Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Marcela Dvorakova

29 Synthesis of Quinazoline Derivatives as Selective Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-1 Enzyme

Authors: Marcela Dvorakova, Lenka Langhansova, Premysl Landa

Abstract:

A series of quinazoline derivatives bearing aromatic rings in 2- and 4-positions were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Firstly, the compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit various kinases, such as autophagy activating kinase ULK1, 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, and TANK-binding kinase 1. None of the compounds displayed any activity on these kinases. Secondly, the compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity expressed as cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition. Three of the compounds showed significant selectivity towards COX-1 isoform (COX-2/COX-1 SI = 20-30). They inhibited COX-1 in a single-digit µM range. There was also one compound that exhibited inhibitory activity towards all three tested enzymes in µM range (IC50COX-1 = 1.9 µM; IC50COX-2 and 5-LOX = 10.1µM. COX-1 inhibition was until recently considered undesirable due to COX-1 constitutive expression in most cell types and tissues. Thus, there are not many compounds known with selective COX-1 activity. However, it is now believed that COX-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several acute and chronic disorders, including cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the discovery of effective COX-1 selective inhibitors is desirable and important.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, kinases, lipoxygenases, quinazolines

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
28 Different Receptions of Hygienic Architecture in Two Mexican Cities: Cuernavaca and Mexico

Authors: Marcela Dávalos López

Abstract:

In Mexico, the distribution of hygienistarchitecture during the 20th century had different rhythms. The culmination of the urban hygiene system (from sewers to showers, passing through garbage collection) forced neighbors and citizens to participate in the common welfare. This turned the urban references and dissociated the ways of living and led to comfort and health. However, the contrast between two Mexicancities, Cuernavaca and Mexico City shows us very different cultural practices regarding the use of hygienicarchitectures: in the first, thenature of its deepravines marked the destiny of residential architecture, while in Mexico City, state participation alteredthelandscape and homogenized the architectural models of domestic and intímate spaces.

Keywords: Cultural Practices, Dissociated Ways To Comfort, Hygiene Architecture , Mexico

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
27 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra

Abstract:

This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
26 Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Ingrid Avanzi, Elen A. Perpetuo

Abstract:

In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Keywords: bioprocess, bioremediation, biosorption, copper

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
25 A Model Approach of Good Practice Based on the Project Management Body of Knowledge® Guide in the Project Owner

Authors: Claudia Marcela Munoz Gonzalez, Diego Fernando Hernandez Losada, Hugo Alberto Herrera Fonseca

Abstract:

The project owner's role in the public-private investment consists of controlling and verifying the correct execution of the project's objectives and resources. Likewise, it is a discipline little explored in the academic field, whereby this work wishes to contribute with a model of good practices based on the project management methodology proposed by the Project Management Body of Knowledge® Guide. In the same way, highlight what are the controls that an integral project owner should take into account in its exercise and application, through the stages in which its contract runs. This proposal aims to structure its practice and integrate its functions according to a project management methodology. In addition, these practices will be applied in a case study of projects in the agricultural sector, particularly in the construction of irrigation district in Cundinamarca, Colombia.

Keywords: controls, construction of irrigation district, PMBOK®, project owner

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
24 Induction of Hsp70 and Antioxidant Status in Porcine Granulosa Cells in Response to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Exposure in vitro

Authors: Marcela Capcarova, Adriana Kolesarova, Marina Medvedova, Peter Petruska, Alexander V. Sirotkin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant status (TAS) and accumulation of Hsp70 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells after deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) exposure in vitro. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with DON/ZEA administrations as follows: group A (10/10 ng/mL), group B (100/100 ng/mL), group C (1000/1000 ng/mL), and the control group without any additions for 24h. In this study mycotoxins developed stress reaction of porcine ovarian granulosa cells and increased accumulation of Hsp70 what resulted in increasing activities of SOD and GPx in groups with lower doses of mycotoxins. High dose of DON and ZEA had opposite effect on GPx activity than the lower doses. Slight increase in TAS of porcine granulosa cells was observed after mycotoxins exposure. These results contribute towards the understanding of cellular stress and its response.

Keywords: deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, antioxidants, Hsp70, granulosa cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
23 Effect of Fly Ash Fineness on Sorption Properties of Geopolymers Based on Liquid Glass

Authors: Miroslava Zelinkova, Marcela Ondova

Abstract:

Fly ash (FA) thanks to the significant presence of SiO2 and Al2O3 as the main components is a potential raw material for geopolymers production. Mechanical activation is a method for improving FA reactivity and also the porosity of final mixture; those parameters can be analysed through sorption properties. They have direct impact on the durability of fly ash based geopolymer mortars. In the paper, effect of FA fineness on sorption properties of geopolymers based on sodium silicate, as well as relationship between fly ash fineness and apparent density, compressive and flexural strength of geopolymers are presented. The best results in the evaluated area reached the sample H1, which contents the highest portion of particle under 20μm (100% of GFA). The interdependence of individual tested properties was confirmed for geopolymer mixtures corresponding to those in the cement based mixtures: higher is portion of fine particles < 20μm, higher is strength, density and lower are sorption properties. The compressive strength as well as sorption parameters of the geopolymer can be reasonably controlled by grinding process and also ensured by the higher share of fine particle (to 20μm) in total mass of the material.

Keywords: alkali activation, geopolymers, fly ash, particle fineness

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
22 Students' Perceptions of Social Media as a Means to Improve Their Language Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ana Marcela Montenegro Sanchez

Abstract:

Social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, has been used for teaching and learning for quite some time. These platforms have been proven to be a good tool to improve various language skills, students’ performance of the English language, motivation as well as trigger the authentic language interaction. However, little is known about the potential effects of social media usage on the learning performance of Arabic language learners. The present study explores the potential role that the social media technologies play in learning Arabic as a foreign language at a university in Southeast of United States. In order to investigate this issue, an online survey was administered to examine the perceptions and attitudes of American students learning Arabic. The research questions were: How does social media, specifically Facebook and Twitter, impact the students' Arabic language skills, and what is their attitude toward it? The preliminary findings of the study showed that students had a positive attitude toward the use of social media to enhance their Arabic language skills, and that they used a range of social media features to expose themselves to the Arabic language and communicate in Arabic with native Arabic speaking friends. More detailed findings will be shared in the light data analysis with the audience during the presentation.

Keywords: foreign language learning, social media, students’ perceptions, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
21 SolarSPELL Case Study: Pedagogical Quality Indicators to Evaluate Digital Library Resources

Authors: Lorena Alemán de la Garza, Marcela Georgina Gómez-Zermeño

Abstract:

This paper presents the SolarSPELL case study that aims to generate information on the use of indicators that help evaluate the pedagogical quality of a digital library resources. SolarSPELL is a solar-powered digital library with WiFi connectivity. It offers a variety of open educational resources selected for their potential for the digital transformation of educational practices and the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States. The case study employed a quantitative methodology and the research instrument was applied to 55 teachers, directors and librarians. The results indicate that it is possible to strengthen the pedagogical quality of open educational resources, through actions focused on improving temporal and technological parameters. They also reveal that users believe that SolarSPELL improves the teaching-learning processes and motivates the teacher to improve his or her development. This study provides valuable information on a tool that supports teaching-learning processes and facilitates connectivity with renewable energies that improves the teacher training in active methodologies for ecosystem learning.

Keywords: educational innovation, digital library, pedagogical quality, solar energy, teacher training, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
20 Fatigue Tests of New Assembly Bolt Connections for Perspective Temporary Steel Railway Bridges

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Michal Štrba, Miln Pilgr

Abstract:

The paper deals with the problems of the actual behavior, failure mechanism and load-carrying capacity of the special bolt connection developed and intended for the assembly connections of truss main girders of perspective railway temporary steel bridges. Within the framework of this problem solution, several types of structural details of assembly joints have been considered as the conceptual structural design. Based on the preliminary evaluation of advantages or disadvantages of these ones, in principle two basic structural configurations so-called “tooth” and “splice-plate” connections have been selected for the subsequent detailed investigation. This investigation is mainly based on the experimental verification of the actual behavior, strain and failure mechanism and corresponding strength of the connection, and on its numerical modeling using FEM. This paper is focused only on the cyclic loading (fatigue) tests results of “splice-plate” connections and their evaluation, which have already been finished. Simultaneously with the fatigue tests, the static loading tests have been realized too, but these ones, as well as FEM numerical modeling, are not the subject of this paper.

Keywords: Bolt assembly connection, cyclic loading, failure mechanisms, fatigue strength, steel structure, structural detail category, temporary railway bridge

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
19 Women Trainees' Perception on Non-Formal Educational Workshops in Improving Their Socio-Economic Status in Algeria and Costa Rica

Authors: Bahia Braktia, S. Anna Marcela Montenegro, Imene Abdessemed

Abstract:

Adult education is still considered a crucial area of education. In a developing framework, it is regarded as a practical approach for social inclusion and poverty reduction. They are also perceived as a way to serve adults who did not have the chance to education in their early ages by providing them knowledge, skills and values. Non-formal adult education and trainings are critical means in a society to break poverty and unemployment, and to decrease the social inequality. This paper investigates the perception of women trainees about a series of workshops in natural beauty products, held in Algeria and Costa Rica and organized by a non-profit educational organization, to improve their socio-economic status. This research seeks to explore ways of empowering women by assessing their needs and providing them with skills to start their own business. A questionnaire is administered before the workshops and focus groups are held at the end. A qualitative research method is employed to analyze the data. Preliminary results show that the trainees aspire to create their businesses with the objectives of poverty reduction and social inclusion. The findings also reveal the need for small business funding programs and entrepreneurial training programs.

Keywords: adult education, non-formal education, socio-economic status, women empowerment

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
18 Algorithm for Quantification of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Chest X-Ray Exams

Authors: Marcela de Oliveira, Guilherme Giacomini, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Maria Eugenia Dela Rosa, Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Diana Rodrigues de Pina

Abstract:

It is estimated that each year one death every 10 seconds (about 2 million deaths) in the world is attributed to tuberculosis (TB). Even after effective treatment, TB leaves sequelae such as, for example, pulmonary fibrosis, compromising the quality of life of patients. Evaluations of the aforementioned sequel are usually performed subjectively by radiology specialists. Subjective evaluation may indicate variations inter and intra observers. The examination of x-rays is the diagnostic imaging method most accomplished in the monitoring of patients diagnosed with TB and of least cost to the institution. The application of computational algorithms is of utmost importance to make a more objective quantification of pulmonary impairment in individuals with tuberculosis. The purpose of this research is the use of computer algorithms to quantify the pulmonary impairment pre and post-treatment of patients with pulmonary TB. The x-ray images of 10 patients with TB diagnosis confirmed by examination of sputum smears were studied. Initially the segmentation of the total lung area was performed (posteroanterior and lateral views) then targeted to the compromised region by pulmonary sequel. Through morphological operators and the application of signal noise tool, it was possible to determine the compromised lung volume. The largest difference found pre- and post-treatment was 85.85% and the smallest was 54.08%.

Keywords: algorithm, radiology, tuberculosis, x-rays exam

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
17 Current Approach in Biodosimetry: Electrochemical Detection of DNA Damage

Authors: Marcela Jelicova, Anna Lierova, Zuzana Sinkorova, Radovan Metelka

Abstract:

At present, electrochemical methods are used in various research fields, especially for analysis of biological molecules. The fact offers the possibility of using the detection of oxidative damage induced indirectly by γ rays in DNA in biodosimentry. The main goal of our study is to optimize the detection of 8-hydroxyguanine by differential pulse voltammetry. The level of this stable and specific indicator of DNA damage could be determined in DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes, plasma or urine of irradiated individuals. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carboxy-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were utilized for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of 8-hydroxyguanine. Electrochemical oxidation of 8-hydroxoguanine monitored by differential pulse voltammetry was found pH-dependent and the most intensive signal was recorded at pH 7. After recalculating the current density, several times higher sensitivity was attained in comparison with already published results, which were obtained using screen-printed carbon electrodes with unmodified carbon ink. Subsequently, the modified electrochemical technique was used for the detection of 8-hydroxoguanine in calf thymus DNA samples irradiated by 60Co gamma source in the dose range from 0.5 to 20 Gy using by various types of sample pretreatment and measurement conditions. This method could serve for fast retrospective quantification of absorbed dose in cases of accidental exposure to ionizing radiation and may play an important role in biodosimetry.

Keywords: biodosimetry, electrochemical detection, voltametry, 8-hydroxyguanine

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
16 Relationship between Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake, Biochemical Parameters and Body Fat among Adults and Elderly

Authors: Marcela Menah de Sousa Lima, Victor Ushijima Leone, Natasha Aparecida Grande de Franca, Barbara Santarosa Emo Peters, Ligia Araujo Martini

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) intake has been constantly related to benefits to human health since having a positive effect on reducing body fat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between CLA intake and biochemical measurements and body composition of adults and the elderly. Subjects/Methods: 287 adults and elderly participants in an epidemiological study in Sao Paulo Brazil, were included in the present study. Participants had their dietary data obtained by two non-consecutive 24HR, a body composition assessed by dual-energy absorptiometry exam (DXA), and a blood collection. Mean differences and a correlation test was performed. For all statistical tests, a significance of 5% was considered. Results: CLA intake showed a positive correlation with HDL-c levels (r = 0.149; p = 0.011) and negative with VLDL-c levels (r = -0.134; p = 0.023), triglycerides (r = -0.135; p = 0.023) and glycemia (r = -0.171; p = 0.004), as well as negative correlation with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (r = -0.124, p = 0.036). Evaluating individuals in two groups according to VAT values, a significant difference in CLA intake was observed (p = 0.041), being the group with the highest VAT values, the one with the lowest fatty acid intake. Conclusions: This study suggests that CLA intake is associated with a better lipid profile and lower visceral adipose tissue volume, which contributes to the investigation of the effects of CLA on obesity parameters. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of CLA from milk and dairy products in the control adiposity.

Keywords: adiposity, dairy products, diet, fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
15 Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Yuban Sebastian Cuartas-Agudelo, Sandra Marcela López-Hincapié, Vivianna Alexandra Garrido-Altamar, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, Gloria Inés Martínez-Domínguez, Luis Eduardo Contreras, Felipe Eduardo Marino-Isaza

Abstract:

Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.

Keywords: sports, doping in sports, athletic performance, attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
14 LCA and Multi-Criteria Analysis of Fly Ash Concrete Pavements

Authors: Marcela Ondova, Adriana Estokova

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization results in increased use of natural resources bring along serious ecological and environmental imbalance due to the dumping of industrial wastes. Principles of sustainable construction have to be accepted with regard to the consumption of natural resources and the production of harmful emissions. Cement is a great importance raw material in the building industry and today is its large amount used in the construction of concrete pavements. Concerning raw materials cost and producing CO2 emission the replacing of cement in concrete mixtures with more sustainable materials is necessary. To reduce this environmental impact people all over the world are looking for a solution. Over a period of last ten years, the image of fly ash has completely been changed from a polluting waste to resource material and it can solve the major problems of cement use. Fly ash concretes are proposed as a potential approach for achieving substantial reductions in cement. It is known that it improves the workability of concrete, extends the life cycle of concrete roads, and reduces energy use and greenhouse gas as well as amount of coal combustion products that must be disposed in landfills. Life cycle assessment also proved that a concrete pavement with fly ash cement replacement is considerably more environmentally friendly compared to standard concrete roads. In addition, fly ash is cheap raw material, and the costs saving are guaranteed. The strength properties, resistance to a frost or de-icing salts, which are important characteristics in the construction of concrete pavements, have reached the required standards as well. In terms of human health it can´t be stated that a concrete cover with fly ash could be dangerous compared with a cover without fly ash. Final Multi-criteria analysis also pointed that a concrete with fly ash is a clearly proper solution.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, fly ash, waste, concrete pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
13 Diagnostics of Existing Steel Structures of Winter Sport Halls

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Jindrich Melcher, Lubomír Vítek, Petr Cikrle

Abstract:

The paper deals with the diagnostics of steel roof structure of the winter sports stadiums built in 1970 year. The necessity of the diagnostics has been given by the requirement to the evaluation design of this structure, which has been caused by the new situation in the field of the loadings given by the validity of the European Standards in the Czech Republic from 2010 year. Due to these changes in the normative rules, in practice, existing structures are gradually subjected to the evaluation design and depending on its results to the strengthening or reconstruction, respectively. The steel roof is composed of plane truss main girders, purlins and bracings and the roof structure is supported by two arch main girders with the span of L=84 m. The in situ diagnostics of the roof structure was oriented to the following parts: (i) determination and evaluation of the actual material properties of used steel and (ii) verification of the actual dimensions of the structural members. For the solution, the non-destructive methods have been used for in situ measurement. For the indicative determination of steel strengths the modified method based on the determination of Rockwell’s hardness has been used. For the verification of the member’s dimensions (thickness of hollow sections) the ultrasound method has been used. This paper presents the results obtained using these testing methods and their evaluation, from the viewpoint of the usage for the subsequent static assessment and design evaluation of the existing structure. For the comparison, the examples of the similar evaluations realized for steel structures of the stadiums in Olomouc and Jihlava cities are briefly illustrated, too.

Keywords: actual dimensions, destructive methods, diagnostics, existing steel structure, indirect non-destructive methods, Rockwel’s hardness, sport hall, steel strength, ultrasound method.

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
12 Review of State Anti-Trafficking Laws in the United States of America and Their Success in Combating Human Trafficking and Protecting the Victims

Authors: Andrea Marcela Morales Reyes

Abstract:

In the year 2000, the federal government of the United States of America enacted anti-trafficking legislation to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect the victims. Since then, all 50 states have followed the federal government's example by enacting state-level anti-trafficking legislation. In order to fight human trafficking in the United States, it is paramount that this legislation is not only comprehensively enacted but also enforced. This study reviewed the anti-trafficking laws enacted in each of the 50 states and investigated the success of such laws by reporting the number of trafficking related prosecutions, cases identified, and victims protected. This study reviewed human trafficking reports issued by nonprofits, and state and federal level agencies. An increase in the number of cases investigated since the state laws have been passed reflects a moderate success in the fight against human trafficking in the U.S. This review also found that although every state has passed anti-trafficking legislation, many still lack a comprehensive approach to combat human trafficking; some states lack key provisions to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect it victims. This, along with the lack of enforcement of the anti-trafficking plans included in each of the state legislations, has meant that the human trafficking cases investigated in fiscal year 2016 are not near the estimated numbers; which in turn suggests that this crime is still greatly unaccounted for. This study concludes that although important steps have been taken at the national and state level to combat human trafficking, the identification and prosecution of human trafficking cases still proves challenging in the United States.

Keywords: enforcement of laws, human trafficking, anti-trafficking legislation, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
11 Uptake of Copper by Dead Biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia Isolated from a Metal Mine in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Ingrid R. Avanzi, Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Elen A. Perpetuo, Claudio Auguto Oller do Nascimento

Abstract:

In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process.

Keywords: biosorption, dead biomass, biotechnology, copper recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
10 Use of the Occupational Repetitive Action Method in Different Productive Sectors: A Literature Review 2007-2018

Authors: Aanh Eduardo Dimate-Garcia, Diana Carolina Rodriguez-Romero, Edna Yuliana Gonzalez Rincon, Diana Marcela Pardo Lopez, Yessica Garibello Cubillos

Abstract:

Musculoskeletal disorders (MD) are the new epidemic of chronic diseases, are multifactorial and affect the different productive sectors. Although there are multiple instruments to evaluate the static and dynamic load, the method of repetitive occupational action (OCRA) seems to be an attractive option. Objective: It is aimed to analyze the use of the OCRA method and the prevalence of MD in workers of various productive sectors according to the literature (2007-2018). Materials and Methods: A literature review (following the PRISMA statement) of studies aimed at assessing the level of biomechanical risk (OCRA) and the prevalence of MD in the databases Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, ProQuest, Gale, PubMed, Lilacs and Ebsco was realized; 7 studies met the selection criteria; the majority are quantitative (cross section). Results: it was evidenced (gardening and flower-growers) in this review that 79% of the conditions related to the task require physical requirements and involve repetitive movements. In addition, of the high appearance of DM in the high-low back, upper and lower extremities that are produced by the frequency of the activities carried out (footwear production). Likewise, there was evidence of 'very high risks' of developing MD (salmon industry) and a medium index (OCRA) for repetitive movements that require special care (U-Assembly line). Conclusions: the review showed the limited use of the OCRA method for the detection of MD in workers from different sectors, and this method can be used for the detection of biomechanical risk and the appearance of MD.

Keywords: checklist, cumulative trauma disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, repetitive movements

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
9 Nanoparticles of Hyaluronic Acid for Radiation Induced Lung Damages

Authors: Anna Lierova, Jitka Kasparova, Marcela Jelicova, Lucie Korecka, Zuzana Bilkova, Zuzana Sinkorova

Abstract:

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a simple linear, unbranched polysaccharide with a lot of exceptional physiological and chemical properties such as high biocompatibility and biodegradability, strong hydration and viscoelasticity that depend on the size of the molecule. It plays the important role in a variety of molecular events as tissue hydration, mechanical protection of tissues and as well as during inflammation, leukocyte migration, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Also, HA-based biomaterials, including HA scaffolds, hydrogels, thin membranes, matrix grafts or nanoparticles are widely use in various biomedical applications. Our goal is to determine the radioprotective effect of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HA NPs). We are investigating effect of ionizing radiation on stability of HA NPs, in vitro relative toxicity of nanoscale as well as effect on cell lines and specific surface receptors and their response to ionizing radiation. An exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) can irreversibly damage various cell types and may thus have implications for the level of the whole tissue. Characteristic manifestations are formation of over-granulated tissue, remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) and abortive wound healing. Damages are caused by either direct interaction with DNA and IR proteins or indirectly by radicals formed during radiolysis of water Accumulation and turnover of ECM are a hallmark of radiation induces lung injury, characterized by inflammation, repair or remodeling health pulmonary tissue. HA is a major component of ECM in lung and plays an important role in regulating tissue injury, accelerating tissue repair, and controlling disease outcomes. Due to that, HA NPs were applied to in vivo model (C57Bl/6J mice) before total body or partial thorax irradiation. This part of our research is targeting on effect of exogenous HA on the development and/or mitigating acute radiation syndrome and radiation induced lung injuries.

Keywords: hyaluronic acid, ionizing radiation, nanoparticles, radiation induces lung damages

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
8 Ischemic Stroke Detection in Computed Tomography Examinations

Authors: Allan F. F. Alves, Fernando A. Bacchim Neto, Guilherme Giacomini, Marcela de Oliveira, Ana L. M. Pavan, Maria E. D. Rosa, Diana R. Pina

Abstract:

Stroke is a worldwide concern, only in Brazil it accounts for 10% of all registered deaths. There are 2 stroke types, ischemic (87%) and hemorrhagic (13%). Early diagnosis is essential to avoid irreversible cerebral damage. Non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) is one of the main diagnostic techniques used due to its wide availability and rapid diagnosis. Detection depends on the size and severity of lesions and the time spent between the first symptoms and examination. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a subjective method that increases the detection rate. The aim of this work was to implement an image segmentation system to enhance ischemic stroke and to quantify the area of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke lesions in CT scans. We evaluated 10 patients with NECT examinations diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Analyzes were performed in two axial slices, one at the level of the thalamus and basal ganglion and one adjacent to the top edge of the ganglionic structures with window width between 80 and 100 Hounsfield Units. We used different image processing techniques such as morphological filters, discrete wavelet transform and Fuzzy C-means clustering. Subjective analyzes were performed by a neuroradiologist according to the ASPECTS scale to quantify ischemic areas in the middle cerebral artery region. These subjective analysis results were compared with objective analyzes performed by the computational algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that the morphological filters actually improve the ischemic areas for subjective evaluations. The comparison in area of the ischemic region contoured by the neuroradiologist and the defined area by computational algorithm showed no deviations greater than 12% in any of the 10 examination tests. Although there is a tendency that the areas contoured by the neuroradiologist are smaller than those obtained by the algorithm. These results show the importance of a computer aided diagnosis software to assist neuroradiology decisions, especially in critical situations as the choice of treatment for ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, image processing, CT scans, Fuzzy C-means

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
7 Comparison of Different Methods of Microorganism's Identification from a Copper Mining in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Louise H. Gracioso, Marcela P.G. Baltazar, Ingrid R. Avanzi, Bruno Karolski, Luciana J. Gimenes, Claudio O. Nascimento, Elen A. Perpetuo

Abstract:

Introduction: Higher copper concentrations promote a selection pressure on organisms such as plants, fungi and bacteria, which allows surviving only the resistant organisms to the contaminated site. This selective pressure keeps only the organisms most resistant to a specific condition and subsequently increases their bioremediation potential. Despite the bacteria importance for biosphere maintenance, it is estimated that only a small fraction living microbial species has been described and characterized. Due to the molecular biology development, tools based on analysis 16S ribosomal RNA or another specific gene are making a new scenario for the characterization studies and identification of microorganisms in the environment. News identification of microorganisms methods have also emerged like Biotyper (MALDI / TOF), this method mass spectrometry is subject to the recognition of spectroscopic patterns of conserved and features proteins for different microbial species. In view of this, this study aimed to isolate bacteria resistant to copper present in a Copper Processing Area (Sossego Mine, Canaan, PA) and identifies them in two different methods: Recent (spectrometry mass) and conventional. This work aimed to use them for a future bioremediation of this Mining. Material and Methods: Samples were collected at fifteen different sites of five periods of times. Microorganisms were isolated from mining wastes by culture enrichment technique; this procedure was repeated 4 times. The isolates were inoculated into MJS medium containing different concentrations of chloride copper (1mM, 2.5mM, 5mM, 7.5mM and 10 mM) and incubated in plates for 72 h at 28 ºC. These isolates were subjected to mass spectrometry identification methods (Biotyper – MALDI/TOF) and 16S gene sequencing. Results: A total of 105 strains were isolated in this area, bacterial identification by mass spectrometry method (MALDI/TOF) achieved 74% agreement with the conventional identification method (16S), 31% have been unsuccessful in MALDI-TOF and 2% did not obtain identification sequence the 16S. These results show that Biotyper can be a very useful tool in the identification of bacteria isolated from environmental samples, since it has a better value for money (cheap and simple sample preparation and MALDI plates are reusable). Furthermore, this technique is more rentable because it saves time and has a high performance (the mass spectra are compared to the database and it takes less than 2 minutes per sample).

Keywords: copper mining area, bioremediation, microorganisms, identification, MALDI/TOF, RNA 16S

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6 Dogs Chest Homogeneous Phantom for Image Optimization

Authors: Maris Eugênia Dela Rosa, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Marcela De Oliveira, Diana Rodrigues De Pina, Luis Carlos Vulcano

Abstract:

In medical veterinary as well as in human medicine, radiological study is essential for a safe diagnosis in clinical practice. Thus, the quality of radiographic image is crucial. In last year’s there has been an increasing substitution of image acquisition screen-film systems for computed radiology equipment (CR) without technical charts adequacy. Furthermore, to carry out a radiographic examination in veterinary patient is required human assistance for restraint this, which can compromise image quality by generating dose increasing to the animal, for Occupationally Exposed and also the increased cost to the institution. The image optimization procedure and construction of radiographic techniques are performed with the use of homogeneous phantoms. In this study, we sought to develop a homogeneous phantom of canine chest to be applied to the optimization of these images for the CR system. In carrying out the simulator was created a database with retrospectives chest images of computed tomography (CT) of the Veterinary Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - UNESP (FMVZ / Botucatu). Images were divided into four groups according to the animal weight employing classification by sizes proposed by Hoskins & Goldston. The thickness of biological tissues were quantified in a 80 animals, separated in groups of 20 animals according to their weights: (S) Small - equal to or less than 9.0 kg, (M) Medium - between 9.0 and 23.0 kg, (L) Large – between 23.1 and 40.0kg and (G) Giant – over 40.1 kg. Mean weight for group (S) was 6.5±2.0 kg, (M) 15.0±5.0 kg, (L) 32.0±5.5 kg and (G) 50.0 ±12.0 kg. An algorithm was developed in Matlab in order to classify and quantify biological tissues present in CT images and convert them in simulator materials. To classify tissues presents, the membership functions were created from the retrospective CT scans according to the type of tissue (adipose, muscle, bone trabecular or cortical and lung tissue). After conversion of the biologic tissue thickness in equivalent material thicknesses (acrylic simulating soft tissues, bone tissues simulated by aluminum and air to the lung) were obtained four different homogeneous phantoms, with (S) 5 cm of acrylic, 0,14 cm of aluminum and 1,8 cm of air; (M) 8,7 cm of acrylic, 0,2 cm of aluminum and 2,4 cm of air; (L) 10,6 cm of acrylic, 0,27 cm of aluminum and 3,1 cm of air and (G) 14,8 cm of acrylic, 0,33 cm of aluminum and 3,8 cm of air. The developed canine homogeneous phantom is a practical tool, which will be employed in future, works to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures.

Keywords: radiation protection, phantom, veterinary radiology, computed radiography

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
5 Skull Extraction for Quantification of Brain Volume in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Authors: Marcela De Oliveira, Marina P. Da Silva, Fernando C. G. Da Rocha, Jorge M. Santos, Jaime S. Cardoso, Paulo N. Lisboa-Filho

Abstract:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by neurodegeneration, inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to the richness in the information details provided, is the gold standard exam for diagnosis and follow-up of neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS. Brain atrophy, the gradual loss of brain volume, is quite extensive in multiple sclerosis, nearly 0.5-1.35% per year, far off the limits of normal aging. Thus, the brain volume quantification becomes an essential task for future analysis of the occurrence atrophy. The analysis of MRI has become a tedious and complex task for clinicians, who have to manually extract important information. This manual analysis is prone to errors and is time consuming due to various intra- and inter-operator variability. Nowadays, computerized methods for MRI segmentation have been extensively used to assist doctors in quantitative analyzes for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the brain volume in MRI of MS patients. We used MRI scans with 30 slices of the five patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to the McDonald criteria. The computational methods for the analysis of images were carried out in two steps: segmentation of the brain and brain volume quantification. The first image processing step was to perform brain extraction by skull stripping from the original image. In the skull stripper for MRI images of the brain, the algorithm registers a grayscale atlas image to the grayscale patient image. The associated brain mask is propagated using the registration transformation. Then this mask is eroded and used for a refined brain extraction based on level-sets (edge of the brain-skull border with dedicated expansion, curvature, and advection terms). In the second step, the brain volume quantification was performed by counting the voxels belonging to the segmentation mask and converted in cc. We observed an average brain volume of 1469.5 cc. We concluded that the automatic method applied in this work can be used for the brain extraction process and brain volume quantification in MRI. The development and use of computer programs can contribute to assist health professionals in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In future works, we expect to implement more automated methods for the assessment of cerebral atrophy and brain lesions quantification, including machine-learning approaches. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant from Brazilian agency Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (number 2019/16362-5).

Keywords: brain volume, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, skull stripper

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
4 Automatic Identification of Pectoral Muscle

Authors: Ana L. M. Pavan, Guilherme Giacomini, Allan F. F. Alves, Marcela De Oliveira, Fernando A. B. Neto, Maria E. D. Rosa, Andre P. Trindade, Diana R. De Pina

Abstract:

Mammography is a worldwide image modality used to diagnose breast cancer, even in asymptomatic women. Due to its large availability, mammograms can be used to measure breast density and to predict cancer development. Women with increased mammographic density have a four- to sixfold increase in their risk of developing breast cancer. Therefore, studies have been made to accurately quantify mammographic breast density. In clinical routine, radiologists perform image evaluations through BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) assessment. However, this method has inter and intraindividual variability. An automatic objective method to measure breast density could relieve radiologist’s workload by providing a first aid opinion. However, pectoral muscle is a high density tissue, with similar characteristics of fibroglandular tissues. It is consequently hard to automatically quantify mammographic breast density. Therefore, a pre-processing is needed to segment the pectoral muscle which may erroneously be quantified as fibroglandular tissue. The aim of this work was to develop an automatic algorithm to segment and extract pectoral muscle in digital mammograms. The database consisted of thirty medio-lateral oblique incidence digital mammography from São Paulo Medical School. This study was developed with ethical approval from the authors’ institutions and national review panels under protocol number 3720-2010. An algorithm was developed, in Matlab® platform, for the pre-processing of images. The algorithm uses image processing tools to automatically segment and extract the pectoral muscle of mammograms. Firstly, it was applied thresholding technique to remove non-biological information from image. Then, the Hough transform is applied, to find the limit of the pectoral muscle, followed by active contour method. Seed of active contour is applied in the limit of pectoral muscle found by Hough transform. An experienced radiologist also manually performed the pectoral muscle segmentation. Both methods, manual and automatic, were compared using the Jaccard index and Bland-Altman statistics. The comparison between manual and the developed automatic method presented a Jaccard similarity coefficient greater than 90% for all analyzed images, showing the efficiency and accuracy of segmentation of the proposed method. The Bland-Altman statistics compared both methods in relation to area (mm²) of segmented pectoral muscle. The statistic showed data within the 95% confidence interval, enhancing the accuracy of segmentation compared to the manual method. Thus, the method proved to be accurate and robust, segmenting rapidly and freely from intra and inter-observer variability. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used reliably to segment pectoral muscle in digital mammography in clinical routine. The segmentation of the pectoral muscle is very important for further quantifications of fibroglandular tissue volume present in the breast.

Keywords: active contour, fibroglandular tissue, hough transform, pectoral muscle

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3 Effects of Delphinidin on Lipid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells and Diet-Induced Obese Mice

Authors: Marcela Parra-Vargas, Ana Sandoval-Rodriguez, Roberto Rodriguez-Echevarria, Jose Dominguez-Rosales, Juan Armendariz-Borunda

Abstract:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an excess of hepatic lipids, and it is to author’s best knowledge, the most prevalent chronic liver disorder. Anthocyanin-rich food consumption is linked to health benefits in metabolic disorders associated with obesity and NAFLD, although the precise functional role of anthocyanidin delphinidin (Dp) has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Dp in NAFLD metabolic alterations by evaluating prevention or amelioration of hepatic lipid accumulation, as well as molecular mechanisms in two experimental obesity-related models of NALFD. In vitro: HepG2 cells were incubated with sodium palmitate (PA, 1 mM) to induce lipotoxic damage, and concomitantly treated with Dp (180 uM) for 24 h. Subsequently, total lipid accumulation was measured by colorimetric staining with Oil Red O, and total intrahepatic triglycerides were determined by an enzymatic assay. To assess molecular mechanisms, cells were pre-treated with PA for 24 h and then exposed to Dp for 1 h. In vivo: four-week-old male C57BL/6Nhsd mice were allocated in two main groups. Mice were fed with standard diet (control) or high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (45% fat, HFD) for 16 wk to induce NAFLD. Then HFD was divided into subgroups: one treated orally with Dp (15 mg/kg bw, HFD-Dp) every day for 4 wk, while HFD group treated with vehicle (DMSO). Weight and fasting glucose were recorded weekly, while dietary ingestion was measured daily. Insulin tolerance test was performed at the end of treatment. Liver histology was evaluated with H&E and Masson’s trichrome stain. RT-PCR was used to evaluate gene expression and Western Blot to determine levels of protein in both experimental models. Parametric data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test for non-parametric data, and P < 0.5 were considered significant. Dp prevented hepatic lipid accumulation by PA in HepG2 hepatocytes. Furthermore, Dp down-regulated gene expression of SREBP1c, FAS, and CPT1a without modifying AMPK phosphorylation levels. In vivo, Dp oral administration did not ameliorate lipid metabolic alterations raised by HFD. Adiposity, dietary ingestion, fasting glucose, and insulin sensitivity after Dp treatment remained similar to HFD group. Histological analysis showed hepatic damage in HFD groups and no differences between HFD and HFD-Dp groups were found. Hepatic gene expression of ACC and FAS were not altered by HFD. SREBP1c was similar in both HFD and HFD-Dp groups. No significant changes were observed in SREBP1c, ACC, and FAS adipose tissue gene expression by HFD or Dp treatment. Additionally, immunoblotting analysis revealed no changes in pathway SIRT1-LKB-AMPK and PPAR alpha by both HFD groups compared to control. In conclusion, the antioxidant Dp may provoke beneficial effects in the prevention of hepatic lipid accumulation. Nevertheless, the oral dose administrated in mice that simulated the total intake of anthocyanins consumed daily by humans has no effect as a treatment on hepatic lipid metabolic alterations and histological abnormalities associated with exposure to chronic HFD. A healthy lifestyle with regular intake of antioxidants such as anthocyanins may prevent metabolic alterations in NAFLD.

Keywords: anthocyanins, antioxidants, delphinidin, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2 Removing Maturational Influences from Female Youth Swimming: The Application of Corrective Adjustment Procedures

Authors: Clorinda Hogan, Shaun Abbott, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Catiglioni, Goshi Yamauchi, Lachlan Mitchell, James Salter, Michael Romann, Stephen Cobley

Abstract:

Introduction: Common annual age-group competition structures unintentionally introduce participation inequalities, performance (dis)advantages and selection biases due to the effect of maturational variation between youth swimmers. On this basis, there are implications for improving performance evaluation strategies. Therefore the aim was to: (1) To determine maturity timing distributions in female youth swimming; (2) quantify the relationship between maturation status and 100-m FC performance; (3) apply Maturational-based Corrective Adjustment Procedures (Mat-CAPs) for removal of maturational status performance influences. Methods: (1) Cross-sectional analysis of 663 female (10-15 years) swimmers who underwent assessment of anthropometrics (mass, height and sitting height) and estimations of maturity timing and offset. (2) 100-m front-crawl performance (seconds) was assessed at Australian regional, state, and national-level competitions between 2016-2020. To determine the relationship between maturation status and 100-m front-crawl performance, MO was plotted against 100-m FC performance time. The expected maturity status - performance relationship for females aged 10-15 years of age was obtained through a quadratic function (y = ax2 + bx + c) from unstandardized coefficients. The regression equation was subsequently used for Mat-CAPs. (3) Participants aged 10-13 years were categorised into maturity-offset categories. Maturity offset distributions for Raw (‘All’, ‘Top 50%’ & ‘Top 25%’) and Correctively Adjusted swim times were examined. Chi-square, Cramer’s V and ORs determined the occurrence of maturation biases for each age group and selection level. Results—: (1) Maturity timing distributions illustrated overrepresentation of ‘normative’ maturing swimmers (11.82 ± 0.40 years), with a descriptive shift toward the early maturing relative to the normative population. (2) A curvilinear relationship between maturity-offset and swim performance was identified (R2 = 0.53, P < 0.001) and subsequently utilised for Mat-CAPs. (3) Raw maturity offset categories identified partial maturation status skewing towards biologically older swimmers at 10/11 and 12 years, with effect magnitudes increasing in the ‘Top 50%’ and ‘25%’ of performance times. Following Mat-CAPs application, maturity offset biases were removed in similar age groups and selection levels. When adjusting performance times for maturity offset, Mat-CAPs was successful in mitigating against maturational biases until approximately 1-year post Peak Height Velocity. The overrepresentation of ‘normative’ maturing female swimmers contrasted with the substantial overrepresentation of ‘early’ maturing male swimmers found previously in 100-m front-crawl. These findings suggest early maturational timing is not advantageous in females, but findings associated with Aim 2, highlight how advanced maturational status remained beneficial to performance. Observed differences between female and male maturational biases may relate to the differential impact of physiological development during pubertal years. Females experience greater increases of fat mass and potentially differing changes in body shape which can negatively affect swim performance. Conclusions: Transient maturation status-based participation and performance advantages were apparent within a large sample of Australian female youth 100-m FC swimmers. By removing maturity status performance biases within female youth swimming, Mat-CAPs could help improve participation experiences and the accuracy of identifying genuinely skilled female youth swimmers.

Keywords: athlete development, long-term sport participation, performance evaluation, talent identification, youth competition

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
1 Observations on Cultural Alternative and Environmental Conservation: Populations "Delayed" and Excluded from Health and Public Hygiene Policies in Mexico (1890-1930)

Authors: Marcela Davalos Lopez

Abstract:

The history of the circulation of hygienic knowledge and the consolidation of public health in Latin American cities towards the end of the 19th century is well known. Among them, Mexico City was inserted in international politics, strengthened institutions, medical knowledge, applied parameters of modernity and built sanitary engineering works. Despite the power that this hygienist system achieved, its scope was relative: it cannot be generalized to all cities. From a comparative and contextual analysis, it will be shown that conclusions derived from modern urban historiography present, from our contemporary observations, fractures. Between 1890 and 1930, the small cities and areas surrounding the Mexican capital adapted in their own way the international and federal public health regulations. This will be shown for neighborhoods located around Mexico City and in a medium city, close to the Mexican capital (about 80 km), called Cuernavaca. While the inhabitants of the neighborhoods kept awaiting the evolutionary process and the forms that public hygiene policies were taking (because they were witnesses and affected in their territories), in Cuernavaca, the dictates came as an echo. While the capital was drained, large roads were opened, roundabouts were erected, residents were expelled, and drains, sewers, drinking water pipes, etc., were built; Cuernavaca was sheltered in other times and practices. What was this due to? Undoubtedly, the time and energy that it took politicians and the group of "scientists" to carry out these enormous works in the Mexican capital took them away from addressing the issue in remote villages. It was not until the 20th century that the federal hygiene policy began to be strengthened. Despite this, there are other factors that emphasize the particularities of each site. I would like to draw attention here to the different receptions that each town prepared on public hygiene. We will see that Cuernavaca responded to its own semi-rural culture, history, orography and functions, prolonging for much longer, for example, the use of its deep ravines as sewers. For their part, the neighborhoods surrounding the capital, although affected and excluded from hygienist policies, chose to move away from them and solve the deficiencies with their own resources (they resorted to the waste that was left from the dried lake of Mexico to continue their lake practices). All of this points to a paradox that shapes our contemporary concerns: on the one hand, the benefits derived from medical knowledge and its technological applications (in this work referring particularly to the urban health system) and, on the other, the alteration it caused in environmental settings. Places like Cuernavaca (classified by the nineteenth-century and hygienists of the first decades of the twentieth century as backward), as well as landscapes such as neighborhoods, affected by advances in sanitary engineering, keep in their memory buried practices that we observe today as possible ways to reestablish environmental balances: alternative uses of water; recycling of organic materials; local uses of fauna; various systems for breaking down excreta, and so on. In sum, what the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries graduated as levels of backwardness or progress, turn out to be key information to rethink the routes of environmental conservation. When we return to the observations of the scientists, politicians and lawyers of that period, we find historically rejected cultural alterity. Populations such as Cuernavaca that, due to their history, orography and/or insufficiency of federal policies, kept different relationships with the environment, today give us clues to reorient basic elements of cities: alternative uses of water, waste of raw materials, organic or consumption of local products, among others. It is, therefore, a matter of unearthing the rejected that cries out to emerge to the surface.

Keywords: sanitary hygiene, Mexico city, cultural alterity, environmental conservation, environmental history

Procedia PDF Downloads 88