Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Yeshayahu Nitzan

4 Bioremediation as a Treatment of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Authors: Hen Friman, Alex Schechter, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rivka Cahan

Abstract:

The treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater resulting from oil spills and chemical manufactories is becoming a key concern in many modern countries. Benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BETX) contaminate groundwater as well as soil. These compounds have an acute effect on human health and are known to be carcinogenic. Conventional removal of these toxic materials involves separation and burning of the wastes, however, the cost of chemical treatment is very high and energy consuming. Bioremediation methods for removal of toxic organic compounds constitute an attractive alternative to the conventional chemical or physical techniques. Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants Toluene is biodegradable both aerobically and anaerobically, it can be growth inhibitory to microorganisms at elevated concentrations, even to those species that can use it as a substrate. In this research culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown in bath bio-reactor (BBR) with toluene 100 mg/l as a single carbon source under constant voltage of 125 mV, 250 mV and 500 mV. The culture grown in BBR reached to 0.8 OD660nm while the control culture that grown without external voltage reached only to 0.6 OD660nm. The residual toluene concentration after 147 h, in the BBR operated under external voltage (125 mV) was 22 % on average, while in the control BBR it was 81 % on average.

Keywords: Bioremediation, toluene, pseudomonas putida, aromatic hydrocarbons, BETX

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3 Superamolecular Chemistry and Packing of FAMEs in the Liquid Phase for Optimization of Combustion and Emission

Authors: Zeev Wiesman, Paula Berman, Nitzan Meiri, Charles Linder

Abstract:

Supramolecular chemistry refers to the domain of chemistry beyond that of molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular sub units or components. Biodiesel components self arrangements is closely related/affect their physical properties in combustion systems and emission. Due to technological difficulties, knowledge regarding the molecular packing of FAMEs (biodiesel) in the liquid phase is limited. Spectral tools such as X-ray and NMR are known to provide evidences related to molecular structure organization. Recently, it was reported by our research group that using 1H Time Domain NMR methodology based on relaxation time and self diffusion coefficients, FAMEs clusters with different motilities can be accurately studied in the liquid phase. Head to head dimarization with quasi-smectic clusters organization, based on molecular motion analysis, was clearly demonstrated. These findings about the assembly/packing of the FAME components are directly associated with fluidity/viscosity of the biodiesel. Furthermore, these findings may provide information of micro/nano-particles that are formed in the delivery and injection system of various combustion systems (affected by thermodynamic conditions). Various relevant parameters to combustion such as: distillation/Liquid Gas phase transition, cetane number/ignition delay, shoot, oxidation/NOX emission maybe predicted. These data may open the window for further optimization of FAME/diesel mixture in terms of combustion and emission.

Keywords: FAMEs, fluidity, supermolecular chemistry, liquid phase, LF-NMR

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2 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: Food Safety, Nanotechnology, essential oils, Food Packaging

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1 Defining and Measuring the Success of the Hospitality-Based Social Enterprise Ringelblum Café

Authors: Nitzan Winograd, Nada Kakabadse

Abstract:

This study examines whether the hospitality-based social enterprise Ringelblum Café is achieving its stated social goals of developing a sense of self-efficacy among at-risk youth who work in this enterprise and raising levels of recruitment to the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) and National Service (NS) among these young adults. Ringelblum Café was founded in 2009 in Be'er-Sheva in order to provide employment solutions for at-risk youth in the southern district of Israel. Each year, 10 at-risk young adults aged 16–18 are referred to the programme by various welfare agencies. The training programme is approximately a year in duration and includes professional training in the art of cooking. Each young adult is also supported by a social worker. This study is based on the participation of 31 youths who graduated from the Ringelblum Café’s training programme. A convenience sampling model was used with the assistance of the programme's social worker. This study is quantitative in its approach. Data was collected by means of three separate self-reported questionnaires: a personal information questionnaire collected general demographics data; a self-efficacy questionnaire consisted of two parts: general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy; and an IDS/NS recruitment questionnaire. The study uses the theory of change in order to find out whether at-risk youth in the Ringelblum Café programme are taught a profession with future prospects, as well as whether they develop a sense of self-efficacy and raise their chances of recruitment into the IDF/NS. The study found that the sense of self-efficacy of the graduates is relatively high. In addition, there was a significant difference between the importance of recruitment to the IDF/NS among these youth prior to the beginning of the programme and after its completion, indicating that the training programme had a positive effect on motivation for recruitment to the IDF/NS. The study also found that the percentage of recruits to the IDF/NS among youth who graduated from the training programme were not significantly higher than the general recruitment figures in Israel. In conclusion, Ringelblum Café is making sound progress towards achieving its social goals regarding recruitment to the IDF/NS. Moreover, the sense of self-efficacy among the graduates is relatively high, and it can be assumed that the training programme has a positive effect on these young adults, although there is no clear connection between the two. This study is among a few that have been conducted in the field of hospitality-based social enterprises in Israel and can serve as a basis for further research. Moreover, the study results may help improve the perception of at-risk youth and their contribution to society and could increase awareness of the growing trend of social enterprises promoting social goals.

Keywords: Social Enterprise, Self-efficacy, recruitment, at-risk youth, Israel Defence Forces (IDF), national service

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