Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: esterification

53 Ferric Sulphate Catalyzed Esterification of High Free Fatty Acids Content Used Coconut Oil for Biodiesel Synthesis

Authors: G. N. Maheshika, J. A. R. H. Wijerathna, S. H. P. Gunawardena


Feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFAs) content can be successfully employed for biodiesel synthesis once the high FFA content is reduced to the desired levels. In the present study, the applicability of ferric sulphate as the solid acid catalyst for esterification of FFA in used coconut oil was evaluated at varying catalyst concentration and methanol:oil molar ratios. 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0% w/w Fe2(SO4)3 on oil basis was used at methanol:oil ratios of 3:1, 4.5:1, and 6:1 and at the reaction temperature of 60 0C. The FFA reduction increased with the increase in catalyst and methanol:oil molar ratios while the time requirement to reach the esterification equilibrium reduced. Satisfactory results for esterification could be obtained within a small reaction period in the presence of only a small amount of Fe2(SO4)3 catalyst concentration and at low reaction temperature, which then can be subjected for trans-esterification process. At the end of the considering reaction period the solid Fe2(SO4)3 catalyst could be separated from the reaction system. The economics of the Fe2(SO4)3 catalyzed esterification of high FFA content used coconut oil for biodiesel is at favorable conditions.

Keywords: biodiesel, esterification, ferric sulphate, Free fatty acids, used coconut oil

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52 Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Trans-Esterification Process with Koh as a Catalyst

Authors: M. Nafis Alfarizi, Dinda A. Utami, Arif Hidayat


Biodiesel is one solution to overcome the use of petroleum fuels. Many alternative feedstocks that can be used among which canola oil. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of canola oil and KOH for the trans-esterification reaction in biodiesel production. Canola oil has a very high purity that can be used as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production and expected it will be produced biodiesel with excellent quality. In this case of study, we used trans-esterification process wherein the triglyceride is reacted with an alcohol with KOH as a catalyst, and it will produce biodiesel and glycerol as byproduct and we choose trans-esterification process because canola oil has a 0,445% FFA content. The variables studied in this research include the comparison of canola oil and methanol, temperature, time, and the percent of catalyst used. In this study the method of analysis we use GCMS and FTIR to know what the characteristic in canola oil. Development of canola oil seems to be the perfect solution to produce high-quality biodiesel. The reaction conditions resulted in 97.87% -w methyl ester (biodiesel) product by using a 0.5% wt KOH catalyst with canola and methanol ratio 1:8 at 60°C.

Keywords: biodiesel, canola oil, KOH, trans-esterification

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51 Waste Bone Based Catalyst: Characterization and Esterification Application

Authors: Amit Keshav


Waste bone, produced in large quantity (8-10 kg./day) from a slaughterhouse, could be a cheap (cost $0.20 per kg) substitute for commercial catalysts. In the present work, catalyst for esterification reaction was prepared from waste bone and characterized by various techniques. Bone was deoiled and then sulfonated. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of prepared catalyst predicted –OH vibration at 3416 and 1630 cm⁻¹, S-O stretching at 1124 cm⁻¹ and intense bands of hydroxypatite in a region between 500 and 700 cm⁻¹. X-ray diffraction (XRD) predicts peaks of hydroxyapatite, CaO, and tricalcium phosphate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to reveal the presence of non-uniformity deposited fine particles on the catalyst surface that represents active acidic sites. The prepared catalyst was employed to study its performance on esterification reaction between acrylic acid and ethanol in a molar ratio of 1:1 at a set temperature of 60 °C. Results show an equilibrium conversion of 49% which is matched to the commercial catalysts employed in literature. Thus waste bone could be a good catalyst for acrylic acid removal from waste industrial streams via the process of esterification.Keywords— Heterogeneous catalyst, characterization, esterification, equilibrium conversion

Keywords: heterogeneous catalyst, characterization, esterification, equilibrium conversion

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50 Experimental Assessment of Artificial Flavors Production

Authors: M. Unis, S. Turky, A. Elalem, A. Meshrghi


The Esterification kinetics of acetic acid with isopropnol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a homogenous catalyst was studied with isothermal batch experiments at 60,70 and 80°C and at a different molar ratio of isopropnol to acetic acid. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction indicated that the low of molar ratio is favored for esterification reaction, this is due to the reaction is catalyzed by acid. The maximum conversion, approximately 60.6% was obtained at 80°C for molar ratio of 1:3 acid : alcohol. It was found that increasing temperature of the reaction, increases the rate constant and conversion at a certain mole ratio, that is due to the esterification is exothermic. The homogenous reaction has been described with simple power-law model. The chemical equilibrium combustion calculated from the kinetic model in agreement with the measured chemical equilibrium.

Keywords: artificial flavors, esterification, chemical equilibria, isothermal

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49 Simultaneous Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil Using Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Arief Budiman


Reactive Distillation (RD) is a multifunctional reactor which integrates chemical reaction with in situ separation to shift the equilibrium towards the product formation. Thus, it is suitable for equilibrium limited reaction such as esterification and transesterification to enhance the reaction conversion. In this work, the application of RD for high FFA oil esterification-transterification for biodiesel production using sulphuric acid catalyst has been studied. Crude Jatropha Oil with FFA content of 30.57% was utilized as the feedstock. Effects of the catalyst concentration and molar ratio of the alcohol to oils were also investigated. It was revealed that best result was obtained with sulphuric acid catalyst (reaction conversion of 94.71% and FFA content of 1.62%) at 60C, molar ratio of methanol to FFA of 30:1, and catalyst loading of 3%. After undergoing esterification reaction, jatropha oil was then transesterified to produce biodiesel. Transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of NaOH catalyst in RD column at 60C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1, and catalyst concentration of 1%. It demonstrated that biodiesel produced in this work agreed with the Indonesian National and ASTM standard of fuel.

Keywords: reactive distillation, biodiesel, esterification, transesterification

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48 Synthesis of DHA Rich Glycerides with Immobilized Lipases from Mucor miehei and Rhizopus oryzae

Authors: Satyendra P. Chaurasia, Aditi Sharma, Ajay K. Dalai


The esterification of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with glycerol using immobilized Mucor mie-hei lipase (MML) and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) have been studied in the present paper to synthesize triglycerides (TG) rich in DHA. Both immobilized lipases (MML and ROL), and their support materials (immobead-150 and ion-exchange resin) were characterized and compared for surface properties with BET, for chemical functional groups with FT-IR, and for particle size distribution with particle size analyzer. The most suitable reaction conditions for synthesis of DHA rich TG in biphasic solvent system were found as 1:3 (wt/wt) glycerol to DHA ratio, 1:1 (wt/wt) buffer to DHA ratio, 1:1 (wt/wt) solvent to DHA ratio at 50 ºC temperature, and 600 rpm speed of agitation with 100 mg of immobilized lipases. Maximum 95.9 % esterification was obtained with immobilized MML in 14 days reaction with formation of 65.7 wt% DHA rich TG. Whereas, immobilized ROL has shown formation of only 23.8 wt% DHA rich TG with total 78.9 % esterification in 15 days. Additionally, repeated use of both immobilized lipases was con-ducted up to five cycles, indicated 50.4% and 41.2 % activity retention after fifth repeated use of immobilized MML and ROL, respectively.

Keywords: DHA, immobilized Mucor miehei lipase, Rhizopus oryzae lipase, esterification

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47 Esterification Reaction of Stearic Acid with Methanol Over Surface Functionalised PAN Fibrous Solid Acid Catalyst

Authors: Rawaz A. Ahmed, Katherine Huddersman


High-lipid Fats, Oils and Grease (FOGs) from wastewater are underutilized despite their potential for conversion into valuable fuels; this work describes a surface-functionalized fibrous Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) mesh as a novel heterogeneous acid catalyst for the conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs), via a catalytic esterification process into biodiesel. The esterification of stearic acid (SA) with methanol was studied over an acidified PAN solid acid catalyst. Disappearance of the carboxylic acid (C=O) peak of the stearic acid at 1696 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectrum with the associated appearance of the ester (C=O) peak at 1739 cm-1 confirmed the production of the methyl stearate. This was further supported by 1H NMR spectra with the appearance of the ester (-CH₂OCOR) at 3.60-3.70 ppm. Quantitate analysis by GC-FID showed the catalyst has excellent activity with >95 % yield of methyl stearate (MS) at 90 ◦C after 3 h and a molar ratio of methanol to SA of 35:1. To date, to our best knowledge, there is no research in the literature on the esterification reaction for biodiesel production using a modified PAN mesh as a catalyst. It is noteworthy that this acidified PAN mesh catalyst showed comparable activity to conventional Brönsted acids, namely H₂SO₄ and p-TSA, as well as exhibiting higher activity than various other heterogeneous catalysts such as zeolites, ion-exchange resins and acid clay.

Keywords: fats oil and greases (FOGs), free fatty acid, esterification reaction, methyl ester, PAN

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46 Study of Biofuel Produced by Babassu Oil Fatty Acids Esterification

Authors: F. A. F. da Ponte, J. Q. Malveira, I. A. Maciel, M. C. G. Albuquerque


In this work aviation, biofuel production was studied by fatty acids (C6 to C16) esterification. The process variables in heterogeneous catalysis were evaluated using an experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the studied parameters, and the methyl esters content was the response of the experimental design. An ion exchange resin was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The process optimization was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and polynomial model of second order. Results show that the most influential variables on the linear coefficient of each effect studied were temperature and reaction time. The best result of methyl esters conversion in the experimental design was under the conditions: 10% wt of catalyst; 100 °C and 4 hours of reaction. The best-achieved conversion was 96.5% wt of biofuel.

Keywords: esterification, ion-exchange resins, response surface methodology, biofuel

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45 Biodiesel Production from Animal Fat Using Trans-Esterification Process with Zeolite as a Solid Catalyst to Improve the Efficiency of Production

Authors: Dinda A. Utami, Muhammad N. Alfarizi


The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of zeolite catalyst for the trans- esterification reaction in biodiesel production from animal fat. The ability of the zeolite as a catalyst is determined by the structure and composition of the zeolite. An important factor that determines the properties of zeolites in catalysis includes adsorption capability to the compound of the reactants. Zeolites with a pore size of specific properties selectively adsorbing molecules. A molecule can be adsorbed by either the zeolite cavities if the size and shape of the molecule in accordance with the size and shape of the cavity in the zeolite. At this time, it is common to use homogeneous catalysts for biodiesel. We know these catalysts have some disadvantages in its use. Such as the difficulty of separation of the product with the catalyst, the generation of waste that is harmful to the environment due to residual catalysts can’t be reused, and the difficulty of handling and storage. But nowadays, solid catalyst developed technically to improve the efficiency of biodiesel production. In this case of study, we used trans-esterification process wherein the triglyceride is reacted with an alcohol with zeolite as a solid catalyst and it will produce biodiesel and glycerol as a byproduct. Development of solid catalyst seems to be the perfect solution to address the problems associated with homogeneous catalysts.

Keywords: biodiesel, animal fat, trans esterification, zeolite catalyst

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44 Highly Efficient Iron Oxide-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Catalyst for Esterification and Trans-Esterification Reactions

Authors: Reena D. Souza, Tripti Vats, Prem F. Siril


Esterification of free fatty acid (oleic acid) and transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) with ethanol over graphene oxide (GO), GO-Fe2O3, sulfonated GO (GO-SO3H), and Fe2O3/GO-SO3H catalysts were examined in the present study. Iron oxide supported graphene-based acid catalyst (Fe2O3/GO-SO3H) exhibited highest catalytic activity. GO was prepared by modified Hummer’s process. The GO-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of NaOH to a solution containing GO and FeCl3. Sulfonation was done using concentrated sulfuric acid. Transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging revealed the presence of Fe2O3 particles having size in the range of 50-200 nm. Crystal structure was analyzed by XRD and defect states of graphene were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The effects of the reaction variables such as catalyst loading, ethanol to acid ratio, reaction time and temperature on the conversion of fatty acids were studied. The optimum conditions for the esterification process were molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid at 12:1 with 5 wt% of Fe2O3/GO-SO3H at 1000C with a reaction time of 4h yielding 99% of ethyl oleate. This is because metal oxide supported solid acid catalysts have advantages of having both strong Brønsted as well as Lewis acid properties. The biodiesel obtained by transesterification of WCO was characterized by 1H NMR and Gas Chromatography techniques. XRD patterns of the recycled catalyst evidenced that the catalyst structure was unchanged up to the 5th cycle, which indicated the long life of the catalyst.

Keywords: Fe₂O₃/GO-SO₃H, Graphene Oxide, GO-Fe₂O₃, GO-SO₃H, WCO

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43 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Material and Investigation of Its Catalytic Reaction

Authors: Mojgan Zendehdel, Safura Molla Mohammad Zamani


In this paper, Fe3O4/NaY zeolite nanocomposite with different molar ratio were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM graphs showed that much of Fe3O4 was successfully coated by the NaY zeolite layer. Also, the results show that the magnetism of the products is stable with added zeolite. The catalytic effect of nanocomposite investigated for esterification reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hence, the effect of the catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were considered and nanocomposite that created from zeolite and 16.6 percent of Fe3O4 showed the highest yield. The catalyst can be easily separated from reaction with the magnet and it can also be used for several times.

Keywords: zeolite, magnetic, nanocompsite, esterification

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42 Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil Using g-C3N4 Photocatalyst

Authors: A. Elgendi, H. Farag, M. E. Ossman, M. Abd-Elfatah


This paper explores the using of waste cooking oil (WCO) as an attractive option to reduce the raw material cost for the biodiesel production. This can be achieved through two steps; esterification using g-C3N4photocatalyst and then alkali transesterification. Several parameters have been studied to determine the yield of the biodiesel produced such as: Reaction time (2-6 hrs), catalyst concentration (0.3-1.5 wt.%), number of UV lamps (1or 3 lamps) and methanol: oil ratio (6:1-12:1). From the obtained results, the highest percentage yield was obtained using methanol: Oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst dosage 0.3%, time of 4 hrs and using 1 lamp. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel from waste cooking oil can be used as fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalyst, photocatalytic esterification, waste cooking oil

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41 Two Step Biodiesel Production from High Free Fatty Acid Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Rajiv Arora


Biodiesel may be economical if produced from inexpensive feedstock which commonly contains high level of free fatty acids (FFA) as an inhibitor in production of methyl ester. In this study, a two-step process for biodiesel production from high FFA spent bleach earth oil in a batch reactor is developed. Oil sample extracted from spent bleaching earth (SBE) was utilized for biodiesel process. In the first step, FFA of the SBE oil was reduced to 1.91% through sulfuric acid catalyzed esterification. In the second step, the product prepared from the first esterification process was carried out transesterification with an alkaline catalyst. The influence of four variables on conversion efficiency to methyl ester, i.e., methanol/ SBE oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction time, was studied in the second stage. The optimum process variables in the transesterification were methanol/oil molar ratio 6:1, heterogeneous catalyst conc. 5 wt %, reaction temperature 65 °C and reaction time 60 minutes to produce biodiesel. Major fuel properties of SBE biodiesel were measured to comply with ASTM and EN standards. Therefore, an optimized process for production of biodiesel from a low-cost high FFA source was accomplished.

Keywords: biodiesel, esterification, free fatty acids, residual oil, spent bleaching earth, transesterification

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40 Optimization of Bio-Diesel Production from Rubber Seed Oils

Authors: Pawit Tangviroon, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul


Rubber seed oil is an attractive alternative feedstock for biodiesel production because it is not related to food-chain plant. Rubber seed oil contains large amount of free fatty acids, which causes problem in biodiesel production. Free fatty acids can react with alkaline catalyst in biodiesel production. Acid esterification is used as pre-treatment to convert unwanted compound to desirable biodiesel. Phase separation of oil and methanol occurs at low ratio of methanol to oil and causes low reaction rate and conversion. Acid esterification requires large excess of methanol in order to increase the miscibility of methanol in oil and accordingly, it is a more expensive separation process. In this work, the kinetics of esterification of rubber seed oil with methanol is developed from available experimental results. Reactive distillation process was designed by using Aspen Plus program. The effects of operating parameters such as feed ratio, molar reflux ratio, feed temperature, and feed stage are investigated in order to find the optimum conditions. Results show that the reactive distillation process is proved to be better than conventional process. It consumes less feed methanol and less energy while yielding higher product purity than the conventional process. This work can be used as a guideline for further development to industrial scale of biodiesel production using reactive distillation.

Keywords: biodiesel, reactive distillation, rubber seed oil, transesterification

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39 Kinetic Study of the Esterification of Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Salmon Oil (Salmosalar L.)

Authors: André Luis Lima de Oliveira, Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento, Victória Maura Silva Bermudez, Mauricio Nunes Kleinberg, João Carlos da Costa Assunção, José Osvaldo Beserra Carioca


The objective of this study was to synthesize a triglyceride with high content of unsaturated fatty acids from salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) by esterification with glycerol catalyzed dealuminized zeolite. A kinetic study was conducted to determine the reaction order and the activation energy. A statistical study was conducted to determine optimal reaction conditions. Initially, the crude oil was refined salmon physically and chemically. The crude oil was hydrolyzed and unsaturated free fatty acids were separated by urea complexation method. An experimental project to verify the parameters (temperature, glycerin and catalyst) with the greatest impact on the reaction was developed. In experiments aliquots were taken at predetermined times to measure the amount of free fatty acids. Pareto, surface, contour and hub graphs were used to determine the factors that maximized the reaction. According to the graphs the best reaction conditions were: temperature 80 ° C, the proportion glycerine/oil 5: 1 and 1% of catalyst. The kinetic data showed that the system was compatible with a second-order reaction. After analyzing the rate constant versus temperature charts a value of 85.31 kJ/mol was obtained for the reaction activation energy.

Keywords: esterification, kinect, oil, salmon

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38 Study of Some Aromatic Thiourea Derivatives as Lube Oil Antioxidant

Authors: Rasha S. Kamal, Nehal S. Ahmed, Amal M. Nassar, Nour E. A. Abd El-Sattar


In the present work, some lube oil antioxidants based on ester of some aromatic thiourea derivative were prepared by two steps: the first step is the reaction of succinyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate in addition to anthranilic acid as three component system to prepare thiourea derivative (A); the second step is esterification of compound (A) by different alcohol (decyl C₁₀, tetradecyl C₁₄, and octadecyl C₁₈) alcohol. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by infra-red spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and determination of the molecular weights. All the prepared compounds were soluble in lube oil. The efficiency of the prepared compounds as antioxidants lube oil additives was investigated and it was found that these prepared compounds give good result as lube oil antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant lube oil, three component system, aromatic thiourea derivatives, esterification

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37 Influence of Synthetic Antioxidant in the Iodine Value and Acid Number of Jatropha Curcas Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono


Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels that promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which is have advantage on sustainability and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tend to decompose during storage, biodiesel also have the same characteristic that tend to decompose and formed higher acid value which is the result of oxidation to double bond on a chain of ester. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introduce a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. The quality degradation on biodiesel could evaluated by measuring iodine value and acid number of biodiesel. Biodiesel made from High Fatty Acid Jatropha curcas oil equality by using esterification and esterification process will stand on the quality by introduce 90 ppm pyrogallol powder on the biodiesel, which could extend the quality from 2 hours to more than 6 hours in rancimat test evaluation.

Keywords: biodiesel, antioxidant, iodine number, acid value

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
36 Comparative Studies and Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Oils of Selected Seeds of Nigerian Origin

Authors: Ndana Mohammed, Abdullahi Musa Sabo


The oils used in this work were extracted from seeds of Ricinuscommunis, Heaveabrasiliensis, Gossypiumhirsutum, Azadirachtaindica, Glycin max and Jatrophacurcasby solvent extraction method using n-hexane, and gave the yield of 48.00±0.00%, 44.30±0.52%, 45.50±0.64%, 47.60±0.51%, 41.50±0.32% and 46.50±0.71% respectively. However these feed stocks are highly challenging to trans-esterification reaction because they were found to contain high amount of free fatty acids (FFA) (6.37±0.18, 17.20±0.00, 6.14±0.05, 8.60±0.14, 5.35±0.07, 4.24±0.02mgKOH/g) in order of the above. As a result, two-stage trans-esterification reactions process was used to produce biodiesel; Acid esterification was used to reduce high FFA to 1% or less, and the second stage involve the alkaline trans-esterification/optimization of process condition to obtain high yield quality biodiesel. The salient features of this study include; characterization of oils using AOAC, AOCS standard methods to reveal some properties that may determine the viability of sample seeds as potential feed stocks for biodiesel production, such as acid value, saponification value, Peroxide value, Iodine value, Specific gravity, Kinematic viscosity, and free fatty acid profile. The optimization of process parameters in biodiesel production was investigated. Different concentrations of alkaline catalyst (KOH) (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.50w/v, methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1, 6:1, 9:1, 12:1, and 15:1), reaction temperature (500 C, 550 C, 600 C, 650 C, 700 C), and the rate of stirring (150 rpm,225 rpm,300 rpm and 375 rpm) were used for the determination of optimal condition at which maximum yield of biodiesel would be obtained. However, while optimizing one parameter other parameters were kept fixed. The result shows the optimal biodiesel yield at a catalyst concentration of 1%, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, except oil from ricinuscommunis which was obtained at 9:1, the reaction temperature of 650 C was observed for all samples, similarly the stirring rate of 300 rpm was also observed for all samples except oil from ricinuscommunis which was observed at 375 rpm. The properties of biodiesel fuel were evaluated and the result obtained conformed favorably to ASTM and EN standard specifications for fossil diesel and biodiesel. Therefore biodiesel fuel produced can be used as substitute for fossil diesel. The work also reports the result of the study on the evaluation of the effect of the biodiesel storage on its physicochemical properties to ascertain the level of deterioration with time. The values obtained for the entire samples are completely out of standard specification for biodiesel before the end of the twelve months test period, and are clearly degraded. This suggests the biodiesels from oils of Ricinuscommunis, Heaveabrasiliensis, Gossypiumhirsutum, Azadirachtaindica, Glycin max and Jatrophacurcascannot be stored beyond twelve months.

Keywords: biodiesel, characterization, esterification, optimization, transesterification

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35 Synthesis of Iso-Amyl, Benzyl and Cinnamyl Esters over Active, Selective, Reusable and Eco-Friendly Natural Silica Catalyst

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Said


In this study, natural silica was used as an active, selective, reusable and eco-friendly catalyst for the liquid phase synthesis of iso-amyl, benzyl and cinnamyl esters. The original and calcined natural silica were characterized by TG-DTA, XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and N2-sorption analysis. The surface acidity of the catalysts was determined using isopropanol dehydration and the strength of available acid sites was measured using chemisorption of pyridine (PY) and dimethyl pyridine (DMPY). The results of acidity specified that the acidic sites are of Brönsted type, while PY-TPD demonstrated that almost of the acidic sites over the surface of natural silica are of weak and intermediate strength. The catalytic activity of natural silica towards esterification of acetic acid with alcohols was extensively studied. The results revealed that natural silica had high catalytic activity with 100% selectivity to all targeted esters. In addition, the yields obtained in batch methods were 83, 81, and 80%, respectively, whereas these yields after simple distillation were improved 97, 99.5, and 90%, respectively.

Keywords: liquid-phase esterification, natural silica, acidity esters, characterization

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34 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih


Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

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33 Preparation of Biodiesel by Three Step Method Followed Purification by Various Silica Sources

Authors: Chanchal Mewar, Shikha Gangil, Yashwant Parihar, Virendra Dhakar, Bharat Modhera


Biodiesel was prepared from Karanja oil by three step methods: saponification, acidification and esterification. In first step, saponification was done in presence of methanol and KOH or NaOH with Karanja oil. During second step acidification, various acids such as H3PO4, HCl, H2SO4 were used as acid catalyst. In third step, esterification followed by purification was done with various silica sources as Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel. It was found that there was no significant change in density, kinematic viscosity, iodine number, acid value, saponification number, flash point, cloud point, pour point and cetane number after purification by these adsorbents. The objective of this research is the comparison among different adsorbents which were used for the purification of biodiesel. Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel were used as adsorbents for the removal of glycerin from biodiesel and evaluate the effectiveness of biodiesel purity. Furthermore, this study compared the results of distilled water washing also. It was observed that Ludox, fumed silica gel and distilled water produced yield about 93%, 91% and 83% respectively. Highest yield was obtained with Ludox at 100 oC temperature using H3PO4 as acid catalyst and NaOH as base catalyst with methanol, (3:1) alcohol to oil molar ratio in 90 min.

Keywords: biodiesel, three step method, purification, silica sources

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32 A Glycerol-Free Process of Biodiesel Production through Chemical Interesterification of Jatropha Oil

Authors: Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Riris Pristiyani, Heny Dewajani


Biodiesel is commonly produced via the two main routes, i.e. the transesterification of triglycerides and the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using short-chain alcohols. Both the two routes have drawback in term of the side product yielded during the reaction. Transesterification reaction of triglyceride results in glycerol as side product. On the other hand, FFA esterification brings in water as side product. Both glycerol and water in the biodiesel production are managed as waste. Hence, a separation process is necessary to obtain a high purity biodiesel. Meanwhile, separation processes is generally the most capital and energy intensive part in industrial process. Therefore, to reduce the separation process, it is essential to produce biodiesel via an alternative route eliminating glycerol or water side-products. In this work, biodiesel synthesis was performed using a glycerol-free process through chemical interesterification of jatropha oil with ethyl acetate in the presence on sodium acetate catalyst. By using this method, triacetine, which is known as fuel bio-additive, is yielded instead of glycerol. This research studied the effects of catalyst concentration on the jatropha oil interesterification process in the range of 0.5 – 1.25% w/w oil. The reaction temperature and molar ratio of oil to ethyl acetate were varied at 50, 60, and 70°C, and 1:6, 1:9, 1:15, 1:30, and 1:60, respectively. The reaction time was evaluated from 0 to 8 hours. It was revealed that the best yield was obtained with the catalyst concentration of 0.5%, reaction temperature of 70 °C, molar ratio of oil to ethyl acetate at 1:60, at 6 hours reaction time.

Keywords: biodiesel, interesterification, glycerol-free, triacetine, jatropha oil

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31 Integrated Two Stage Processing of Biomass Conversion to Hydroxymethylfurfural Esters Using Ionic Liquid as Green Solvent and Catalyst: Synthesis of Mono Esters

Authors: Komal Kumar, Sreedevi Upadhyayula


In this study, a two-stage process was established for the synthesis of HMF esters using ionic liquid acid catalyst. Ionic liquid catalyst with different strength of the Bronsted acidity was prepared in the laboratory and characterized using 1H NMR, FT-IR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Solid acid catalyst from the ionic liquid catalyst was prepared using the immobilization method. The acidity of the synthesized acid catalyst was measured using Hammett function and titration method. Catalytic performance was evaluated for the biomass conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)-water biphasic system. A good yield of 5-HMF and LA was found at the different composition of MIBK: Water. In the case of MIBK: Water ratio 10:1, good yield of 5-HMF was observed at ambient temperature 150˚C. Upgrading of 5-HMF into monoesters from the reaction of 5-HMF and reactants using biomass-derived monoacid were performed. Ionic liquid catalyst with -SO₃H functional group was found to be best efficient in comparative of a solid acid catalyst for the esterification reaction and biomass conversion. A good yield of 5-HMF esters with high 5-HMF conversion was found to be at 105˚C using the best active catalyst. In this process, process A was the hydrothermal conversion of cellulose and monomer into 5-HMF and LA using acid catalyst. And the process B was the esterification followed by using similar acid catalyst. All monoesters of 5-HMF synthesized here can be used in chemical, cross linker for adhesive or coatings and pharmaceutical industry. A theoretical density functional theory (DFT) study for the optimization of the ionic liquid structure was performed using the Gaussian 09 program to find out the minimum energy configuration of ionic liquid catalyst.

Keywords: biomass conversion, 5-HMF, Ionic liquid, HMF ester

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30 Enhanced Growth of Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultivated in Different Organic Waste and Effective Conversion of Algal Oil to Biodiesel

Authors: Ajith J. Kings, L. R. Monisha Miriam, R. Edwin Raj, S. Julyes Jaisingh, S. Gavaskar


Microalgae are a potential bio-source for rejuvenated solutions in various disciplines of science and technology, especially in medicine and energy. Biodiesel is being replaced for conventional fuels in automobile industries with reduced pollution and equivalent performance. Since it is a carbon neutral fuel by recycling CO2 in photosynthesis, global warming potential can be held in control using this fuel source. One of the ways to meet the rising demand of automotive fuel is to adopt with eco-friendly, green alternative fuels called sustainable microalgal biodiesel. In this work, a microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultivated and optimized in different media compositions developed from under-utilized waste materials in lab scale. Using the optimized process conditions, they are then mass propagated in out-door ponds, harvested, dried and oils extracted for optimization in ambient conditions. The microalgal oil was subjected to two step esterification processes using acid catalyst to reduce the acid value (0.52 mg kOH/g) in the initial stage, followed by transesterification to maximize the biodiesel yield. The optimized esterification process parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.32 (v/v), sulphuric acid 10 vol.%, duration 45 min at 65 ºC. In the transesterification process, commercially available alkali catalyst (KOH) is used and optimized to obtain a maximum biodiesel yield of 95.4%. The optimized parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.33(v/v), alkali catalyst 0.1 wt.%, duration 90 min at 65 ºC 90 with smooth stirring. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is employed as a tool for optimizing the process parameters. The biodiesel was then characterized with standard procedures and especially by GC-MS to confirm its compatibility for usage in internal combustion engine.

Keywords: microalgae, organic media, optimization, transesterification, characterization

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29 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Profile of Newer Schiff Bases and Thiazolidinone Derivatives

Authors: N. K. Fuloria, S. Fuloria, R. Gupta


Esterification of p-bromo-m-cresol offered 2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetate (1), which was hydrazinated to yield 2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)aceto hydrazide (2). Compound (2) was reacted with different aromatic aldehydes to yield N-(substituted benzylidiene)-2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetamide(3a-c). Cyclization of compound (3a-c) with thioglycolic acid yielded 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-arylthiazolidin-3-yl) acetamide (4a-c). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral studies and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Keywords: imines, thiazolidinone, schiff base, antimicrobial

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28 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura


Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: squalene, extraction, crystallization, Soxhlet

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27 Study the Efficiency of Some Homopolymers as Lube Oil Additives

Authors: Amal M. Nassar, Nehal S. Ahmed, Rasha S. Kamal


Some lube oil additives improve the base oil performance such as viscosity index improvers and pour point depressants which are the most important type of additives. In the present work, some homopolymeric additives were prepared by esterification of acrylic acid with different alcohols (1-dodecyl, 1-hexadecyl, and 1-octadecyl )and then homopolymerization of the prepared esters with different ratio of benzoyl peroxide catalyst (0.25%& 0.5 % and 1%). Structure of the prepared esters was confirmed by Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The molecular weights of the prepared homopolymers were determined by using Gel Permeation Chromatograph. The efficiency of the prepared homopolymers as viscosity index improvers and pour point depressants for lube oil was the investigation. It was found that all the prepared homopolymers are effective as viscosity index improvers and pour point depressants.

Keywords: lube oil additives, homopolymerization, viscosity index improver, pour point depressant

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26 Carboxyfullerene-Modified Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Singlet Oxygen and Hydroxyl Radicals Scavenging Activity

Authors: Kai-Cheng Yang, Yen-Ling Chen, Er-Chieh Cho, Kuen-Chan Lee


Titanium dioxide nanomaterials offer superior protection for human skin against the full spectrum of ultraviolet light. However, some literature reviews indicated that it might be associated with adverse effects such as cytotoxicity or reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their nanoscale. The surface of fullerene is covered with π electrons constituting aromatic structures, which can effectively scavenge large amount of radicals. Unfortunately, fullerenes are poor solubility in water, severe aggregation, and toxicity in biological applications when dispersed in solvent have imposed the limitations to the use of fullerenes. Carboxyfullerene acts as the scavenger of radicals for several years. Some reports indicate that carboxyfullerene not only decrease the concentration of free radicals in ambience but also prevent cells from reducing the number or apoptosis under UV irradiation. The aim of this study is to decorate fullerene –C70-carboxylic acid (C70-COOH) on the surface of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (P25) for the purpose of scavenging ROS during the irradiation. The modified material is prepared through the esterification of C70-COOH with P25 (P25/C70-COOH). The binding edge and structure are studied by using Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The diameter of P25 is about 30 nm and C70-COOH is found to be conjugated on the edge of P25 in aggregation morphology with the size of ca. 100 nm. In the next step, the FTIR was used to confirm the binding structure between P25 and C70-COOH. There are two new peaks are shown at 1427 and 1720 cm-1 for P25/C70-COOH, resulting from the C–C stretch and C=O stretch formed during esterification with dilute sulfuric acid. The IR results further confirm the chemically bonded interaction between C70-COOH and P25. In order to provide the evidence of scavenging radical ability of P25/C70-COOH, we chose pyridoxine (Vit.B6) and terephthalic acid (TA) to react with singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. We utilized these chemicals to observe the radicals scavenging statement via detecting the intensity of ultraviolet adsorption or fluorescence emission. The UV spectra are measured by using different concentration of C70-COOH modified P25 with 1mM pyridoxine under UV irradiation for various duration times. The results revealed that the concentration of pyridoxine was increased when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH after three hours as compared with control (only P25). It indicates fewer radicals could be reacted with pyridoxine because of the absorption via P25/C70-COOH. The fluorescence spectra are observed by measuring P25/C70-COOH with 1mM terephthalic acid under UV irradiation for various duration times. The fluorescence intensity of TAOH was decreased in ten minutes when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH. Here, it was found that the fluorescence intensity was increased after thirty minutes, which could be attributed to the saturation of C70-COOH in the absorption of radicals. However, the results showed that the modified P25/C70-COOH could reduce the radicals in the environment. Therefore, we expect that P25/C70-COOH is a potential materials in using for antioxidant.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, fullerene, radical scavenging activity, antioxidant

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25 Design of Dendritic Molecules Bearing Donor-Acceptor Groups (Pyrene-Bodipy): Optical and Photophysical Properties

Authors: Pasquale Porcu, Mireille Vonlanthen, Gerardo Zaragoza-Galán, Ernesto Rivera


In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel series of dendritic molecules bearing donor-acceptor groups (pyrene-bodipy) with potential applications in energy transfer. Initially, first and second generation Fréchet type dendrons (Py2-G1OH and Py4-G2OH) were prepared from 1-pyrenylbutanol and 3,5-dihydroxybenzylic alcohol. These compounds were further linked to a bodipy unit via an esterification reaction in order to obtain the desired products (Bodipy-G1Py2) and Bodipy-G2Py4). These compounds were fully characterized by FTIR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and their molecular weights were determined by MALDITOF. The optical and photophysical properties of these molecules were evaluated by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to compare their behaviour with other analogue molecules.

Keywords: bodipy, dendritic molecules, optical properties, pyrene

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24 Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using an Oscillatory Baffled Reactor

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Tattep Techopittayakul, Channarong Asavatesanupap


Biofuel production especially that of biodiesel has gained tremendous attention during the last decade due to environmental concerns and shortage in petroleum oil reservoir. This research aims to investigate the influences of operating parameters, such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, and 9:1) and the amount of catalyst (1, 1.5, and 2 wt.%) on the trans esterification of refined palm oil (RPO) in a medium-scale oscillatory baffle reactor.  It has been shown that an increase in the methanol-to-oil ratio resulted in an increase in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content. The amount of catalyst has an insignificant effect on the FAMEs content. Engine testing was performed on B0 (100 v/v% diesel) and blended fuel or B50 (50 v/v% diesel). Combustion of B50 was found to give lower torque compared to pure diesel. Exhaust gas from B50 was found to contain lower concentration of CO and CO2.

Keywords: biodiesel, palm oil, transesterification, oscillatory baffled reactor

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