Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 261

Search results for: hydrocarbons

261 Bioremediation of PAHs-Contaminated Soil Using Land Treatment Processes

Authors: Somaye Eskandary


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in crude oil and its derivatives contaminate soil and also increase carcinogen and mutagen contamination, which is a concern for researchers. Land farming is one of the methods that remove pollutants from the soil by native microorganisms. It seems that this technology is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and causes less debris problem to be disposed. This study aimed to refine the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil-contaminated soil using the land farming method. In addition to examine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-FID, some characteristics such as soil microbial respiration and dehydrogenase, peroxidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme concentration were also measured. The results showed that after land farming process the concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dropped to 50 percent. The results showed that the enzyme concentration is reduced by reducing the concentration of hydrocarbons and microbial respiration. These results emphasize the process of land farming for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil by indigenous microorganisms.

Keywords: soil contamination, gas chromatography, native microorganisms, soil enzymes, microbial respiration, carcinogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
260 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan


The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Padina boryanawas, bioaccumulation, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
259 Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Isolated from Contaminated Soils

Authors: Z. Abdessemed, N. Messaâdia, M. Houhamdi


The PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) represent a persistent source of pollution for oil field soils. Their degradation, essentially dominated by the aerobic bacterial and fungal flora, exhibits certain aspects for remediation of these soils microbial oxygenases have, as their substrates, a large range of PAH. The variety and the performance of these enzymes allow the initiation of the biodegradation of any PAH through many different metabolic pathways. These pathways are very important for the recycling of the PAH in the biosphere, where substances supposed indigestible by living organisms are rapidly transformed into simples compounds, directly assimilated by the intermediate metabolism of other microorganisms.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial oxygenases, biodegradation, metabolic pathways

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
258 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li


This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
257 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir


Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
256 Use of the Gas Chromatography Method for Hydrocarbons' Quality Evaluation in the Offshore Fields of the Baltic Sea

Authors: Pavel Shcherban, Vlad Golovanov


Currently, there is an active geological exploration and development of the subsoil shelf of the Kaliningrad region. To carry out a comprehensive and accurate assessment of the volumes and degree of extraction of hydrocarbons from open deposits, it is necessary to establish not only a number of geological and lithological characteristics of the structures under study, but also to determine the oil quality, its viscosity, density, fractional composition as accurately as possible. In terms of considered works, gas chromatography is one of the most capacious methods that allow the rapid formation of a significant amount of initial data. The aspects of the application of the gas chromatography method for determining the chemical characteristics of the hydrocarbons of the Kaliningrad shelf fields are observed in the article, as well as the correlation-regression analysis of these parameters in comparison with the previously obtained chemical characteristics of hydrocarbon deposits located on the land of the region. In the process of research, a number of methods of mathematical statistics and computer processing of large data sets have been applied, which makes it possible to evaluate the identity of the deposits, to specify the amount of reserves and to make a number of assumptions about the genesis of the hydrocarbons under analysis.

Keywords: computer processing of large databases, correlation-regression analysis, hydrocarbon deposits, method of gas chromatography

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
255 Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air Particulate Matter

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős


An assessment of the air quality of Győr (Hungary) was performed by determining the ambient concentrations of PM10-bound carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) in different seasons. A high volume sampler was used for the collection of ambient aerosol particles, and the associated cPAH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[a]anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, indeno[123-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[ah]anthracene) were analyzed by a gas chromatographic method. Higher mean concentrations of total cPAHs were detected in samples collected in winter (9.62 ng/m3) and autumn (2.69 ng/m3) compared to spring (1.05 ng/m3) and summer (0.21 ng/m3). The calculated BaP toxic equivalent concentrations have also reflected that the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. Moreover, the concentration levels of cPAHs determined in this study were compared to other Hungarian urban sites.

Keywords: air, carcinogenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PM10

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
254 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi


This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: degradation, differential scanning calorimetry, feedstock recycling, gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
253 Effects of the Type of Soil on the Efficiency of a Bioremediation Dispositive by Using Bacterium Hydrocarbonoclastes

Authors: Amel Bouderhem, Aminata Ould El Hadj Khelil, Amina N. Djrarbaoui, Aroussi Aroussi


The present work aims to find the influence of the nature of the soil on the effectiveness of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons by a mixture of bacterial strains hydrocarbonoclastes. Processes of bioaugmentation and biostimulation trial are applied to samples of soils polluted voluntarily by the crude oil. For the evaluation of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, the bacterial load, the pH and organic carbon total are followed in the different experimental batches. He bacterial load of the sandy soil varies among the witnesses of 45,2 .108 CFU/ml at the beginning of the experimentation to 214,07.108 CFU/ml at the end of the experiment. Of the soil silty-clay varies between 103,31 .108 CFU/ml and 614,86.108 CFU/ml . It was found a strong increase in the bacterial biomass during the processing of all samples. This increase is more important in the samples of sand bioaugmente or biomass increased from 63.16 .108 CFU/ml to 309.68 .108 CFU/ml than in soil samples silty clay- bioaugmente whose content in bacteria evolved of 73,01 .108 CFU/ml to 631.80 . 108CFU/ml

Keywords: pollution, hydrocarbons, bioremediation, bacteria hydrocarbonoclastes, ground, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
252 Prediction of the Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrocarbons Using Gaussian Process Regression

Authors: N. Alhazmi


Knowing the thermodynamics properties of hydrocarbons is vital when it comes to analyzing the related chemical reaction outcomes and understanding the reaction process, especially in terms of petrochemical industrial applications, combustions, and catalytic reactions. However, measuring the thermodynamics properties experimentally is time-consuming and costly. In this paper, Gaussian process regression (GPR) has been used to directly predict the main thermodynamic properties - standard enthalpy of formation, standard entropy, and heat capacity -for more than 360 cyclic and non-cyclic alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. A simple workflow has been proposed that can be applied to directly predict the main properties of any hydrocarbon by knowing its descriptors and chemical structure and can be generalized to predict the main properties of any material. The model was evaluated by calculating the statistical error R², which was more than 0.9794 for all the predicted properties.

Keywords: thermodynamic, Gaussian process regression, hydrocarbons, regression, supervised learning, entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
251 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen


Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, biodegradation, lagoon marchika, emulsification index

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
250 Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Keywords: fischer-tropsch synthesis, cobalt catalyst, support shape, heavy hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
249 Parameters of Validation Method of Determining Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Jonida Canaj


A simple method of extraction and determination of fifteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from drinking water using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been validated with limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ), method recovery and reproducibility, and other factors. HPLC parameters, such as mobile phase composition and flow standardized for determination of PAHs using fluorescent detector (FLD). PAH was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using dichloromethane. Linearity of calibration curves was good for all PAH (R², 0.9954-1.0000) in the concentration range 0.1-100 ppb. Analysis of standard spiked water samples resulted in good recoveries between 78.5-150%(0.1ppb) and 93.04-137.47% (10ppb). The estimated LOD and LOQ ranged between 0.0018-0.98 ppb. The method described has been used for determination of the fifteen PAHs contents in drinking water samples.

Keywords: high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC, method validation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
248 Cracking of Tar Analogue in N₂ Carrier Gas Using Non-Thermal Plasma Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey


The role of N₂ carrier gas towards the conversion of tar analogue was studied in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The important parameters such as power (5-40W), residence time (1.41-4.23 s), concentration (20-82 g/Nm³), and temperature (Ambient-400°C) were explored. The present study demonstrated that plasma power and residence time played a key role in the decomposition of toluene, and almost complete removal of toluene was observed at 40w and 4.23 s. H₂ is obtained as a major gaseous product with a maximum selectivity of 40% along with some lighter hydrocarbons (5.5%). The removal efficiency of toluene slightly decreases with increasing the concentration of toluene from 20 g/Nm³ to 82 g/Nm³. The solid residue formation takes place inside the plasma reactor. The selectivity of LHC (lower hydrocarbons) increased up to 15% by increasing the temperature to 400°C. Introducing H₂ to the gas at elevated temperature opens up new reaction routes to raise the selectivity to lower hydrocarbons. The selectivity to methane reaches to 42% using 35% H₂ at 400°C and total selectivity of LHC increases to 57%.

Keywords: biomass gasification tar, non-thermal plasma, dielectric barrier discharge, residence time

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
247 Non-Methane Hydrocarbons Emission during the Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Aksentijević M. Snežana, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana


The prosperity of electronic equipment in photocopying environment not only has improved work efficiency, but also has changed indoor air quality. Considering the number of photocopying employed, indoor air quality might be worse than in general office environments. Determining the contribution from any type of equipment to indoor air pollution is a complex matter. Non-methane hydrocarbons are known to have an important role of air quality due to their high reactivity. The presence of hazardous pollutants in indoor air has been detected in one photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. Air samples were collected and analyzed for five days, during 8-hr working time in three-time intervals, whereas three different sampling points were determined. Using multiple linear regression model and software package STATISTICA 10 the concentrations of occupational hazards and micro-climates parameters were mutually correlated. Based on the obtained multiple coefficients of determination (0.3751, 0.2389, and 0.1975), a weak positive correlation between the observed variables was determined. Small values of parameter F indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the concentration levels of non-methane hydrocarbons and micro-climates parameters. The results showed that variable could be presented by the general regression model: y = b0 + b1xi1+ b2xi2. Obtained regression equations allow to measure the quantitative agreement between the variation of variables and thus obtain more accurate knowledge of their mutual relations.

Keywords: non-methane hydrocarbons, photocopying process, multiple regression analysis, indoor air quality, pollutant emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
246 Decarboxylation of Waste Coconut Oil and Comparison of Acid Values

Authors: Pabasara H. Gamage, Sisira K. Weliwegamage, Sameera R. Gunatilake, Hondamuni I. C De Silva, Parakrama Karunaratne


Green diesel is an upcoming category of biofuels, which has more practical advantages than biodiesel. Production of green diesel involves production of hydrocarbons from various fatty acid sources. Though green diesel is chemically similar to fossil fuel hydrocarbons, it is more environmentally friendly. Decarboxylation of fatty acid sources is one of green diesel production methods and is less expensive and more energy efficient compared to hydrodeoxygenation. Free fatty acids (FFA), undergo decarboxylation readily than triglycerides. Waste coconut oil, which is a rich source of FFA, can be easily decarboxylated than other oils which have lower FFA contents. These free fatty acids can be converted to hydrocarbons by decarboxylation. Experiments were conducted to carry out decarboxylation of waste coconut oil in a high pressure hastealloy reactor (Toption Goup LTD), in the presence of soda lime and mixtures of soda lime and alumina. Acid value (AV) correlates to the amount of FFA available in a sample of oil. It can be shown that with the decreasing of AV, FFAs have converted to hydrocarbons. First, waste coconut oil was reacted with soda lime alone, at 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure for 2 hours. AVs of products at different temperatures were compared. AV of products decreased with increasing temperature. Thereafter, different mixtures of soda lime and alumina (100% Soda lime, 1:1 soda lime and alumina and 100% alumina) were employed at temperatures 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure. The lowest AV of 2.99±0.03 was obtained when 1:1 soda lime and alumina were employed at 250 °C. It can be concluded with respect to the AV that the amount of FFA decreased when decarboxylation temperature was increased. Soda lime:alumina 1:1 mixture showed the lowest AV among the compositions studied. These findings lead to formulate a method to successfully synthesize hydrocarbons by decarboxylating waste coconut oil in the presence of soda lime and alumina (1:1) at elevated tempertaures such as 250 °C.

Keywords: acid value, free fatty acids, green diesel, high pressure reactor, waste coconut oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
245 Geochemical Characteristics of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Crude Oils from the Chepaizi Area, Junggar Basin, China

Authors: Luofu Liu, Fei Xiao Jr., Fei Xiao


Through the analysis technology of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition and distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Chepaizi area of the Junggar Basin were analyzed in detail. Based on that, the biological input, maturity of crude oils and sedimentary environment of the corresponding source rocks were determined and the origin types of crude oils were divided. The results show that there are three types of crude oils in the study area including Type I, Type II and Type III oils. The crude oils from the 1st member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type I oils; the crude oils from the 2nd member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type II oils; the crude oils from the Cretaceous Qingshuihe and Jurassic Badaowan Formations are the Type III oils. For the Type I oils, they show a single model in the late retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of triaromatic steroid series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is low. Maturity parameters related to alkyl naphthalene, methylphenanthrene and alkyl dibenzothiophene all indicate low maturity for the Type I oils. For the Type II oils, they have also a single model in the early retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of naphthalene and phenanthrene series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is medium. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon representing the terrestrial organic matter is high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate high maturity for the Type II oils. For the Type III oils, they have a bi-model in the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The contents of naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, and dibenzofuran series are high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate medium maturity for the Type III oils. The correlation results of triaromatic steroid series fingerprint show that the Type I and Type III oils have similar source and are both from the Permian Wuerhe source rocks. Because of the strong biodegradation and mixing from other source, the Type I oils are very different from the Type III oils in aromatic hydrocarbon characteristics. The Type II oils have the typical characteristics of terrestrial organic matter input under oxidative environment, and are the coal oil mainly generated by the mature Jurassic coal measure source rocks. However, the overprinting effect from the low maturity Cretaceous source rocks changed the original distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons to some degree.

Keywords: oil source, geochemistry, aromatic hydrocarbons, crude oils, chepaizi area, Junggar Basin

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244 System Engineering Design of Offshore Oil Drilling Production Platform from Marine Environment

Authors: C. Njoku Paul


This paper deals with systems engineering applications design for offshore oil drilling production platform in the Nigerian Marine Environment. Engineering Design model of the distribution and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons discharged into marine environment production platform and sources of impact of an offshore is treated.

Keywords: design of offshore oil drilling production platform, marine, environment, petroleum hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
243 Chemical Composition and Biological Investigation of Halpophyllum tuberculatum A. Juss (Rutaceae) Essential Oils Growing in Libya

Authors: O. M. M. Sabry, Abeer M. El Sayed


The essential oils from the aerial parts and flowers of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forsskal) Adr. Juss (Rutaceae) growing in Libya were obtained separately by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oils yield were (0.4, 1.5w/w%) respectively based on the dry weight of the plant. The oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty four constituents, amounting to 96.6%, were identified in the oil of the aerial parts. The predominant compounds were among the non oxygenated terpenoids (82.4%) as monoterpene hydrocarbons, represented by sabinen (26.4 %), δ-terpinen (26 %), β-phellandrene (10.4%) and 3-carene (3.86%). Zingiberine (0.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (0.12%) were the major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes were represented by eucalyptol (5.5%) and piperitone (5.55%). Twenty six constituents, equivalent to 99.5%, were identified in the oil of the flowers. The dominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons in the flowers oil can be attributed to the high percentage of γ-terpinen (38.44%), β-phellandrene (10.0%), α- phellandrene (2.33%), 3,4-dimethyl-1,5-cyclooctadiene (6.67%), β-myrecene (6.04%), 3-carene (5.43%) and α-pinene (1.3%).While the oxygenated monoterpenes can be contributed to the trans-piperitol (4.67%) and piperitone (2.07%). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were not identified in the oil of the flower of H. tuberculatum. Variation in constitution between oils of Libyan H. tuberculatum and that obtained from other countries can be due to both environmental and genetic factors. The essential oils have demonstrated variable antimicrobial activities against certain micro-organisms. Also have revealed marked in vitro cytotoxicity against lung (H1299), liver (HEPG2) carcinoma cell line and variably effective as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Keywords: Halpophyllum tuberculatum, rutaceae, essential oil, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, Libya

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242 Rock Property Calculation for Determine Hydrocarbon Zone Based on Petrophysical Principal and Sequence Stratigraphic Correlation in Blok M

Authors: Muhammad Tarmidzi, Reza M. G. Gani, Andri Luthfi


The purpose of this study is to identify rock zone containing hydrocarbons with calculating rock property includes volume shale, total porosity, effective porosity and water saturation. Identification method rock property based on GR log, resistivity log, neutron log and density rock. Zoning is based on sequence stratigraphic markers that are sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and flooding surface (FS) which correlating ten well log in blok “M”. The results of sequence stratigraphic correlation consist of eight zone that are two LST zone, three TST zone and three HST zone. The result of rock property calculation in each zone is showing two LST zone containing hydrocarbons. LST-1 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 25%, average total porosity (PHIT) 14%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 11% and average water saturation 0,83. LST-2 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 19%, average total porosity (PHIT) 21%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 17% and average water saturation 0,82.

Keywords: hydrocarbons zone, petrophysic, rock property, sequence stratigraphic

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
241 Removal of Diesel by Soil Washing Technologies Using a Non-Ionic Surfactant

Authors: Carolina Guatemala, Josefina Barrera


A large number of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons and the limitation of the current bioremediation methods continue being the drawback for an efficient recuperation of these under safe conditions. In this regard, soil washing by degradable surfactants is an alternative option knowing the capacity of surfactants to desorb oily organic compounds. The aim of this study was the establishment of the washing conditions of a soil polluted with diesel, using a nonionic surfactant. A soil polluted with diesel was used. This was collected near to a polluted railway station zone. The soil was dried at room temperature and sieved to a mesh size 10 for its physicochemical and biological characterization. Washing of the polluted soil was performed with surfactant solutions in a 1:5 ratio (5g of soil per 25 mL of the surfactant solution). This was carried out at 28±1 °C and 150 rpm for 72 hours. The factors tested were the Tween 80 surfactant concentration (1, 2, 5 and 10%) and the treatment time. Residual diesel concentration was determined every 24 h. The soil was of a sandy loam texture with a low concentration of organic matter (3.68%) and conductivity (0.016 dS.m- 1). The soil had a pH of 7.63 which was slightly alkaline and a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon content (TPH) of 11,600 ± 1058.38 mg/kg. The high TPH content could explain the low microbial count of 1.1105 determined as UFC per gram of dried soil. Within the range of the surfactant concentration tested for washing the polluted soil under study, TPH removal increased proportionally with the surfactant concentration. 5080.8 ± 422.2 ppm (43.8 ± 3.64 %) was the maximal concentration of TPH removed after 72 h of contact with surfactant pollution at 10%. Despite the high percentage of hydrocarbons removed, it is assumed that a higher concentration of these could be removed if the washing process is extended or is carried out by stages. Soil washing through the use of surfactants as a desorbing agent was found to be a viable and effective technology for the rapid recovery of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons.

Keywords: diesel, hydrocarbons, soil washing, tween 80

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240 Thermal Technologies Applications for Soil Remediation

Authors: A. de Folly d’Auris, R. Bagatin, P. Filtri


This paper discusses the importance of having a good initial characterization of soil samples when thermal desorption has to be applied to polluted soils for the removal of contaminants. Particular attention has to be devoted on the desorption kinetics of the samples to identify the gases evolved during the heating, and contaminant degradation pathways. In this study, two samples coming from different points of the same contaminated site were considered. The samples are much different from each other. Moreover, the presence of high initial quantity of heavy hydrocarbons strongly affected the performance of thermal desorption, resulting in formation of dangerous intermediates. Analytical techniques such TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass) provided a good support to give correct indication for field application.

Keywords: desorption kinetics, hydrocarbons, thermal desorption, thermogravimetric measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
239 Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lub Oil Using Sursurfactant as Additive

Authors: Izza Hidaya, Korichi Mourad


Solvent extraction is an affective method for reduction of aromatic content of lube oil. Frequently with phenol, furfural, NMP(N-methyl pyrrolidone). The solvent power and selectivity can be further increased by using surfactant as additive which facilitate phase separation and to increase raffinate yield. The aromatics in lube oil were extracted at different temperatures (ranging from 333.15 to 343.15K) and different concentration of surfactant (ranging from 0.01 to 0.1% wt).The extraction temperature and the amount of sulfate lauryl éther de sodium In phenoll were investigated systematically in order to determine their optimum values. The amounts of aromatic, paraffinic and naphthenic compounds were determined using ASTM standards by measuring refractive index (RI), viscosity, molecular weight and sulfur content. It was found that using 0,01%wt. surfactant at 343.15K yields the optimum extraction conditions.

Keywords: extraction, lubricating oil, aromatics, hydrocarbons

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238 Bioremediation as a Treatment of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Authors: Hen Friman, Alex Schechter, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rivka Cahan


The treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater resulting from oil spills and chemical manufactories is becoming a key concern in many modern countries. Benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BETX) contaminate groundwater as well as soil. These compounds have an acute effect on human health and are known to be carcinogenic. Conventional removal of these toxic materials involves separation and burning of the wastes, however, the cost of chemical treatment is very high and energy consuming. Bioremediation methods for removal of toxic organic compounds constitute an attractive alternative to the conventional chemical or physical techniques. Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants Toluene is biodegradable both aerobically and anaerobically, it can be growth inhibitory to microorganisms at elevated concentrations, even to those species that can use it as a substrate. In this research culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown in bath bio-reactor (BBR) with toluene 100 mg/l as a single carbon source under constant voltage of 125 mV, 250 mV and 500 mV. The culture grown in BBR reached to 0.8 OD660nm while the control culture that grown without external voltage reached only to 0.6 OD660nm. The residual toluene concentration after 147 h, in the BBR operated under external voltage (125 mV) was 22 % on average, while in the control BBR it was 81 % on average.

Keywords: bioremediation, aromatic hydrocarbons, BETX, toluene, pseudomonas putida

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237 Geochemical Studies of Mud Volcanoes Fluids According to Petroleum Potential of the Lower Kura Depression (Azerbaijan)

Authors: Ayten Bakhtiyar Khasayeva


Lower Kura depression is a part of the South Caspian Basin (SCB), located between the folded regions of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. The region is characterized by thick sedimentary cover 22 km (SCB up to 30 km), high sedimentation rate, low geothermal gradient (average value corresponds to 2 °C / 100m). There is Quaternary, Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene deposits take part in geological structure. Miocene and Oligocene deposits are opened by prospecting and exploratory wells in the areas of Kalamaddin and Garabagli. There are 25 mud volcanoes within the territory of the Lower Kura depression, which are the unique source of information about hydrocarbons contenting great depths. During the wells data research, solid erupted products and mud volcano fluids, and according to the geological and thermal characteristics of the region, it was determined that the main phase of the hydrocarbon generation (MK1-AK2) corresponds to a wide range of depths from 10 to 14 km, which corresponds to the Pliocene-Miocene sediments, and to the "oil and gas windows" according to the intended meaning of R0 ≈ 0,65-0,85%. Fluids of mud volcanoes comprise by the following phases - gas, water. Gas phase consists mainly of methane (99%) of heavy hydrocarbons (С2+ hydrocarbons), CO2, N2, inert components He, Ar. The content of the С2+ hydrocarbons in the gases of mud volcanoes associated with oil deposits is increased. Carbon isotopic composition of methane for the Lower Kura depression varies from -40 ‰ to -60 ‰. Water of mud volcanoes are represented by all four genetic types. However the most typical types of water are HCN type. According to the Mg-Li geothermometer formation of mud waters corresponds to the temperature range from 20 °C to 140 °C (PC2). The solid product emissions of mud volcanoes identified 90 minerals and 30 trace elements. As a result geochemical investigation, thermobaric and geological conditions, zone oil and gas generation - the prospect of the Lower Kura depression is projected to depths greater than 10 km.

Keywords: geology, geochemistry, mud volcanoes, petroleum potential

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236 Hydrocarbons and Diamondiferous Structures Formation in Different Depths of the Earth Crust

Authors: A. V. Harutyunyan


The investigation results of rocks at high pressures and temperatures have revealed the intervals of changes of seismic waves and density, as well as some processes taking place in rocks. In the serpentinized rocks, as a consequence of dehydration, abrupt changes in seismic waves and density have been recorded. Hydrogen-bearing components are released which combine with carbon-bearing components. As a result, hydrocarbons formed. The investigated samples are smelted. Then, geofluids and hydrocarbons migrate into the upper horizons of the Earth crust by the deep faults. Then their differentiation and accumulation in the jointed rocks of the faults and in the layers with collecting properties takes place. Under the majority of the hydrocarbon deposits, at a certain depth, magmatic centers and deep faults are recorded. The investigation results of the serpentinized rocks with numerous geological-geophysical factual data allow understanding that hydrocarbons are mainly formed in both the offshore part of the ocean and at different depths of the continental crust. Experiments have also shown that the dehydration of the serpentinized rocks is accompanied by an explosion with the instantaneous increase in pressure and temperature and smelting the studied rocks. According to numerous publications, hydrocarbons and diamonds are formed in the upper part of the mantle, at the depths of 200-400km, and as a consequence of geodynamic processes, they rise to the upper horizons of the Earth crust through narrow channels. However, the genesis of metamorphogenic diamonds and the diamonds found in the lava streams formed within the Earth crust, remains unclear. As at dehydration, super high pressures and temperatures arise. It is assumed that diamond crystals are formed from carbon containing components present in the dehydration zone. It can be assumed that besides the explosion at dehydration, secondary explosions of the released hydrogen take place. The process is naturally accompanied by seismic phenomena, causing earthquakes of different magnitudes on the surface. As for the diamondiferous kimberlites, it is well-known that the majority of them are located within the ancient shield and platforms not obligatorily connected with the deep faults. The kimberlites are formed at the shallow location of dehydrated masses in the Earth crust. Kimberlites are younger in respect of containing ancient rocks containing serpentinized bazites and ultrbazites of relicts of the paleooceanic crust. Sometimes, diamonds containing water and hydrocarbons showing their simultaneous genesis are found. So, the geofluids, hydrocarbons and diamonds, according to the new concept put forward, are formed simultaneously from serpentinized rocks as a consequence of their dehydration at different depths of the Earth crust. Based on the concept proposed by us, we suggest discussing the following: -Genesis of gigantic hydrocarbon deposits located in the offshore area of oceans (North American, Mexican Gulf, Cuanza-Kamerunian, East Brazilian etc.) as well as in the continental parts of different mainlands (Kanadian-Arctic Caspian, East Siberian etc.) - Genesis of metamorphogenic diamonds and diamonds in the lava streams (Guinea-Liberian, Kokchetav, Kanadian, Kamchatka-Tolbachinian, etc.).

Keywords: dehydration, diamonds, hydrocarbons, serpentinites

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235 Identification of Accumulated Hydrocarbon Based on Heat Propagation Analysis in Order to Develop Mature Field: Case Study in South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia

Authors: Kukuh Suprayogi, Muhamad Natsir, Olif Kurniawan, Hot Parulian, Bayu Fitriana, Fery Mustofa


The new approach by utilizing the heat propagation analysis carried out by studying and evaluating the effect of the presence of hydrocarbons to the flow of heat that goes from the bottom surface to surface. Heat propagation is determined by the thermal conductivity of rocks. The thermal conductivity of rock itself is a quantity that describes the ability of a rock to deliver heat. This quantity depends on the constituent rock lithology, large porosity, and pore fluid filler. The higher the thermal conductivity of a rock, the more easily the flow of heat passing through these rocks. With the same sense, the heat flow will more easily pass through the rock when the rock is filled with water than hydrocarbons, given the nature of the hydrocarbons having more insulator against heat. The main objective of this research is to try to make the model the heat propagation calculations in degrees Celsius from the subsurface to the surface which is then compared with the surface temperature is measured directly at the point of location. In calculating the propagation of heat, we need to first determine the thermal conductivity of rocks, where the rocks at the point calculation are not composed of homogeneous but consist of strata. Therefore, we need to determine the mineral constituent and porosity values of each stratum. As for the parameters of pore fluid filler, we assume that all the pores filled with water. Once we get a thermal conductivity value of each unit of the rock, then we begin to model the propagation of heat profile from the bottom to the surface. The initial value of the temperature that we use comes from the data bottom hole temperature (BHT) is obtained from drilling results. Results of calculations per depths the temperature is displayed in plotting temperature versus depth profiles that describe the propagation of heat from the bottom of the well to the surface, note that pore fluid is water. In the technical implementation, we can identify the magnitude of the effect of hydrocarbons in reducing the amount of heat that crept to the surface based on the calculation of propagation of heat at a certain point and compared with measurements of surface temperature at that point, assuming that the surface temperature measured is the temperature that comes from the asthenosphere. This publication proves that the accumulation of hydrocarbon can be identified by analysis of heat propagation profile which could be a method for identifying the presence of hydrocarbons.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, rock, pore fluid, heat propagation

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234 A Study of Heavy Hydrocarbons Upgrading by Microwave Pyrolysis

Authors: Thanida Sritangthong, Suksun Amornraksa


By-product upgrading is crucial in hydrocarbon industries as it can increase overall profit margin of the business. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is relatively new technique which induces heat directly to raw materials. This results in a more energy saving and more energy-efficient process. It is also a promising method to enhance and accelerate chemical reactions, thus reducing the pyrolysis reaction time and increasing the quality of value-added products from different kinds of feedstocks. In this study, upgrading opportunity of fuel oil by-product from an olefins plant is investigated by means of microwave pyrolysis. The experiment was conducted in a lab-scale quartz reactor placed inside a 1,100 watts household microwave oven. Operating temperature was varied from 500 to 900C to observe the consequence on the quality of pyrolysis products. Several microwave receptors i.e. activated carbon, silicon carbide (SiC) and copper oxide (CuO) were used as a material to enhance the heating and reaction in the reactor. The effect of residence time was determined by adjusting flow rate of N2 carrier gas. The chemical composition and product yield were analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that hydrogen, methane, ethylene, and ethane were obtained as the main gaseous products from all operating temperatures while the main liquid products were alkane, cycloalkane and polycyclic aromatic groups. The results indicated that microwave pyrolysis has a potential to upgrade low value hydrocarbons to high value products.

Keywords: fuel oil, heavy hydrocarbons, microwave pyrolysis, pyrolysis

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233 Feasibility Study of the Binary Fluid Mixtures C3H6/C4H10 and C3H6/C5H12 Used in Diffusion-Absorption Refrigeration Cycles

Authors: N. Soli, B. Chaouachi, M. Bourouis


We propose in this work the thermodynamic feasibility study of the operation of a refrigerating machine with absorption-diffusion with mixtures of hydrocarbons. It is for a refrigerating machine of low power (300 W) functioning on a level of temperature of the generator lower than 150 °C (fossil energy or solar energy) and operative with non-harmful fluids for the environment. According to this study, we determined to start from the digraphs of Oldham of the different binary of hydrocarbons, the minimal and maximum temperature of operation of the generator, as well as possible enrichment. The cooling medium in the condenser and absorber is done by the ambient air with a temperature at 35 °C. Helium is used as inert gas. The total pressure in the cycle is about 17.5 bars. We used suitable software to modulate for the two binary following the system propylene /butane and propylene/pentane. Our model is validated by comparison with the literature’s resultants.

Keywords: absorption, DAR cycle, diffusion, propyléne

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232 Measure Determination and Zoning of Oil Pollution (TPH) on ‎Costal Sediments of Bandar Abbas (Hormoz Strait) ‎

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎


This study investigated the presence of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found in west coast of Bandar Abass (northern part of Hormoz strait). Therefore, six transects from west of the city were selected. Each transect consists of three stations intervals 100, 600 and 1100 meter from the low tide were sampled in both the summer and winter season (July and January 2009). Physical and chemical parameters of water, concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and soil tissue deposition were evaluated according to standard procedures of MOOPAM. Average results of dissolved oxygen were 6.42 mg/l, temperature 26.31°C, pH 8.55, EC 54.47 ms/cm and salinity 35.98 g/l respectively. Results indicate that minimum, maximum and average concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in sediments were, 60.18, 751.83, and 229.21 µg/kg respectively which are less than comparable studies in other parts of Persian Gulf.

Keywords: oil pollution, Bandar Abbas, costal sediments, TPH ‎

Procedia PDF Downloads 630