Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Richa

29 Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tita Nofianti, Nur Rahayuningsih

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis , docking, InhA, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide, synthesis

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28 ATC in Competitive Electricity Market Using TCSC

Authors: S. K. Gupta, Richa Bansal

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In a deregulated power system structure, power producers, and customers share a common transmission network for wheeling power from the point of generation to the point of consumption. All parties in this open access environment may try to purchase the energy from the cheaper source for greater profit margins, which may lead to overloading and congestion of certain corridors of the transmission network. This may result in violation of line flow, voltage and stability limits and thereby undermine the system security. Utilities therefore need to determine adequately their Available Transfer Capability (ATC) to ensure that system reliability is maintained while serving a wide range of bilateral and multilateral transactions. This paper presents power transfer distribution factor based on AC load flow for the determination and enhancement of ATC. The study has been carried out for IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System.

Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, power transfer distribution factors, electric

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27 Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate

Authors: Richa Mardianingrum, Srie R. N. Endah

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In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis, docking, Inhibin alpha subunit, InhA, inhibition, synthesis, isonicotinohydrazide

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26 Interpretive Structural Modeling Technique for Hierarchal Ranking of Barriers in Implementation ofGreen Supply Chain Management-Case of Indian Petroleum Industry

Authors: Kavish Kejriwal, Richa Grover

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Consumer awareness and pending legislation have pushed environmental issues into the spotlight, making it imperative for organizations to have a plan of action for “going green.” This is the reason why Green Supply Chain Management has become the integral part of many organization with a goal to reduce cost, increase efficiency and be environmental friendly. Implementation of GSCM involves many factors which act as barriers, making it a tedious task. These barriers have different relationship among themselves creating different impact on implementation Green Supply Chain Management. This work focuses on determining those barriers which have essentially to be removed in the initial stages of GSCM adoption. In this work, the author has taken the case of a petroleum industry in order to come up with a solution. A DEMATEL approach is used to reach the solution.

Keywords: barriers, environment, green supply chain management, impact, interpretive structural modeling

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25 Identification of Target Receptor Compound 10,11-Dihidroerisodin as an Anti-Cancer Candidate

Authors: Srie Rezeki Nur Endah, Richa Mardianingrum

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Cancer is one of the most feared diseases and is considered the leading cause of death worldwide. Generally, cancer drugs are synthetic drugs with relatively more expensive prices and have harmful side effects, so many people turn to traditional medicine, for example by utilizing herbal medicine. Erythrina poeppigiana is one of the plants that can be used as a medicinal plant containing 10,11-dihidroerisodin compounds that are useful anticancer etnofarmakologi. The purpose of this study was to identify the target of 10,11 dihydroerisodin receptor compound as in silico anticancer candidate. The pure isolate was tested physicochemically by MS (Mass Spectrometry), UV-Vis (Ultraviolet – Visible), IR (Infra Red), 13C-NMR (Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 1H-NMR (Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), to obtain the structure of 10,11-dihydroerisodin alkaloid compound then identified to target receptors in silico. From the results of the study, it was found that 10,11-dihydroerisodin compound can work on the Serine / threonine-protein kinase Chk1 receptor that serves as an anti-cancer candidate.

Keywords: anti-cancer, Erythrina poeppigiana, target receptor, 10, 11- dihidroerisodin

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24 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem

Authors: Richa Bhardwaj

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Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.

Keywords: Tecomella undulata, bioactive compounds, GC-MS, antimicrobial activity

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23 Estimation of Reservoir Capacity and Sediment Deposition Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Odai Ibrahim Mohammed Al Balasmeh, Tapas Karmaker, Richa Babbar

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In this study, the reservoir capacity and sediment deposition were estimated using remote sensing data. The satellite images were synchronized with water level and storage capacity to find out the change in sediment deposition due to soil erosion and transport by streamflow. The water bodies spread area was estimated using vegetation indices, e.g., normalize differences vegetation index (NDVI) and normalize differences water index (NDWI). The 3D reservoir bathymetry was modeled by integrated water level, storage capacity, and area. From the models of different time span, the change in reservoir storage capacity was estimated. Another reservoir with known water level, storage capacity, area, and sediment deposition was used to validate the estimation technique. The t-test was used to assess the results between observed and estimated reservoir capacity and sediment deposition.

Keywords: satellite data, normalize differences vegetation index, NDVI, normalize differences water index, NDWI, reservoir capacity, sedimentation, t-test hypothesis

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22 A Study on Multidimensional Locus of Control and the Procrastinating Behavior in Employees

Authors: Richa Mishra, Sonia Munjal

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In this increasingly hectic and competitive climate, employees are expected to manage the resources available to them to perform their work. However, many are wasting the most precious and scarce resource at their disposal, time, by procrastinating on tasks and thereby costing themselves and their organizations. As timely performance is a requirement of most jobs, procrastination is particularly problematic in the workplace. Evidence suggests that procrastination and poor performance go hand-in-hand, as procrastinators miss more deadlines than non-procrastinators and make more errors and work at a slower speed than non-procrastinators when performing timed tasks. This research is hence an effort to add a little in the sparse knowledge base. It is an effort to throw light on the relationship of Levenson’s multi dimensions of locus of control and also an effort to identify if it is one of the causes and of employees procrastination which have not been explored earlier. The study also explores the effect and relationship of multidimensional locus of control and various levels of stress on procrastination. The results of the research have ascertained that there is significant impact of LOC dimensions on the procrastinating behavior of the employees. One of the major findings to emerge from the current research that managers with powerful others as their LOC dimensions were least procrastinating, contradicts the previous research results that external procrastinate more than internals.

Keywords: Multidimensional Locus of Control, workplace procrastination, employee behaviour, manufacturing industry

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21 Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Four Indian Aromatic Plants

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Richa

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Plants produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Phenolics are the compounds that contain hydroxyl functional group on an aromatic ring. These are chemically heterogeneous compounds. Some are soluble only in organic solvents, some are water soluble and others are large insoluble polymers. Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant phenolics. The carbon skeleton of a flavonoid contains 15 carbons arranged in two aromatic rings connected by a three carbon ridge. Both phenolics and flavonoids are good natural antioxidants. Four Indian aromatic plants were selected for the study i.e, Achillea species, Jasminum primulinum, Leucas cephalotes and Leonotis nepetaefolia. All the plant species were collected from Chail region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The identifying features and anatomical studies were done of the part containing the essential oils. Phenolic cotent was estimated by Folin Ciocalteu’s method and flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. Antioxidant property was checked by using DPPH method. Maximum antioxidant potential was found in Achillea species, followed by Leonotis nepetaefolia, Jaminum primulinum and Leucas cephalotes. Phenolics and flavonoids are important compounds that serve as defences against herbivores and pathogens. Others function in attracting pollinators and absorbing harmful radiations.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH, flavonoids, phenolics

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20 Services Sector: A Growth Catalyst for Indian Economy since Economic Reform

Authors: Richa Rai

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of the services sector in economic development of Indian economy, especially in the post reform period. Due to adoption of liberalization policy in developing economy like India, international transaction in services has been increased at a rapid pace which compensated to the current account of Balance of Payment which was in a pitiable condition. But this increased share of services in GDP is not commensurate with share in employment, which is a matter of great concern for Indian economy. Although the increased share of service in GDP indicates the advanced stage of growth of the economy, but this theory is not applicable in context of Indian economy completely. In the preliminary stage, this study finds a positive correlation between growth of services and export earnings and gross domestic product and this growth of services is not equal in terms of all aspects on Indian economy, and also all components of services has not been increased at an equal rate. This paper seeks to examine the impact of liberalization in post reform era on the growth of services in India. The analysis is done for the period of 1991 to 2013. Data has been collected from the secondary sources, especially from the website of Reserve Bank of India, World Trade Organization, and United Nation Conference on Trade and Development. The data has been analyzed with the help of appropriate statistical tools (Causality Relation and Group t-test).

Keywords: export earnings, GDP, gross domestic product, liberalization, services

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19 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

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Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: genotypes, macronutrients, micronutrient, protein, seeds

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18 Supplier Selection Using Sustainable Criteria in Sustainable Supply Chain Management

Authors: Richa Grover, Rahul Grover, V. Balaji Rao, Kavish Kejriwal

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Selection of suppliers is a crucial problem in the supply chain management. On top of that, sustainable supplier selection is the biggest challenge for the organizations. Environment protection and social problems have been of concern to society in recent years, and the traditional supplier selection does not consider about this factor; therefore, this research work focuses on introducing sustainable criteria into the structure of supplier selection criteria. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) is the management and administration of material, information, and money flows, as well as coordination among business along the supply chain. All three dimensions - economic, environmental, and social - of sustainable development needs to be taken care of. Purpose of this research is to maximize supply chain profitability, maximize social wellbeing of supply chain and minimize environmental impacts. Problem statement is selection of suppliers in a sustainable supply chain network by ranking the suppliers against sustainable criteria identified. The aim of this research is twofold: To find out what are the sustainable parameters that can be applied to the supply chain, and to determine how these parameters can effectively be used in supplier selection. Multicriteria decision making tools will be used to rank both criteria and suppliers. AHP Analysis will be used to find out ratings for the criteria identified. It is a technique used for efficient decision making. TOPSIS will be used to find out rating for suppliers and then ranking them. TOPSIS is a MCDM problem solving method which is based on the principle that the chosen option should have the maximum distance from the negative ideal solution (NIS) and the minimum distance from the ideal solution.

Keywords: sustainable supply chain management, sustainable criteria, MCDM tools, AHP analysis, TOPSIS method

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17 A Deep Learning Approach to Calculate Cardiothoracic Ratio From Chest Radiographs

Authors: Pranav Ajmera, Amit Kharat, Tanveer Gupte, Richa Pant, Viraj Kulkarni, Vinay Duddalwar, Purnachandra Lamghare

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The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is the ratio of the diameter of the heart to the diameter of the thorax. An abnormal CTR, that is, a value greater than 0.55, is often an indicator of an underlying pathological condition. The accurate prediction of an abnormal CTR from chest X-rays (CXRs) aids in the early diagnosis of clinical conditions. We propose a deep learning-based model for automatic CTR calculation that can assist the radiologist with the diagnosis of cardiomegaly and optimize the radiology flow. The study population included 1012 posteroanterior (PA) CXRs from a single institution. The Attention U-Net deep learning (DL) architecture was used for the automatic calculation of CTR. A CTR of 0.55 was used as a cut-off to categorize the condition as cardiomegaly present or absent. An observer performance test was conducted to assess the radiologist's performance in diagnosing cardiomegaly with and without artificial intelligence (AI) assistance. The Attention U-Net model was highly specific in calculating the CTR. The model exhibited a sensitivity of 0.80 [95% CI: 0.75, 0.85], precision of 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98, 1], and a F1 score of 0.88 [95% CI: 0.85, 0.91]. During the analysis, we observed that 51 out of 1012 samples were misclassified by the model when compared to annotations made by the expert radiologist. We further observed that the sensitivity of the reviewing radiologist in identifying cardiomegaly increased from 40.50% to 88.4% when aided by the AI-generated CTR. Our segmentation-based AI model demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for CTR calculation. The performance of the radiologist on the observer performance test improved significantly with AI assistance. A DL-based segmentation model for rapid quantification of CTR can therefore have significant potential to be used in clinical workflows.

Keywords: cardiomegaly, deep learning, chest radiograph, artificial intelligence, cardiothoracic ratio

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16 Anticancer Lantadene Derivatives: Synthesis, Cytotoxic and Docking Studies

Authors: A. Monika, Manu Sharma, Hong Boo Lee, Richa Dhingra, Neelima Dhingra

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Nuclear factor-κappa B serve as a molecular lynchpin that links persistent infections and chronic inflammation to increased cancer risk. Inflammation has been recognized as a hallmark and cause of cancer. Natural products present a privileged source of inspiration for chemical probe and drug design. Herbal remedies were the first medicines used by humans due to the many pharmacologically active secondary metabolites produced by plants. Some of the metabolites like Lantadene (pentacyclic triterpenoids) from the weed Lantana camara has been known to inhibit cell division and showed anti-antitumor potential. The C-3 aromatic esters of lantadenes were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for cytotoxicity and inhibitory potential against Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced activation of Nuclear factor-κappa B in lung cancer cell line A549. The 3-methoxybenzoyloxy substituted lead analogue inhibited kinase activity of the inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase in a single-digit micromolar concentration. At the same time, the lead compound showed promising cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 ( half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.98l µM. Further, molecular docking of 3-methoxybenzoyloxy substituted analogue against Inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase (Protein data bank ID: 3QA8) showed hydrogen bonding interaction involving oxygen atom of 3-methoxybenzoyloxy with the Arginine-31 and Glutamine-110. Encouraging results indicate the Lantadene’s potential to be developed as anticancer agents.

Keywords: anticancer, lantadenes, pentacyclic triterpenoids, weed

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15 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao

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Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents, pharmacognosy, secondary metabolites

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14 Effects of Pre-Storage Invigoration Treatments on Ageing Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Seeds

Authors: Geetika Richa, M. L. Sharma

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Bamboo as an ancient herbal medicine has been used for thousands of years in Asia and goes by many names such as tabashir, banslochan etc. It is often used for its tonic and astringent properties. Modern analysis of bamboos show high amount of vitamins and minerals which makes them valuable as a curative. Bamboo leaf decoction and young shoots are known as remedy for intestinal worms, healing of ulcers and stomach disorders. Bamboos are known to be propagated by large scale plantations but propagation through seeds occurs very limited as they have very short viability of few months. Seeds loses viability over a period of time even under controlled conditions and important factors that affect seed viability is the decline in reserve food material, decrease in membrane integrity and fall in endogenous level of growth hormones. Invigoration treatments that include hydration, dehydration, incorporation of bioactive chemicals such as growth regulators, nutrients and antioxidants etc. improve the seed performance. Our studies were aimed to determine the most effective invigoration treatments to enhance vigour and viability of seeds by following invigoration treatments, i.e., hardening. Treated seeds were stored at controlled temperature and humidity (in desiccators at 4°C). In hardening, chemicals were applied in 3 different concentrations to three replicates of 10 seeds. Hardening was done withGA3, IAA, (each with concentrations of 10 ppm, 20 ppm and 50 ppm), calcium oxychloride, neem leaf powder and clay (each with concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10%). Statistically all the hardening materials were effective but GA3 50 ppm was the most effective one in maintaining germination percentage and vigour index. Hardening treatments increased the germination percentage of seeds, i.e. 86.2%, over control which showed germination percentage of 80.2%. It was concluded that in order to maintain seed viability during storage for longer period of time, invigoration treatments have been found to be very effective.

Keywords: invigoration, seed quality, viability, hardening, membrane integrity, decoction

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13 Variability Parameters for Growth and Yield Characters in Fenugreek, Trigonella spp. Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

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India is a leading producer and consumer of fenugreek for its culinary uses and medicinal application. In India, most of the people are of vegetarian class. In such a situation, a leafy vegetable, such as fenugreek is of chief concern due to its high nutritional property, medicinal values and industrial uses. One of the most important factors restricting their large scale production and development of superior varieties is that very scanty knowledge about their genetic diversity, inter and intraspecific variability and genetic relationship among the species. Improvement of the crop depends upon the magnitude of genetic variability for economic characters. Therefore, the present research work was carried out to analyse the variability parameters for growth and yield character in twenty-eight fenugreek genotypes along with two standard checks Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replication during rabi season 2015-2016 at Pantnagar Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among all the genotypes for all traits. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient variation were observed for characters, namely the number of primary branches per plant, number of leaves at 30, 45 and 60 DAS, green leaf yield per plant, green leaf yield q/ha . The genetic advance recorded highest in green leaf yield q/ha (33.93) followed by green leaf yield per plant (21.20g). Highest percent of heritability were shown by 1000 seed weight (99.12%) followed by the number of primary branches per plant (97.18%). Green leaf yield q/ha showed high heritability and high genetic advance. These superior genotypes can be further used in crop improvement programs of fenugreek.

Keywords: genetic advance, genotypic coefficient variation, heritability, phenotypic coefficient variation

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12 Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for Gastrointestinal Ailments by the People of Tribal District Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh) India

Authors: Geeta, Richa, M. L. Sharma

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Himachal Pradesh, a hilly State of India located in the Western Himalayas, with varied altitudinal gradients and climatic conditions, is a repository of plant diversity and the traditional knowledge associated with plants. The State is inhabited by various tribal communities who usually depend upon local plants for curing various ailments. Utilization of plant resources in their day-to-day life has been an age old practice of the people inhabiting this State. The present study pertains to the tribal district Kinnaur of Himachal Pradesh, located between 77°45’ and 79°00’35” east longitudes and between 31°05’50” and 32°05’15” north altitudes. Being a remote area with only very basic medical facilities, local people mostly use traditional herbal medicines for primary healthcare needs. Traditional healers called “Amji” are usually very secretive in revealing their medicinal knowledge to novice and pass on their knowledge to next generation orally. As a result, no written records of healing herbs are available. The aim of present study was to collect and consolidate the ethno-medicinal knowledge of local people of the district about the use of plants for treating gastrointestinal ailments. The ethnobotanical information was collected from the local practitioners, herbal healers and elderly people having rich knowledge about the medicinal herbs through semi-structured questionnaire and key informant discussions. A total 46 plant species belonging to 40 genera and 24 families have been identified which are used as cure for gastrointestinal ailments. Among the parts used for gastointestinal ailments, aerial parts (14%) were followed by the whole plant (13%), root (8%), leaves (6%), flower (5%), fruit and seed (3%) and tuber (1%). These plant species could be prioritized for conservation and subject to further studies related to phytochemical screening for their authenticity. Most of the medicinal plants of the region are collected from the wild and are often harvested for trade. Sustainable harvesting and domestication of the highly traded species from the study area is needed.

Keywords: Amji, gastrointestinal, Kinnaur, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge

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11 Tracing the Courtyard Typology from the Past: Highlighting a Need for Conservation in Case of Historic Settlement in Historic Town of Gwalior

Authors: Shivani Dolas, A. Richa Mishra

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The existence of Courtyards in India can be traced back to ‘Indus valley civilization’ and various layers of history bearing implications like socio-cultural, traditional, religious, climatic, etc., moreover serving as a breathing space in case of historical core areas. Over time, with the overlay of various historic layers within the historic urban cores and the present high density populace, the cores are getting congested day by day. In this case, courtyards may emerge out as an efficient medium to provide quality of life through livable spaces. Presently, with the growing population of the historic town of Gwalior, town in Madhya Pradesh holds remarkable essence of courtyards with its multiple concepts over time. Its scale and function varies from an imposing grand appearance in palatial form, up to functional practices as residential. Its privilege can also be drawn in urban forms, in sharing single space by multiple dwellings and in temples which can be sketched specifically in the region. Moreover, the effectiveness of courtyards has proven balance and control of micro-climate in such composite climate region. The research paper aims to underline the concept of courtyards in case of a mixed use neighborhood, Naya bazar, in Lashkar area of Gwalior, which developed during 19th century, highlighting the need of its preservation. The paper also elaborates its various implications on user-space relationship as in the present context, and growing congestion in the area, user and space relationship is seen lost. The noticeable change in the behavioral context in buildings and users can be noticed with the downfall of courtyards, isolating users with land. Also, a concern has been expressed on negligence of courtyard planning in future development, suggesting recommendations on preserving the courtyard typology as heritage.

Keywords: courtyards, Gwalior, historic settlement, heritage

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10 Role of Onion Extract for Neuro-Protection in Experimental Stroke Model

Authors: Richa Shri, Varinder Singh, Kundan Singh Bora, Abhishek Bhanot, Rahul Kumar, Amit Kumar, Ravinder Kaur

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The term ‘neuroprotection’ means preserving/salvaging function and structure of neurons. Neuroprotection is an adjunctive treatment option for neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress is considered a major culprit in neurodegenerative disorders; hence, management strategies include use of antioxidants. Our search for a neuroprotective agent began with Allium cepa L. or onions, (family Amaryllidaceae) - a potent antioxidant. We have investigated the neuroprotective potential of onions in experimental models of ischemic stroke, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and dementia. In pre and post-ischemic stroke model, the methanol extract of outer scales of onion bulbs (MEOS) prevented memory loss and motor in-coordination; reduced oxidative stress and cerebral infarct size. This also prevented and ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in mice. The MEOS was fractionated to yield a flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) that successfully reversed ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage, thereby demonstrating that the flavonoids are responsible for the activity. The FRF effectively ameliorated chronic constriction induced neuropathic pain in rats. The FRF was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionated. It was seen that FRF is more effective as compared to the isolated components probably due to synergism among the constituents (i.e., quercetin and quercetin glucosides) in the FRF. The outer scales of onion bulbs have great potential for prevention as well as for treatment of neuronal disorders. Red onions, with higher amounts of flavonoids as compared to the white onions, produced more significant neuroprotection. Thus, the standardized FRF from the waste material of a commonly used vegetable, especially the red variety, may be developed as a valuable neuroprotective agent.

Keywords: Allium cepa, antioxidant activity, flavonoid rich fraction, neuroprotection

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9 Development of a Computer Based, Nutrition and Fitness Programme and Its Effect on Nutritional Status and Fitness of Obese Adults

Authors: Richa Soni, Vibha Bhatnagar, N. K. Jain

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This study was conducted to develop a computer mediated programme for weight management and physical fitness and examining its efficacy in reducing weight and improving physical fitness in obese adults. A user friendly, computer based programme was developed to provide a simple, quick, easy and user-friendly method of assessing energy balance at individual level. The programme had four main sections viz. personal Profile, know about your weight, fitness and food exchange list. The computer programme was developed to provide facilities of creating individual profile, tracking meal and physical activities, suggesting nutritional and exercise requirements, planning calorie specific menus, keeping food diaries and revising the diet and exercise plans if needed. The programme was also providing information on obesity, underweight, physical fitness. An exhaustive food exchange list was also given in the programme to assist user to make right food choice decisions. The developed programme was evaluated by a panel of 15 experts comprising endocrinologists, nutritionists and diet counselors. Suggestions given by the experts were paned down and the entire programme was modified in light of suggestions given by the panel members and was reevaluated by the same panel of experts. For assessing the impact of the programme 22 obese subjects were selected purposively and randomly assigned to intervention group (n=12) and no information control group. (n=10). The programme group was asked to strictly follow the programme for one month. Significant reduction in the intake of energy, fat and carbohydrates was observed while intake of fruits, green leafy vegetables was increased. The programme was also found to be effective in reducing body weight, body fat percent and body fat mass whereas total body water and physical fitness scores improved significantly. There was no significant alteration observed in any parameters in the control group.

Keywords: body composition, body weight, computer programme, physical fitness

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8 A Prospective Audit to Look into Antimicrobial Prescribing in the Clinical Setting: In a Teaching Hospital in the UK

Authors: Richa Sinha, Mohammad Irfan Javed, Sanjay Singh

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Introduction: Good antimicrobial prescribing reduces length of stay in hospital, risk of adverse events, antimicrobial resistance, and unnecessary hospital expenditure. The aim of this prospective audit was to identify any problems with antimicrobial prescribing including documentation of the relevant aspects as well as appropriateness of antibiotics use. The audit was conducted on the surgical wards in a teaching hospital in the UK. Methods: Standards included the indication, duration, choice, and prescription of antibiotic should be in line with current Regional Guidelines and should be clearly documented on the prescription chart. There should be an entry in each patients’ medical record of the diagnosis and indication for each acute antibiotic prescription issued. All prescriptions should clearly document the route, frequency and dose of antibiotic. Data collection was done for 2 weeks in the month of March 2014. A proforma including all the questions above was completed for all the patients. The results were analysed using Excel. Results: 35 patients in total were selected for the audit. 85.7% of patients had indication of antibiotic documented on the prescription chart and 68.5% of patients had indication documented in the notes. The antibiotic used was in line with hospital guidelines in 45.7% of patients, however, in a further 28.5% of patients the reason for the antibiotic prescription was microbiology approved. Therefore, in total 74.2% of patients had been prescribed appropriate antibiotics. The duration of antibiotic was documented in 68.6% of patients and the antibiotic was reviewed in 37.1% of patients. The dose, frequency and route was documented clearly in 100% of patients. Conclusion: Overall, prescribing can be improved on the surgical wards in this hospital. Only 37.1% of patients had clear documentation of a review of antibiotics. It may be that antibiotics have been reviewed but this should be clearly highlighted on the prescription chart or the notes. Failure to review antibiotics can lead to poor patient care and antimicrobial resistance and therefore it is important to address this. It is also important to address the appropriateness of antibiotics as inappropriate antibiotic prescription can lead to failure of treatment as well as antimicrobial resistance. The good points from the audit was that all patients had clear documentation of dose, route and frequency which is extremely important in the administration of antibiotics. Recommendations from this audit included to emphasize good antimicrobial prescribing at induction (twice yearly), an antimicrobial handbook for junior doctors, and re-audit in 6 months time.

Keywords: prescribing, antimicrobial, indication, duration

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7 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra

Abstract:

5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: 5α-reductase inhibitor, benign prostatic hyperplasia, ligands, molecular docking, QSAR

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6 Assessment of Designed Outdoor Playspaces as Learning Environments and Its Impact on Child’s Wellbeing: A Case of Bhopal, India

Authors: Richa Raje, Anumol Antony

Abstract:

Playing is the foremost stepping stone for childhood development. Play is an essential aspect of a child’s development and learning because it creates meaningful enduring environmental connections and increases children’s performance. The children’s proficiencies are ever varying in their course of growth. There is innovation in the activities, as it kindles the senses, surges the love for exploration, overcomes linguistic barriers and physiological development, which in turn allows them to find their own caliber, spontaneity, curiosity, cognitive skills, and creativity while learning during play. This paper aims to comprehend the learning in play which is the most essential underpinning aspect of the outdoor play area. It also assesses the trend of playgrounds design that is merely hammered with equipment's. It attempts to derive a relation between the natural environment and children’s activities and the emotions/senses that can be evoked in the process. One of the major concerns with our outdoor play is that it is limited to an area with a similar kind of equipment, thus making the play highly regimented and monotonous. This problem is often lead by the strict timetables of our education system that hardly accommodates play. Due to these reasons, the play areas remain neglected both in terms of design that allows learning and wellbeing. Poorly designed spaces fail to inspire the physical, emotional, social and psychological development of the young ones. Currently, the play space has been condensed to an enclosed playground, driveway or backyard which confines the children’s capability to leap the boundaries set for him. The paper emphasizes on study related to kids ranging from 5 to 11 years where the behaviors during their interactions in a playground are mapped and analyzed. The theory of affordance is applied to various outdoor play areas, in order to study and understand the children’s environment and how variedly they perceive and use them. A higher degree of affordance shall form the basis for designing the activities suitable in play spaces. It was observed during their play that, they choose certain spaces of interest majority being natural over other artificial equipment. The activities like rolling on the ground, jumping from a height, molding earth, hiding behind tree, etc. suggest that despite equipment they have an affinity towards nature. Therefore, we as designers need to take a cue from their behavior and practices to be able to design meaningful spaces for them, so the child gets the freedom to test their precincts.

Keywords: children, landscape design, learning environment, nature and play, outdoor play

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5 Enhancement of Shelflife of Malta Fruit with Active Packaging

Authors: Rishi Richa, N. C. Shahi, J. P. Pandey, S. S. Kautkar

Abstract:

Citrus fruits rank third in area and production after banana and mango in India. Sweet oranges are the second largest citrus fruits cultivated in the country. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Uttarakhand are the main sweet orange-growing states. Citrus fruits occupy a leading position in the fruit trade of Uttarakhand, is casing about 14.38% of the total area under fruits and contributing nearly 17.75 % to the total fruit production. Malta is grown in most of the hill districts of the Uttarakhand. Malta common is having high acceptability due to its attractive colour, distinctive flavour, and taste. The excellent quality fruits are generally available for only one or two months. However due to its less shelf-life, Malta can not be stored for longer time under ambient conditions and cannot be transported to distant places. Continuous loss of water adversely affects the quality of Malta during storage and transportation. Method of picking, packaging, and cold storage has detrimental effects on moisture loss. The climatic condition such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind condition (aeration) and microbial attack greatly influences the rate of moisture loss and quality. Therefore, different agro-climatic zone will have different moisture loss pattern. The rate of moisture loss can be taken as one of the quality parameters in combination of one or more parameter such as RH, and aeration. The moisture contents of the fruits and vegetables determine their freshness. Hence, it is important to maintain initial moisture status of fruits and vegetable for prolonged period after the harvest. Keeping all points in views, effort was made to store Malta at ambient condition. In this study, the response surface method and experimental design were applied for optimization of independent variables to enhance the shelf life of four months stored malta. Box-Benkhen design, with, 12 factorial points and 5 replicates at the centre point were used to build a model for predicting and optimizing storage process parameters. The independent parameters, viz., scavenger (3, 4 and 5g), polythene thickness (75, 100 and 125 gauge) and fungicide concentration (100, 150 and 200ppm) were selected and analyzed. 5g scavenger, 125 gauge and 200ppm solution of fungicide are the optimized value for storage which may enhance life up to 4months.

Keywords: Malta fruit, scavenger, packaging, shelf life

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4 Human Beta Defensin 1 as Potential Antimycobacterial Agent against Active and Dormant Tubercle Bacilli

Authors: Richa Sharma, Uma Nahar, Sadhna Sharma, Indu Verma

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Counteracting the deadly pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) effectively is still a global challenge. Scrutinizing alternative weapons like antimicrobial peptides to strengthen existing tuberculosis artillery is urgently required. Considering the antimycobacterial potential of Human Beta Defensin 1 (HBD-1) along with isoniazid, the present study was designed to explore the ability of HBD-1 to act against active and dormant M. tb. HBD-1 was screened in silico using antimicrobial peptide prediction servers to identify its short antimicrobial motif. The activity of both HBD-1 and its selected motif (Pep B) was determined at different concentrations against actively growing M. tb in vitro and ex vivo in monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs). Log phase M. tb was grown along with HBD-1 and Pep B for 7 days. M. tb infected MDMs were treated with HBD-1 and Pep B for 72 hours. Thereafter, colony forming unit (CFU) enumeration was performed to determine activity of both peptides against actively growing in vitro and intracellular M. tb. The dormant M. tb models were prepared by following two approaches and treated with different concentrations of HBD-1 and Pep B. Firstly, 20-22 days old M. tbH37Rv was grown in potassium deficient Sauton media for 35 days. The presence of dormant bacilli was confirmed by Nile red staining. Dormant bacilli were further treated with rifampicin, isoniazid, HBD-1 and its motif for 7 days. The effect of both peptides on latent bacilli was assessed by colony forming units (CFU) and most probable number (MPN) enumeration. Secondly, human PBMC granuloma model was prepared by infecting PBMCs seeded on collagen matrix with M. tb(MOI 0.1) for 10 days. Histopathology was done to confirm granuloma formation. The granuloma thus formed was incubated for 72 hours with rifampicin, HBD-1 and Pep B individually. Difference in bacillary load was determined by CFU enumeration. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of HBD-1 and Pep B restricting growth of mycobacteria in vitro were 2μg/ml and 20μg/ml respectively. The intracellular mycobacterial load was reduced significantly by HBD-1 and Pep B at 1μg/ml and 5μg/ml respectively. Nile red positive bacterial population, high MPN/ low CFU count and tolerance to isoniazid, confirmed the formation of potassium deficienybaseddormancy model. HBD-1 (8μg/ml) showed 96% and 99% killing and Pep B (40μg/ml) lowered dormant bacillary load by 68.89% and 92.49% based on CFU and MPN enumeration respectively. Further, H&E stained aggregates of macrophages and lymphocytes, acid fast bacilli surrounded by cellular aggregates and rifampicin resistance, indicated the formation of human granuloma dormancy model. HBD-1 (8μg/ml) led to 81.3% reduction in CFU whereas its motif Pep B (40μg/ml) showed only 54.66% decrease in bacterial load inside granuloma. Thus, the present study indicated that HBD-1 and its motif are effective antimicrobial players against both actively growing and dormant M. tb. They should be further explored to tap their potential to design a powerful weapon for combating tuberculosis.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, dormant, human beta defensin 1, tuberculosis

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3 Procedure for Monitoring the Process of Behavior of Thermal Cracking in Concrete Gravity Dams: A Case Study

Authors: Adriana de Paula Lacerda Santos, Bruna Godke, Mauro Lacerda Santos Filho

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Several dams in the world have already collapsed, causing environmental, social and economic damage. The concern to avoid future disasters has stimulated the creation of a great number of laws and rules in many countries. In Brazil, Law 12.334/2010 was created, which establishes the National Policy on Dam Safety. Overall, this policy requires the dam owners to invest in the maintenance of their structures and to improve its monitoring systems in order to provide faster and straightforward responses in the case of an increase of risks. As monitoring tools, visual inspections has provides comprehensive assessment of the structures performance, while auscultation’s instrumentation has added specific information on operational or behavioral changes, providing an alarm when a performance indicator exceeds the acceptable limits. These limits can be set using statistical methods based on the relationship between instruments measures and other variables, such as reservoir level, time of the year or others instruments measuring. Besides the design parameters (uplift of the foundation, displacements, etc.) the dam instrumentation can also be used to monitor the behavior of defects and damage manifestations. Specifically in concrete gravity dams, one of the main causes for the appearance of cracks, are the concrete volumetric changes generated by the thermal origin phenomena, which are associated with the construction process of these structures. Based on this, the goal of this research is to propose a monitoring process of the thermal cracking behavior in concrete gravity dams, through the instrumentation data analysis and the establishment of control values. Therefore, as a case study was selected the Block B-11 of José Richa Governor Dam Power Plant, that presents a cracking process, which was identified even before filling the reservoir in August’ 1998, and where crack meters and surface thermometers were installed for its monitoring. Although these instruments were installed in May 2004, the research was restricted to study the last 4.5 years (June 2010 to November 2014), when all the instruments were calibrated and producing reliable data. The adopted method is based on simple linear correlations procedures to understand the interactions among the instruments time series, verifying the response times between them. The scatter plots were drafted from the best correlations, which supported the definition of the limit control values. Among the conclusions, it is shown that there is a strong or very strong correlation between ambient temperature and the crack meters and flowmeters measurements. Based on the results of the statistical analysis, it was possible to develop a tool for monitoring the behavior of the case study cracks. Thus it was fulfilled the goal of the research to develop a proposal for a monitoring process of the behavior of thermal cracking in concrete gravity dams.

Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dams safety, instrumentation, simple linear correlation

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2 Altered Proteostasis Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy during Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia: An Insight into Signaling Mechanisms

Authors: Akanksha Agrawal, Richa Rathor, Geetha Suryakumar

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Muscle represents about ¾ of the body mass, and a healthy muscular system is required for human performance. A healthy muscular system is dynamically balanced via the catabolic and anabolic process. High altitude associated hypoxia altered this redox balance via producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that ultimately modulates protein structure and function, hence, disrupts proteostasis or protein homeostasis. The mechanism by which proteostasis is clinched includes regulated protein translation, protein folding, and protein degradation machinery. Perturbation in any of these mechanisms could increase proteome imbalance in the cellular processes. Altered proteostasis in skeletal muscle is likely to be responsible for contributing muscular atrophy in response to hypoxia. Therefore, we planned to elucidate the mechanism involving altered proteostasis leading to skeletal muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods-Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 200-220 were divided into five groups - Control (Normoxic animals), 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d hypobaric hypoxia exposed animals. The animals were exposed to simulated hypoxia equivalent to 282 torr pressure (equivalent to an altitude of 7620m, 8% oxygen) at 25°C. On completion of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) exposure, rats were sacrificed, muscle was excised and biochemical, histopathological and protein synthesis signaling were studied. Results-A number of changes were observed with the CHH exposure time period. ROS was increased significantly on 07 and 14 days which were attributed to protein oxidation via damaging muscle protein structure by oxidation of amino acids moiety. The oxidative damage to the protein further enhanced the various protein degradation pathways. Calcium activated cysteine proteases and other intracellular proteases participate in protein turnover in muscles. Therefore, we analysed calpain and 20S proteosome activity which were noticeably increased at CHH exposure as compared to control group representing enhanced muscle protein catabolism. Since inflammatory markers (myokines) affect protein synthesis and triggers degradation machinery. So, we determined inflammatory pathway regulated under hypoxic environment. Other striking finding of the study was upregulation of Akt/PKB translational machinery that was increased on CHH exposure. Akt, p-Akt, p70 S6kinase, and GSK- 3β expression were upregulated till 7d of CHH exposure. Apoptosis related markers, caspase-3, caspase-9 and annexin V was also increased on CHH exposure. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence of disrupted proteostasis under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. A profound loss of muscle mass is accompanied by the muscle damage leading to apoptosis and cell death under CHH. These cellular stress response pathways may play a pivotal role in hypobaric hypoxia induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Further research in these signaling pathways will lead to development of therapeutic interventions for amelioration of hypoxia induced muscle atrophy.

Keywords: Akt/PKB translational machinery, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, muscle atrophy, protein degradation

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1 Adequate Nutritional Support and Monitoring in Post-Traumatic High Output Duodenal Fistula

Authors: Richa Jaiswal, Vidisha Sharma, Amulya Rattan, Sushma Sagar, Subodh Kumar, Amit Gupta, Biplab Mishra, Maneesh Singhal

Abstract:

Background: Adequate nutritional support and daily patient monitoring have an independent therapeutic role in the successful management of high output fistulae and early recovery after abdominal trauma. Case presentation: An 18-year-old girl was brought to AIIMS emergency with alleged history of fall of a heavy weight (electric motor) over abdomen. She was evaluated as per Advanced Trauma Life Support(ATLS) protocols and diagnosed to have significant abdominal trauma. After stabilization, she was referred to Trauma center. Abdomen was guarded and focused assessment with sonography for trauma(FAST) was found positive. Complete duodenojejunal(DJ) junction transection was found at laparotomy, and end-to-end repair was done. However, patient was re-explored in view of biliary peritonitis on post-operative day3, and anastomotic leak was found with sloughing of duodenal end. Resection of non-viable segments was done followed by side-to-side anastomosis. Unfortunately, the anastomosis leaked again, this time due to a post-anastomotic kink, diagnosed on dye study. Due to hostile abdomen, the patient was planned for supportive care, with plan of build-up and delayed definitive surgery. Percutaneous transheptic biliary drainage (PTBD) and STSG were required in the course as well. Nutrition: In intensive care unit (ICU), major goals of nutritional therapy were to improve wound healing, optimize nutrition, minimize enteral feed associated complications, reduce biliary fistula output, and prepare the patient for definitive surgeries. Feeding jejunostomy (FJ) was started from day 4 at the rate of 30ml/h along with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and intra-venous (IV) micronutrients support. Due to high bile output, bile refeed started from day 13.After 23 days of ICU stay, patient was transferred to general ward with body mass index (BMI)<11kg/m2 and serum albumin –1.5gm%. Patient was received in the ward in catabolic phase with high risk of refeeding syndrome. Patient was kept on FJ bolus feed at the rate of 30–50 ml/h. After 3–4 days, while maintaining patient diet book log it was observed that patient use to refuse feed at night and started becoming less responsive with every passing day. After few minutes of conversation with the patient for a couple of days, she complained about enteral feed discharge in urine, mild pain and sign of dumping syndrome. Dye study was done, which ruled out any enterovesical fistula and conservative management were planned. At this time, decision was taken for continuous slow rate feeding through commercial feeding pump at the rate of 2–3ml/min. Drastic improvement was observed from the second day in gastro-intestinal symptoms and general condition of the patient. Nutritional composition of feed, TPN and diet ranged between 800 and 2100 kcal and 50–95 g protein. After STSG, TPN was stopped. Periodic diet counselling was given to improve oral intake. At the time of discharge, serum albumin level was 2.1g%, weight – 38.6, BMI – 15.19 kg/m2. Patient got discharge on an oral diet. Conclusion: Successful management of post-traumatic proximal high output fistulae is a challenging task, due to impaired nutrient absorption and enteral feed associated complications. Strategic- and goal-based nutrition support can salvage such critically ill patients, as demonstrated in the present case.

Keywords: nutritional monitoring, nutritional support, duodenal fistula, abdominal trauma

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