with the increased risk for AD. Conclusions: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2, and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. Alzheimer is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Our results provide useful information that the ULK1 gene expression is decreased in the neurodegeneration and AD patients with, indicating their possible systemic involvement in AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s sisease, ULK1, mRNA expression, RT-PCR

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4 De Novo Design of Functional Metalloproteins for Biocatalytic Reactions

Authors: Ketaki D. Belsare, Nicholas F. Polizzi, Lior Shtayer, William F. DeGrado

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Nature utilizes metalloproteins to perform chemical transformations with activities and selectivities that have long been the inspiration for design principles in synthetic and biological systems. The chemical reactivities of metalloproteins are directly linked to local environment effects produced by the protein matrix around the metal cofactor. A complete understanding of how the protein matrix provides these interactions would allow for the design of functional metalloproteins. The de novo computational design of proteins have been successfully used in design of active sites that bind metals like di-iron, zinc, copper containing cofactors; however, precisely designing active sites that can bind small molecule ligands (e.g., substrates) along with metal cofactors is still a challenge in the field. The de novo computational design of a functional metalloprotein that contains a purposefully designed substrate binding site would allow for precise control of chemical function and reactivity. Our research strategy seeks to elucidate the design features necessary to bind the cofactor protoporphyrin IX (hemin) in close proximity to a substrate binding pocket in a four helix bundle. First- and second-shell interactions are computationally designed to control orientation, electronic structure, and reaction pathway of the cofactor and substrate. The design began with a parameterized helical backbone that positioned a single histidine residue (as an axial ligand) to receive a second-shell H-bond from a Threonine on the neighboring helix. The metallo-cofactor, hemin was then manually placed in the binding site. A structural feature, pi-bulge was introduced to give substrate access to the protoporphyrin IX. These de novo metalloproteins are currently being tested for their activity towards hydroxylation and epoxidation. The de novo designed protein shows hydroxylation of aniline to 4-aminophenol. This study will help provide structural information of utmost importance in understanding de novo computational design variables impacting the functional activities of a protein.

Keywords: metalloproteins, protein design, de novo protein, biocatalysis

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3 Human TP53 Three Dimentional (3D) Core Domain Hot Spot Mutations at Codon, 36, 72 and 240 are Associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Saima Saleem, Zubair Abbasi, Abdul Hameed, Mansoor Ahmed Khan, Navid Rashid Qureshi, Abid Azhar

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Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the leading cause of death in the developing countries like Pakistan. This problem aggravates because of the excessive use of available chewing products. In spite of widespread information on their use and purported legislations against their use the Pakistani markets are classical examples of selling chewable carcinogenic mutagens. Reported studies indicated that these products are rich in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polyphenols. TP53 gene is involved in the suppression of tumor. It has been reported that somatic mutations caused by TP53 gene are the foundation of the cancer. This study aims to find the loss of TP53 functions due to mutation/polymorphism caused by genomic alteration and interaction with tobacco and its related ingredients. Total 260 tissues and blood specimens were collected from OSCC patients and compared with age and sex matched controls. Mutations in exons 2-11 of TP53 were examined by PCR-SSCP. Samples showing mobility shift were directly sequenced. Two mutations were found in exon 4 at nucleotide position 108 and 215 and one in exon 7 at nucleotide position 719 of the coding sequences in patient’s tumor samples. These results show that substitution of proline with arginine at codon 72 and serine with threonine at codon 240 of p53 protein. These polymorphic changes, found in tumor samples of OSCC, could be involved in loss of heterozygocity and apoptotic activity in the binding domain of TP53. The model of the mutated TP53 gene elaborated a nonfunctional unfolded p53 protein, suggesting an important role of these mutations in p53 protein inactivation and malfunction. This nonfunctional 3D model also indicates that exogenous tobacco related carcinogens may act as DNA-damaging agents affecting the structure of DNA. The interpretations could be helpful in establishing the pathways responsible for tumor formation in OSCC patients.

Keywords: TP53 mutation/polymorphism, OSCC, PCR-SSCP, direct DNA sequencing, 3D structure

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2 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra

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5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: 5α-reductase inhibitor, benign prostatic hyperplasia, ligands, molecular docking, QSAR

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