Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: seaweed

38 Seaweed as a Future Fuel Option: Potential and Conversion Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum, Ao Xia, Jerry D. Murphy

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview of seaweed as the alternative feedstock for biofuel production and key conversion technologies. Resource depletion and climate change are the driving forces to hunt for renewable sources of energy. Macroalgae can be preferred over land based crops for biofuel production because they are not in competition with food crops for arable land, high growth rates and low lignin contents which require less energy-intensive pre-treatments. However, some disadvantages, such as high moisture content, seasonal variation in chemical composition and process inhibition limit its economic feasibility. Seaweed can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuel by different conversion technologies, but biogas via anaerobic digestion from seaweed is attracting increased attention due to its dual benefit of an economic source of bio-fuel and environment-friendly technology. Biodiesel and bioethanol conversion technologies from seaweed are still under development. A selection of high yielding seaweed species, optimal harvesting season and process optimization make them economically feasible for the alternative source of renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel in future.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biofuel, bio-methane, conversion technologies, seaweed

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37 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell

Abstract:

Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Laminaria hyperborea, ultrasound, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film, antioxidant, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
36 Hydrogels Beads of Alginate/Seaweed Powder for Plants Nutrition

Authors: Brenda O. Mazzola, Adriel Larsen, Romina P. Ollier, Leandro N. Ludueña, Vera A. Alvarez, Jimena S. Gonzalez

Abstract:

Seaweed is a natural renewable resource with great potential that is not being used by the domestic industry. Here, it was used a kind of invasive algae U. Pinnatifida that causes serious ecological damage on the Argentinian coasts. Alginate is one of the most widely used materials for encapsulation, and has the advantage that is a natural polysaccharide derived from a marine plant. It can form thermally stable hydrogel in the presence of calcium cation. In addition, the hydrogel can be easily produced into particulate form by using simple and gentle method. The aim of this work was to obtain and to characterize novel compounds (alginate/seaweed powder) for the soil nutrition. Alginate water solutions were prepared by concentrations of 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, in those solutions 10g/L of seaweed powder was added. Then the dispersions were transferred from a beaker to the atomizer by a peristaltic pump (with 0.05 to 0.1 L/h flow). A tank was filled with 1 L of calcium chloride solution (4 g/L), and the solution was agitated with a magnetic stirrer. The beads were analyzed by means TGA, FTIR and swelling determinations. In addition, the improvements in the soil were qualitative measured. It was obtained beads with different diameters depend on the initial concentration and the flow used. A better dispersions of seaweed and optimal diameter for the plant nutrition applications were obtained for 40g/L concentration and 0.1 L/h flow. The beads show thermal stability and high swelling degree. It can be successfully obtained alginate beads with seaweed powder with a novelty application as plant nutrient.

Keywords: biodegradable, characterization, hydrogel, plant nutrition, seaweed

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35 Bioconcentration Analysis of Iodine Species in Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from Maluku Marine as Alternative Food Source

Authors: Yeanchon H. Dulanlebit, Nikmans Hattu, Gloria Bora

Abstract:

Seaweed is a type of macro algae which are good source of iodine and have been widely used as food and nutrition supplement. One of iodine species that found in ocean plant is iodate. Analysis of iodate in seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from coastal area of Maluku has been done. The determination is done by using spectrophotometric method. Iodate in sample is reduced in excess of potassium iodide in the presence of acid solution, and then is reacted with starch to form blue complex. The study found out that the highest wavelength on determination of iodate species using spectrophotometer analysis method is 570 nm. Optimum value to yield maximum absorption is used in this research. Contents of iodate in seawater from coastal area of Ambon Island, Western Seram and Southeast Maluku are 0.2655, 0.2719 and 0.1760 mg/L, respectively. While in seaweeds from Ambon Island, Western Seram, Southeast Maluku-Taar, Ohoidertawun and Wab are 6.3122, 6.3293, 6.2333, 3.7406 and 4.4207 mg/kg in dry weight. Bioconcentration (enrichment) factor of iodate in seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from the three samples (cluster) is different; in Coastal area of Ambon Island, Western Seram and Southeast Maluku respectively are 23.78, 23.28 and 27.26.

Keywords: bioconcentration, eucheuma cottonii, iodate, iodine, seaweed

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34 Technology Assessment of the Collection of Cast Seaweed and Use as Feedstock for Biogas Production- The Case of SolrøD, Denmark

Authors: Rikke Lybæk, Tyge Kjær

Abstract:

The Baltic Sea is suffering from nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, which causes eutrophication of the maritime environment and hence threatens the biodiversity of the Baltic Sea area. The intensified quantity of nutrients in the water has created challenges with the growth of seaweed being discarded on beaches around the sea. The cast seaweed has led to odor problems hampering the use of beach areas around the Bay of Køge in Denmark. This is the case in, e.g., Solrød Municipality, where recreational activities have been disrupted when cast seaweed pile up on the beach. Initiatives have, however, been introduced within the municipality to remove the cast seaweed from the beach and utilize it for renewable energy production at the nearby Solrød Biogas Plant, thus being co-digested with animal manure for power and heat production. This paper investigates which type of technology application’s have been applied in the effort to optimize the collection of cast seaweed, and will further reveal, how the seaweed has been pre-treated at the biogas plant to be utilized for energy production the most efficient, hereunder the challenges connected with the content of sand. Heavy metal contents in the seaweed and how it is managed will also be addressed, which is vital as the digestate is utilized as soil fertilizer on nearby farms. Finally, the paper will outline the energy production scheme connected to the use of seaweed as feedstock for biogas production, as well as the amount of nitrogen-rich fertilizer produced. The theoretical approach adopted in the paper relies on the thinking of Circular Bio-Economy, where biological materials are cascaded and re-circulated etc., to increase and extend their value and usability. The data for this research is collected as part of the EU Interreg project “Cluster On Anaerobic digestion, environmental Services, and nuTrients removAL” (COASTAL Biogas), 2014-2020. Data gathering consists of, e.g., interviews with relevant stakeholders connected to seaweed collection and operation of the biogas plant in Solrød Municipality. It further entails studies of progress and evaluation reports from the municipality, analysis of seaweed digestion results from scholars connected to the research, as well as studies of scientific literature to supplement the above. Besides this, observations and photo documentation have been applied in the field. This paper concludes, among others, that the seaweed harvester technology currently adopted is functional in the maritime environment close to the beachfront but inadequate in collecting seaweed directly on the beach. New technology hence needs to be developed to increase the efficiency of seaweed collection. It is further concluded that the amount of sand transported to Solrød Biogas Plant with the seaweed continues to pose challenges. The seaweed is pre-treated for sand in a receiving tank with a strong stirrer, washing off the sand, which ends at the bottom of the tank where collected. The seaweed is then chopped by a macerator and mixed with the other feedstock. The wear down of the receiving tank stirrer and the chopper are, however, significant, and new methods should be adopted.

Keywords: biogas, circular bio-economy, Denmark, maritime technology, cast seaweed, solrød municipality

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33 Investigating the Use of Seaweed Extracts as Biopesticides

Authors: Emma O’ Keeffe, Helen Hughes, Peter McLoughlin, Shiau Pin Tan, Nick McCarthy

Abstract:

Biosecurity is emerging as one of the most important issues facing the agricultural and forestry community. This is as a result of increased invasion from new pests and diseases with the main protocol for dealing with these species being the use of synthetic pesticides. However, these chemicals have been shown to exhibit negative effects on the environment. Seaweeds represent a vast untapped resource of bio-molecules with a broad range of biological activities including pesticidal. This project investigated both the antifungal and antibacterial activity of seaweed species against two problematic root rot fungi, Armillaria mellea and Heterobasidion annosum and ten quarantine bacterial plant pathogens including Xanthomonas arboricola, Xanthomonas fragariae, and Erwinia amylovora. Four seaweed species were harvested from the South-East coast of Ireland including brown, red and green varieties. The powdered seaweeds were extracted using four different solvents by liquid extraction. The poisoned food technique was employed to establish the antifungal efficacy, and the standard disc diffusion assay was used to assess the antibacterial properties of the seaweed extracts. It was found that extracts of the green seaweed exhibited antifungal activity against H. annosum, with approximately 50% inhibition compared to the negative control. The protectant activities of the active extracts were evaluated on disks of Picea sitchensis, a plant species sensitive to infection from H. annosum and compared to the standard chemical control product urea. The crude extracts exhibited very similar activity to the 10% and 20% w/v concentrations of urea, demonstrating the ability of seaweed extracts to compete with commercially available products. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by a number of seaweed extracts with the red seaweed illustrating the strongest activity, with a zone of inhibition of 15.83 ± 0.41 mm exhibited against X. arboricola whilst the positive control (10 μg/disk of chloramphenicol) had a zone of 26.5 ± 0.71 mm. These results highlight the potential application of seaweed extracts in the forestry and agricultural industries for use as biopesticides. Further work is now required to identify the bioactive molecules that are responsible for this antifungal and antibacterial activity in the seaweed extracts, including toxicity studies to ensure the extracts are non-toxic to plants and humans.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, biopesticides, seaweeds

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32 Protein Extraction by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction followed by Alkaline Extraction from Red Seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum (Spinosum) Used in Carrageenan Production

Authors: Alireza Naseri, Susan L. Holdt, Charlotte Jacobsen

Abstract:

In 2014, the global amount of carrageenan production was 60,000 ton with a value of US$ 626 million. From this number, it can be estimated that the total dried seaweed consumption for this production was at least 300,000 ton/year. The protein content of these types of seaweed is 5 – 25%. If just half of this total amount of protein could be extracted, 18,000 ton/year of a high-value protein product would be obtained. The overall aim of this study was to develop a technology that will ensure further utilization of the seaweed that is used only as raw materials for carrageenan production as single extraction at present. More specifically, proteins should be extracted from the seaweed either before or after extraction of carrageenan with focus on maintaining the quality of carrageenan as a main product. Different mechanical, chemical and enzymatic technologies were evaluated. The optimized process was implemented in lab scale and based on its results; the new experiments were done a pilot and larger scale. In order to calculate the efficiency of the new upstream multi-extraction process, protein content was tested before and after extraction. After this step, the extraction of carrageenan was done and carrageenan content and the effect of extraction on yield were evaluated. The functionality and quality of carrageenan were measured based on rheological parameters. The results showed that by using the new multi-extraction process (submitted patent); it is possible to extract almost 50% of total protein without any negative impact on the carrageenan quality. Moreover, compared to the routine carrageenan extraction process, the new multi-extraction process could increase the yield of carrageenan and the rheological properties such as gel strength in the final carrageenan had a promising improvement. The extracted protein has initially been screened as a plant protein source in typical food applications. Further work will be carried out in order to improve properties such as color, solubility, and taste.

Keywords: carrageenan, extraction, protein, seaweed

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31 Characteristic of Taro (Colocasia esculenta), Seaweed (Gracilaria Sp.), and Fishes Bone Collagens Flour Based Analog Rice

Authors: Y. S. Darmanto, P. H. Riyadi, S. Susanti

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Recently, approximately 9.1 million people of 237.56 million of Indonesian population suffer diabetes. Such condition was caused by high rice consumption of most Indonesian people. It has been known that rice contains low amylose, high calorie, and possesses hyperglycemic properties. Through this study, we tried to solve that problem by creating a super food in order to provide an alternative healthy and balanced diet. We formulated Taro and Seaweed flour based analog rice that fortified by various fishes bone collagens. Corms of Taro contain easily digestible starch and seaweed is rich in fiber, vitamin, and mineral. That mixture was fortified with collagen-containing unique amino acids such as glysine, lysine, alanine, arginine, proline, and hydroxyprolin. Subsequently, super analog rice was characterized about its nutritional composition such are proximate analyses, water, dietary fiber and amylose content. Furthermore, its morphological structure was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy while the level of consumer preferences was performed by hedonic test. Results demonstrated that fortification by using various fishes bone collagen into analog rice were significantly different in nutritional composition, morphological structure as well as its preferences. Thus, this study was expected as new avenue in functional food discovery especially in the treatment and prevention of diabetic diseases.

Keywords: analogue rice, taro, seaweed, collagen

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30 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

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Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

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29 Effects of Ascophyllum nodosum in Tomato in the Tropical Caribbean Climate: Effects and Molecular Insights into Mechanisms

Authors: Omar Ali, Adesh Ramsubhag, Jayaraj Jayaraman

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Seaweed extracts have been reported as plant biostimulants which could be a safer, organic alternative to harsh pesticides. The incentive to use seaweed-based biostimulants is becoming paramount in sustainable agriculture. The current study, therefore, screened a commercial extract of A. nodosum in tomatoes, cultivated in Trinidad to showcase the multiple beneficial effects. Foliar treatment with an A. nodosum commercial extract led to significant increases in fruit yield and a significant reduction of incidence of bacterial spots and early blight diseases under both greenhouse and field conditions. Investigations were carried out to reveal the possible mechanisms of action of this biostimulant through defense enzyme assays and transcriptome profiling via RNA sequencing of tomato. Studies into disease control mechanisms by A. nodosum showed that the extract stimulated the activity of enzymes such as peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chitinase, polyphenol oxidase, and β-1,3-glucanase. Additionally, the transcriptome survey revealed the upregulation and enrichment of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of growth hormones, defense enzymes, PR proteins and defense-related secondary metabolites, as well as genes involved in the nutrient mobilization, photosynthesis and primary and secondary metabolic pathways. The results of the transcriptome study also demonstrated the cross-talks between growth and defense responses, confirming the bioelicitor and biostimulant value of seaweed extracts in plants. These effects could potentially implicate the benefits of seaweed extract and validate its usage in sustainable crop production.

Keywords: A. nodosum, biostimulants, elicitor, enzymes, growth responses, seaweeds, tomato, transcriptome analysis

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28 Preparation and Characterization of Copper-Nanoparticle on Extracted Carrageenan and Its Catalytic Activity for Reducing Aromatic Nitro Group

Authors: Vida Jodaeian, Behzad Sani

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Copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and characterized on green-extracted Carrageenan from seaweed by precipitation method without using any supporter and template with precipitation method. The crystallinity, optical properties, morphology, and composition of products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of processing parameters on the size and shape of Cu- nanostructures such as effect of pH were investigated. It is found that the reaction at lower pH values (acidic) could not be completed and pH = 8.00 was the best pH value to prepare very fine nanoparticles. They as synthesized Cu-nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in presence of NaBH4. The results showed that Cu-nanoparticles are very active for reduction of these nitro aromatic compounds.

Keywords: nanoparticles, carrageenan, seaweed, nitro aromatic compound

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27 Ethno-Botanical of Seaweeds and Sea Grass in Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Siegfried Berhimpon, Jein Dangeubun, Sandra Baulu, Rene Ch. Kepel

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In Indonesia, macro-alga is known as seaweeds or rumput laut and sea grass or lamun, and have been used as vegetables and medicine since long time ago. This studies have been done, to collect data about utilization of seaweed and sea grass as food or medicine in Eastern Indonesia. Six regencies in two provinces have been chosen as sampling areas i.e. South-East Maluku, West-East Maluku, and Aru in province of Maluku; and Sangihe, Sitaro, and Minahasa in province of North Sulawesi. The results shown that in the pass, seaweeds and sea grass have been widely used as food and medicine, and there are similarity between one area and other areas in species and in the way to prepare or to cook the food. Ten species of alga and 2 species of sea grass were consumed as vegetables and desert, and one species of sea grass was used for traditional medicine. Nowadays, because of easier to get terrestrial vegetables, the people in the coastal area rarely consumed marine vegetables, and if there are no attempt to promote and to socialize the custom, the habits trend to disappear. Environmental degradation was another caused has been identified. Seaweed contained high content of Iodine and dietary fiber, therefore, this food can overcomes the problem of iodine deficiency, and to supply an exotic high-fiber foods. In addition, by consuming seaweeds, marine culture industry will be developed, especially in the number of species seaweeds to be cultivated.

Keywords: ethno-botany, seaweed, sea grass, exotic food

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26 Flora of Seaweeds and the Preliminary Screening of the Fungal Endophytes

Authors: Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Ahmad Ismail, Nazlina Ibrahim, Asmida Ismail

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Seaweeds are economically important as they have the potential of being utilized, the capabilities and opportunities for further expansion as well as the availability of other species for future development. Hence, research on the diversity and distribution of seaweeds have to be expanded whilst the seaweeds are one of the Malaysian marine valuable heritage. The study on the distribution of seaweeds at Pengerang, Johor was carried out between February and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu. The study sites are located at the south-southeast of Peninsular Malaysia where the Petronas Refinery and Petrochemicals Integrated Project Development (RAPID) are in progress. In future, the richness of seaweeds in Pengerang will vanish soon due to the loss of habitat prior to RAPID project. The research was completed to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the present of fungal endophyte isolated from the seaweed. The sample was calculated by using quadrat with 25-meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were preserved, identified, processed in the laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The complete thallus specimens for fungal endophyte screening were chosen meticulously, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in the freezer for further process. A total of 29 species has been identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and there was a significant change in community structure of seaweeds. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. This evidence can be related to the high habitat preference such as types of shores which is rocky, sandy and having lagoon and bay. These can enhance the existence of the seaweeds community due to variations of the habitat. Eighteen seaweed species were selected and screened for the capability presence of fungal endophyte; Sargassum polycystum marked having the highest number of fungal endophyte compared to the other species. These evidence has proved the seaweed have capable of accommodating a lot of species of fungal endophytes. Thus, these evidence leads to positive consequences where further research should be employed.

Keywords: diversity, fungal endophyte, macroalgae, screening, seaweed

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25 Microwave-Assisted Alginate Extraction from Portuguese Saccorhiza polyschides – Influence of Acid Pretreatment

Authors: Mário Silva, Filipa Gomes, Filipa Oliveira, Simone Morais, Cristina Delerue-Matos

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Brown seaweeds are abundant in Portuguese coastline and represent an almost unexploited marine economic resource. One of the most common species, easily available for harvesting in the northwest coast, is Saccorhiza polyschides grows in the lowest shore and costal rocky reefs. It is almost exclusively used by local farmers as natural fertilizer, but contains a substantial amount of valuable compounds, particularly alginates, natural biopolymers of high interest for many industrial applications. Alginates are natural polysaccharides present in cell walls of brown seaweed, highly biocompatible, with particular properties that make them of high interest for the food, biotechnology, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Conventional extraction processes are based on thermal treatment. They are lengthy and consume high amounts of energy and solvents. In recent years, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has shown enormous potential to overcome major drawbacks that outcome from conventional plant material extraction (thermal and/or solvent based) techniques, being also successfully applied to the extraction of agar, fucoidans and alginates. In the present study, acid pretreatment of brown seaweed Saccorhiza polyschides for subsequent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of alginate was optimized. Seaweeds were collected in Northwest Portuguese coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean between May and August, 2014. Experimental design was used to assess the effect of temperature and acid pretreatment time in alginate extraction. Response surface methodology allowed the determination of the optimum MAE conditions: 40 mL of HCl 0.1 M per g of dried seaweed with constant stirring at 20ºC during 14h. Optimal acid pretreatment conditions have enhanced significantly MAE of alginates from Saccorhiza polyschides, thus contributing for the development of a viable, more environmental friendly alternative to conventional processes.

Keywords: acid pretreatment, alginate, brown seaweed, microwave-assisted extraction, response surface methodology

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24 Antibacterial Activity of Libyan Seaweed Extracts

Authors: Salmin K. Alshalmani, Nada H. Zobi, Ismaeel H. Bozakouk

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Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bio active secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Libyan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bio activities. The phytochemical analysis of the alcoholic extracts of some commonly occurring seaweed Cystoseira compressa, enteromorpha intestinals, corallina, and Ulva lactuca and their evaluated for antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay were studied. Four different solvents namely water, ethanol 99 %, methanol 99 %, and methylated spirit 95 % were used for extraction. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, tannin & phenols, saponins, proteins, and glycosides. The extracts were subjected for study of antibacterial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 8 to 16 mm in aqueous extract and up to 16 mm in methanol extract. The maximum activity (16 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Ulva lactuca against Staphylococcus aureus and, minimum activity (8mm) recorded by Cystoseira compressa against S. aureus.

Keywords: macroalgae, phytochemicals, antibacterial activity, methanolic extract

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23 Macroalgae as a Gaseous Fuel Option: Potential and Advanced Conversion Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum, Ao Xia, Jerry D. Murphy

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to provide an overview of macroalgae as an alternative feedstock for gaseous fuel production and key innovative technologies. Climate change and continuously depleting resources are the key driving forces to think for alternative sources of energy. Macroalgae can be favored over land based energy crops because they are not in direct competition with food crops. However, some drawbacks, such as high moisture content, seasonal variation in chemical composition and process inhibition limit the economic practicability. Macroalgae, like brown seaweed can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuel by different conversion technologies. Biomethane via anaerobic digestion is the appealing technology due to its dual advantage of a commercially applicable and environment friendly technology. Other technologies like biodiesel and bioethanol conversion technologies from seaweed are still under progress. Screening of high yielding macroalgae species, peak harvesting season and process optimization make the technology economically feasible for alternative source of feedstock for biofuel production in future.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biofuels, bio-methane, advanced conversion technologies, macroalgae

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22 Accumulation of Phlorotannins in Abalone Haliotis discus Hannai after Feeding with Eisenia bicyclis

Authors: Bangoura Issa, Ji-Young Kang, M. T. H. Chowdhury, Ji-Eun Lee, Yong-Ki Hong

Abstract:

Investigation was carried out for the production of value-added abalone Haliotis discus hannai containing bioactive phlorotannin by feeding phlorotannin-rich seaweed Eisenia bicyclis 2 weeks prior to harvesting. Accumulation of phlorotannins was proceded by feeding with E. bicyclis after 4 days of starvation. HPLC purification afforded two major phlorotannins. Mass spectrometry and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis clarified their structures to be as 7-phloroeckol and eckol. Throughout the feeding period of 20 days, 7-phloroeckolol was accumulated in the muscle (foot muscle tissue) up to 0.18±0.12 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 12 days. Eckol reached 0.21±0.03 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 18 days. By feeding Laminaria japonica as reference, abalone showed no detection of phlorotannins in the muscle tissue. Seaweed consumption and growth rate of abalone revealed almost similar when feed with E. bicyclis or L. japonicain 20 days. Phlorotannins reduction to half-maximal accumulation values took 1.0 day and 2.7 days for 7-phloroeckol and eckol respectively, after replacing the feed to L. japonica.

Keywords: abalone, accumulation, eisenia bicyclis, phlorotannins

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21 Active Exopolysaccharides Based Edible Coating Enriched with Red Seaweed (Gracilaria gracilis) Extract for Improved Preservation of Shrimp Quality during Refrigerated Storage

Authors: Rafik Balti, Mohamed Ben Mansour, Abdellah Arhaliass, Anthony Masse

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Unfortunately, shrimps are highly perishable and they start deteriorating immediately after death owing to their high water content and nutritional components. Currently, there has been an increasing interest in bioactive edible films and coatings to preserve the freshness and quality of foods. In this study, active edible coatings from microalgal exopolysaccharides (EPS) enriched with different concentrations of Red Seaweed Extract (RSE) (0.5, 1 and 1.5 % (w/v)) were developed and their effects on the quality changes of white shrimp during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C) were examined over a period of 8 days. The control and the coated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, and enterobacteriaceae counts), chemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, PV, TBARS), textural and sensory characteristics. The results indicated that the coating with a mixture of EPS and RSE could significantly decrease the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.05). With storage, EPS coatings containing RSE at both levels (1 and 1.5 %) were more effective in inhibiting the microbial species studied, specially psychrotrophic bacteria. Also, EPS + RSE coated samples had lower polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and lipid oxidation (p < 0.05) toward the end of storage. Textural and color properties of coated shrimp were generally more acceptable. Sensory scores indicated no significant changes in all samples during storage. The obtained results indicate that the edible EPS coating solutions enriched with RSE have noticeable effects on the quality and shelf life of shrimps when compared to control group. Finally, the present work demonstrates the effectiveness of EPS enriched coatings, offering a promising alternative to preserve more better the quality characteristics and to extend the shelf life of shrimp during the refrigerated storage

Keywords: active coating, exopolysaccharides, red seaweed, refrigerated storage, white shrimp

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
20 Antioxidant Activity Of Gracilaria Fisheri Extract

Authors: Paam Bidaya

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The red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri, widely distributed along Thailand's southern coastlines, has been discovered to be edible. Sulfated polysaccharides from G. fisheri were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water. Seaweed polysaccharides (SPs) have been shown to have various advantageous biological effects. This study aims to investigate total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of G. fisheri extract. The total phenolic content of G. fisheri extract was determined using Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant activity of G. fisheri extract was performed via 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, DPPH and ABTS assays showed that G. fisheri extract showed antioxidant activities as a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values of G. fisheri extract were 902.19 μg/mL ± 0.785 and 727.98 μg/mL ± 0.822 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in ABTS assay. To conclude, G. fisheri extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibit a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity should be performed in order to identify the mechanism of Gracilaria fisheri action.

Keywords: ABTS assay, DPPH assay, sulfated polysaccharides, total phenolic content

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19 Effect of Biostimulants on Downstream Processing of Endophytic Fungi Hosted in Aromatic Plant, Ocimum basicilium

Authors: Kanika Chowdhary, Satyawati Sharma

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Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. Exploring agriculturally beneficial endophytes is quite a prospective field of research. In the present work fungal endophytes associated with aromatic plant Ocimum basicilium L. were investigated for biocontrol potential. The anti-plant pathogenic activity of fungal endophytes was tested against causal agent of stem rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 75 endophytic fungi were recovered through culture-dependent approach. Fungal identification was performed both microscopically and by rDNA ITS sequencing. Curvuaria lunata (Sb-6) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sb-8) inhibited 86% and 72% mycelia growth of S. sclerotinia on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium at 7.4 pH. Small-scale fermentation was carried out on sterilised oatmeal grain medium. In another set of experiment, fungi were grown in oatmeal grain medium amended with certain biostimulants such as aqueous seaweed extract (10% v/w); methanolic seaweed extract (5% v/w); cow urine (20% v/w); biochar (10% w/w) in triplicate along with control of each to ascertain the degree of metabolic difference and anti-plant pathogenic activity induced. Phytochemically extracts of both the fungal isolates showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethylacetate extract of C. lunata and C. lindemuthianum suppressed S. sclerotinia conidial germination at IC50 values of 0.514± 0.02 and 0.913± 0.04 mg/ml. Therefore, fungal endophytes of O. basicilium are highly promising bio-resource agent, which can be developed further for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, ocimum basicilium, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, biostimulants

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18 Biomedical Application of Green Biosynthesis Magnetic Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed (Sargassum muticum) Aqueous Extract

Authors: Farideh Namvar, Rosfarizan Mohamed

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In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. This use of biological entities to create nanoparticles has designated as “Green” synthesis and it is considered to be far more beneficial due to being economical, eco-friendly and applicable for large-scale synthesis as it operates on low pressure, less input of energy and low temperatures. The lack of toxic byproducts and consequent decrease in degradation of the product renders this technique more preferable over physical and classical chemical methods. The variety of biomass having reduction properties to produce nanoparticles makes them an ideal candidate for fabrication. Metal oxide nanoparticles have been said to represent a "fundamental cornerstone of nanoscience and nanotechnology" due to their variety of properties and potential applications. However, this also provides evidence of the fact that metal oxides include many diverse types of nanoparticles with large differences in chemical composition and behaviour. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) were synthesized using a rapid, single step and completely green biosynthetic method by reduction of ferric chloride solution with brown seaweed (Sargassum muticum) water extract containing polysaccharides as a main factor which acts as reducing agent and efficient stabilizer. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method. The resulting S-IONPs are crystalline in nature, with a cubic shape. The average particle diameter, as determined by TEM, was found to be 18.01 nm. The S-IONPs were efficiently inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida species. Our favorable results suggest that S-IONPs could be a promising candidate for development of future antimicrobial therapies. The nature of biosynthesis and the therapeutic potential by S-IONPs could pave the way for further research on design of green synthesis therapeutic agents, particularly nanomedicine, to deal with treatment of infections. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial activity of these particles. Antioxidant activity of S-IONPs synthesized by green method was measured by ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (IC50= 1000µg) radical scavenging activity. Also, with the increasing concentration of S-IONPs, catalase gene expression compared to control gene GAPDH increased. For anti-angiogenesis study the Ross fertilized eggs were divided into four groups; the control and three experimental groups. The gelatin sponges containing albumin were placed on the chorioalantoic membrane and soaked with different concentrations of S-IONPs. All the cases were photographed using a photo stereomicroscope. The number and the lengths of the vessels were measured using Image J software. The crown rump (CR) and weight of the embryo were also recorded. According to the data analysis, the number and length of the blood vessels, as well as the CR and weight of the embryos reduced significantly compared to the control (p < 0.05), dose dependently. The total hemoglobin was quantified as an indicator of the blood vessel formation, and in the treated samples decreased, which showed its inhibitory effect on angiogenesis.

Keywords: anti-angiogenesis, antimicrobial, antioxidant, biosynthesis, iron oxide (fe3o4) nanoparticles, sargassum muticum, seaweed

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17 ANN Modeling for Cadmium Biosorption from Potable Water Using a Packed-Bed Column Process

Authors: Dariush Jafari, Seyed Ali Jafari

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The recommended limit for cadmium concentration in potable water is less than 0.005 mg/L. A continuous biosorption process using indigenous red seaweed, Gracilaria corticata, was performed to remove cadmium from the potable water. The process was conducted under fixed conditions and the breakthrough curves were achieved for three consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. A modeling based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to fit the experimental breakthrough data. In addition, a simplified semi empirical model, Thomas, was employed for this purpose. It was found that ANN well described the experimental data (R2>0.99) while the Thomas prediction were a bit less successful with R2>0.97. The adjusted design parameters using the nonlinear form of Thomas model was in a good agreement with the experimentally obtained ones. The results approve the capability of ANN to predict the cadmium concentration in potable water.

Keywords: ANN, biosorption, cadmium, packed-bed, potable water

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16 Swelling Behaviour of Kappa Carrageenan Hydrogel in Neutral Salt Solution

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

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Hydrogel films were prepared from kappa carrageenan by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Carrageenan films extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed were immersed in glutaraldehyde solution for 2 min and then cured at 110 °C for 25 min. The obtained crosslinked films were washed with ethanol to remove the unreacted glutaraldehyde and then air dried to constant weights. The aim of this research was to study the swelling degree behaviour of the hydrogel film to neutral salts solution, namely NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. The results showed that swelling degree of crosslinked films varied non-monotonically with salinity of NaCl. Swelling degree decreased with the increasing of KCl concentration. Swelling degree of crosslinked film in CaCl2 solution was lower than that in NaCl and in KCl solutions.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, glutaraldehyde, salt, swelling

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15 Mass Transfer of Paracetamol from the Crosslinked Carrageenan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Film

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Rieke Ulfha Noviyanti, Sri Sutriyani, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

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In this research, carrageenan extracted from seaweed Eucheuma cottonii was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and then crosslinked using glutaraldehyde (GA). The obtained hydrogel films were applied to control the drug release rate of paracetamol. The aim of this research was to develop a mathematical model that can be used to describe the mass transfer rate of paracetamol from the hydrogel film into buffer solution. The effect of weight ratio carrageenan-PVA (5: 0, 1: 0.5, 1: 1, 1: 2, 0: 5) on the parameters of the mathematical model was investigated also. Based on the experimental data, the proposed mathematical model could describe the mass transfer rate of paracetamol. The weight ratio of carrageenan-PVA greatly affected the amount of paracetamol absorbed in the hydrogel film and the mass transfer rate of paracetamol.

Keywords: carrageenan-PVA, crosslinking, glutaraldehyde, hydrogel, paracetamol, mass transfer

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14 Influence of Alcohol to Quality Iota Type Carrageenan

Authors: Andi Hasizah Mochtar, Meta Mahendradatta, Amran Laga, Metusalach Metusalach, Salengke Salengke, Mariati Bilang, Andi Amijoyo Mochtar, Reta Reta, Aminah Muhdar, Sri Suhartini

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This study aims to determine the effect of alcohol type on the quality of iota carrageenan-based on extraction technology through the application of ohmic reactor. Results of this analysis will be used as a reference for selecting the proper type of alcohol used for carrageenan precipitated after extraction by technology based ohmic. The results of analysis performed included analysis of viscosity, gel strength, and yield of iota carrageenan. Viscosity is the highest obtained at precipitated by using isopropyl alcohol with an average of 291.5 Cp (at 160 rpm), then with methanol at an average of 282 Cp, then precipitated by using ethanol at an average of 206.5 Cp. Gel strength is the lowest obtained 67.74 on precipitated by using ethanol, then an average of 74.34 in precipitated that using methanol, and the highest average of 80.11 in precipitated that using isopropyl alcohol.

Keywords: extraction of carrageenan, gel strength, ohmic technology, precipitated, seaweed (Eucheuma spinosum), viscosity

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13 Anti-Cancerous Activity of Sargassum siliquastrum in Cervical Cancer: Choreographing the Fly's Danse Macabre

Authors: Sana Abbasa, Shahzad Bhattiab, Nadir Khan

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Sargassum siliquastrum is brown seaweed with traditional claims for some medicinal properties. This research was done to investigate the methanol extract of S. siliquastrum for antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa and its mode of cell death. From methylene blue assay, S. siliquastrum exhibited antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells with IC50 of 3.87 µg/ml without affecting non-malignant cells. Phase contrast microscopy indicated the confluency reduction in HeLa cells and changes on the cell shape. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 displayed the formation of apoptotic bodies and fragmented nuclei. S. siliquastrum also induced early apoptosis event in HeLa cells as confirmed by FITC-Annexin V/propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry analysis. Cell cycle analysis indicated growth arrest of HeLa cells at G1/S phase. Protein study by flow cytometry indicated the increment of p53, slight increase of Bax and unchanged level of Bcl-2. In conclusion, S. siliquastrum demonstrated an antiproliferative activity in HeLa cell by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest via p53-mediated pathway.

Keywords: sargassum siliquastrum, cervical cancer, P53, antiproleferation

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12 Comparison of Tourist Shopping Patterns in Korea, 2009-2015: A Case of China and Japan

Authors: Miju Choi, Ava Seo

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Japan has been positioned as a major inbound market to Korea, accounting for about 31% of total inbound visitors until 2012. The percentage has sharply dropped each year since and remained in second place, reaching 13.33% in 2016. Meanwhile, China has been boosted as a major inbound market, reaching 46.79% in 2016. Chinese tourists mainly visit Korea with the major purpose of shopping. They consume Korean cosmetic/beauty products and clothes while Japanese tourists prefer to purchase healthy food such as ginseng and seaweed. This study aims to investigate and compare tourist shopping patterns across two major inbound markets, China and Japan. A quantitative approach using survey was applied from 2009 to 2016. Findings suggest Chinese visit Korea due to quality of product, value for money, and accessibility, and trust. Meanwhile, Japanese choose Korea as a shopping destination mainly due to convenience, affordability, and tourist attractions. Also, there were significant differences in shopping venues. For example, Japanese tourists prefer shopping at department stores while Chinese tourists prefer retail outlets and local markets. This study contributes to deeper understanding on two major inbound markets to Korea and suggests future marketing strategies.

Keywords: tourist shopping patterns, Korea, China, Japan, historical data

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11 Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol and Pigments Content of Seaweeds Collected from, Rameshwaram, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India

Authors: Suparna Roy, P. Anantharaman

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The aim of this work is to estimate some in-vitro antioxidant activities and total phenols of various extracts such as aqueous, acetone, ethanol, methanol extract of seaweeds and pigments content by Spectrophotometric method. The seaweeds were collected during 2016 from Rameshwaram, southeast coast of India. Among four different extracts, aqueous extracts from all seaweeds had minimum activity than acetone, methanol and ethanol. The Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta had high antioxidant activity in comparing to Chlorophyta. The highest total antioxidant activity was found in acetone extract fromTurbinaria decurrens (98.97±0.00%), followed by its methanol extract (98.81±0.60%) and ethanol extract (98.58±0.53%). The highest reducing power and H2O2 scavenging activity were found in acetone extract of Caulerpa racemosa (383.25±1.04%), and methanol extract from Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (24.91±0.49%). The methanol extract from Caulerpa scalpelliformis contained the highest total phenol (85.23±0.12%). The Chloro-a and Chloro-b contents were the highest in Gracilaria foliifera (13.69±0.38% mg/gm dry wt.) and Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (9.12 ±0.12% mg/gm dry wt.) likewise carotenoid was also the highest in Gracilaria foliifera (0.054±0.0003% mg/gm dry wt.) and Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (0.04 ±0.002% mg/gm dry wt.). It can be concluded from this study that some seaweed extract can be used for natural antioxidant production, after further characterization to negotiate the side effect of synthetic, market available antioxidants.

Keywords: seaweeds, antioxidant, total phenol, pigment, Olaikuda, Vadakkadu, Rameshwaram

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10 Influence of the Cooking Technique on the Iodine Content of Frozen Hake

Authors: F. Deng, R. Sanchez, A. Beltran, S. Maestre

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The high nutritional value associated with seafood is related to the presence of essential trace elements. Moreover, seafood is considered an important source of energy, proteins, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Generally, seafood is consumed cooked. Consequently, the nutritional value could be degraded. Seafood, such as fish, shellfish, and seaweed, could be considered as one of the main iodine sources. The deficient or excessive consumption of iodine could cause dysfunction and pathologies related to the thyroid gland. The main objective of this work is to evaluated iodine stability in hake (Merluccius) undergone different culinary techniques. The culinary process considered were: boiling, steaming, microwave cooking, baking, cooking en papillote (twisted cover with the shape of a sweet wrapper) and coating with a batter of flour and deep-frying. The determination of iodine was carried by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Regarding sample handling strategies, liquid-liquid extraction has demonstrated to be a powerful pre-concentration and clean-up approach for trace metal analysis by ICP techniques. Extraction with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH reagent) was used as a sample preparation method in this work. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the stability of iodine was degraded with the cooking processes. The major degradation was observed for the boiling and microwave cooking processes. The content of iodine in hake decreased up to 60% and 52%, respectively. However, if the boiling cooking liquid is preserved, this loss that has been generated during cooking is reduced. Only when the fish was cooked by following the cooking en papillote process the iodine content was preserved.

Keywords: cooking process, ICP-MS, iodine, hake

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9 Evaluation of Electro-Flocculation for Biomass Production of Marine Microalgae Phaodactylum tricornutum

Authors: Luciana C. Ramos, Leandro J. Sousa, Antônio Ferreira da Silva, Valéria Gomes Oliveira Falcão, Suzana T. Cunha Lima

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The commercial production of biodiesel using microalgae demands a high-energy input for harvesting biomass, making production economically unfeasible. Methods currently used involve mechanical, chemical, and biological procedures. In this work, a flocculation system is presented as a cost and energy effective process to increase biomass production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This diatom is the only species of the genus that present fast growth and lipid accumulation ability that are of great interest for biofuel production. The algae, selected from the Bank of Microalgae, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil), have been bred in tubular reactor with photoperiod of 12 h (clear/dark), providing luminance of about 35 μmol photons m-2s-1, and temperature of 22 °C. The medium used for growing cells was the Conway medium, with addition of silica. The seaweed growth curve was accompanied by cell count in Neubauer camera and by optical density in spectrophotometer, at 680 nm. The precipitation occurred at the end of the stationary phase of growth, 21 days after inoculation, using two methods: centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min, and electro-flocculation at 19 EPD and 95 W. After precipitation, cells were frozen at -20 °C and, subsequently, lyophilized. Biomass obtained by electro-flocculation was approximately four times greater than the one achieved by centrifugation. The benefits of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is necessary and similar cultivation conditions can be used for the biodiesel production and pharmacological purposes. The results may contribute to improve biodiesel production costs using marine microalgae.

Keywords: biomass, diatom, flocculation, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 237