Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5174

Search results for: anxious/depressed problems

5174 An Analysis of Anxious/Depressed Behaviors of Chinese Adolescents

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgiana Duarte

Abstract:

This study explored early adolescents’ anxious and depressed syndromes in Northeast China. Specifically, the study examined anxious and depressed behaviors and the relationship to education environments. The purpose is to examine how the elements of educational environments and the early adolescents’ behaviors as independent variables influence and possibly predict the early adolescents’ anxious/depressed problems. Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), was the instrument, used in collection of data. A stratified sampling method was utilized to collect data from 2532 participants in seven schools. The results indicated that several background variables influenced anxious/depressed problem. Specifically, age, grade, sports activities and hobbies had a relationship with the anxious/depressed variable.

Keywords: anxious/depressed problems, CBCL, empirically-based assessment, internalizing problems

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5173 Reliability Evidence of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Based on a Chinese Sample

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgiana Duarte

Abstract:

The Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is the one of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales, by which behavioral and emotional problems of early adolescents were examined. In order to further understand the robustness of the scale, its reliability has been examined. CBCL consists of 8 problems to measure internalizing, externalizing and social problems. In internalizing problem, there are Anxious, Withdrawn and Somatic Complaints. In this study, as an example, we only examined the anxious aspect which consisted of 13 questions. Cronbach alpha and factor analysis methods were used to examine the reliability of the scale. The result indicated that Cronbach alpha value was above 0.80.

Keywords: anxious/depressed problems, ASEBA, CBCL, Cronbach Alpha, reliability

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5172 The Examination of Withdrawn Behavior in Chinese Adolescents

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgiana Duarte

Abstract:

This study examined withdrawn syndromes of Chinese school children in northeast China in Northeast China. Specifically, the study examined withdrawn behaviors and the relationship to anxious syndromes and education environments. The purpose is to examine how the elements of educational environments and the early adolescents’ behaviors as independent variables influence and possibly predict the school children’s withdrawn problems. Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), was the instrument, used in collection of data. A stratified sampling method was utilized to collect data from 2532 participants in seven schools. The results indicated that several background variables influenced withdrawn problem. Specifically, age, grade, sports activities and hobbies had a relationship with the anxious/depressed variable. Further withdrawn syndromes and anxious problem indicate a significant correlation.

Keywords: anxious/depressed problem, ASEBA, CBCL, withdrawn syndromes

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5171 Reliability and Validity Examinations of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL): One of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

In this study, three Chinese versions of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales were used to examine adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. These three scales are CBCL, TRF, and YSR. In order to further understand the robustness of these scales, their reliability and construct validity have been examined. Each scale consists of about 113 items plus relevant background variables. These 113 items were further classified into 8 psychological and behavioral problems: emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints, withdrawn, attention problems, aggressive behavior, social problems, thought problems, and association problems. The study explored the item and construct correlation relations and the correlations between the corresponding constructs among three scales. The results indicated that the associations between item and constructs varied. The construct validities were very robust.

Keywords: ASEBA, construct validity, psychological and behavioral problems, reliability

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5170 Hierarchically Modeling Cognition and Behavioral Problems of an Under-Represented Group

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

This study examines adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. The Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) were used as the instrument. The problem framework consists of internal, external and social behavioral problems which are theoretically developed based on about 113 items plus relevant background variables. In this study, the sample consist of 1,975 sixth and seventh grade students in Northeast China. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect the data, meaning that samples were from different school districts, schools, and classes. The researchers looked at both macro and micro effect. Therefore, multilevel analysis techniques were used in the data analysis. The parts of the research results indicated that the background variables such as extracurricular activities were directly related to students’ internal problems.

Keywords: behavioral problems, anxious/depressed problems, internalizing problems, mental health, under-represented groups, empirically-based assessment, hierarchical modeling, ASEBA, multilevel analysis

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5169 Decision Making, Reward Processing and Response Selection

Authors: Benmansour Nassima, Benmansour Souheyla

Abstract:

The appropriate integration of reward processing and decision making provided by the environment is vital for behavioural success and individuals’ well being in everyday life. Functional neurological investigation has already provided an inclusive image on affective and emotional (motivational) processing in the healthy human brain and has recently focused its interest also on the assessment of brain function in anxious and depressed individuals. This article offers an overview on the theoretical approaches that relate emotion and decision-making, and spotlights investigation with anxious or depressed individuals to reveal how emotions can interfere with decision-making. This research aims at incorporating the emotional structure based on response and stimulation with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. It seeks to show how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions bear out that alterations of decision-making can be considered in terms of altered probability and value subtraction. The utmost objective is to critically determine if the probabilistic representation of belief affords could be a critical approach to scrutinize alterations in probability and value representation in subjective with anxiety and depression, and draw round the general implications of this approach.

Keywords: decision-making, motivation, alteration, reward processing, response selection

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5168 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen

Abstract:

The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

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5167 Psychological Alarm among Individuals Suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Selim A., Albasher N., Bakrmom G., Alanzi S.

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort or pain and associated with alteration in frequency and/or form of bowel habit among other symptoms. This diagnosis is associated with increased levels of psychological distress, maladaptive coping, genetic risk factors, abnormal small and colonic intestine transit, change in stool frequency or form and abdominal discomfort or pain. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess psychological alarm among individuals suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Methods: A cross-sectional correlational research design was used to conduct the current study. A convenience sample of 504 participants was included in the present study. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, ROME III to identify Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Psychological Alarm Questionnaire. Results: Out of 504 participants who reported abdominal discomfort, 297 (58.9 %) participants met the diagnostic criteria of IBS. The mean age of the IBS participants was 30.16 years, females composed 75.1% of the IBS participants, and 55.2% did not seek medical help. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals when compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Conclusion: IBS is highly associated with significant psychological alarms including depression, anxiety and suicidal ideas.

Keywords: abdominal pain , irritable bowel syndrome, distress, psychological alarms

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5166 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector

Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal management

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5165 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

Abstract:

This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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5164 Mental Health of Caregivers in Public Hospital Intensive Care Department: A Multicentric Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Naima Bouatay, Chaima Harrathi, Samia Machroughl, Ahmed Mhalla

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Professionals of health care sector are exposed to psychosocial constraints like stress, harassment, violence, which can lead to many mental health problems such as, depression, addictive behavior, and burn-out. Moreover, it’s well established that caregivers affected to intensive care units are more likely to experience such constraints and mental health problems. For these caregivers, the mental health state may affect care quality and patient’s safety. This study aims either to identify occupational psychosocial constraints and their mental health consequences among paramedical and medical caregivers affected to intensive units in Tunisian public hospital. Methods: An exhaustive three months cross-sectional study conducted among medical and paramedical staffs of intensive care units in three Tunisian university hospitals. After informed consent collection, we evaluated work-related stress, workplace harassment, depression, anxious troubles, addictive behavior, and self-esteems through an anonymous self-completed inquiry form. Five validated questionnaires and scales were included in this form: Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, Negative Acts Questionnaire, Rosenberg, Beck depression inventory and Hamilton Anxiety scale. Results: We included 129 intensive unit caregivers; with a mean age of 36.1 ± 1.1 years and a sex ratio of 0.58. Among these caregivers, 30% were specialist or under-specialization doctors. The average seniority in the intensive care was 6.1 ± 1.2 (extremes=1 to 40 years). Atypical working schedules were noted among 36.7% of the subjects with an imposed choice in 52.4% of cases. During the last 12 months preceding the survey, 51.7% of care workers were absent from work because of a health problem with stops exceeding 15 days in 11.7%. Job strain was objective among 15% of caregivers and 38.33% of them were victims of moral harassment. A low or very low self-esteem was noted among 40% of respondents. Moreover, active smoking was reported by 20% subjects, alcohol consumption by 13.3% and psychotropic substance use by 1.7% of them. According to Beck inventory and Hamilton Anxiety scale, we concluded that 61.7% of intensive care providers were depressed, with 'severe' depression in 13.3% of cases and 49.9% of them present anxious disorders. Multivariate analysis objective that, job strain was correlated with young age (p=0.005) and shorter work seniority (p=0.001). Workplace and moral harassment was more prevalent among females (p=0.009), under-specialization doctor (p=0.021), those affected to atypical schedules (p=0.008). Concerning depression, it was more prevalent among staff in job strain situation (p = 0.004), among smokers caregivers (p = 0.048), and those with no leisure activity (p < 0.001). Anxious disorders were positively correlated to chronic diseases history (p = 0.001) and work-bullying exposure (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Our findings reflected a high frequency of caregivers who are under stress at work and those who are victims of moral harassment. These health professionals were at increased risk for developing psychiatric illness such depressive and anxious disorders and addictive behavior. Our results suggest the necessity of preventive strategies of occupational psychosocial constraints in order to preserve professional’s mental health and maximize patient safety and quality of care.

Keywords: health care sector, intensive care units, mental health, psychosocial constraints

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5163 An Integrative Review of Changes of Family Relationship and Mental Health that Chinese Men Experience during Transition to Fatherhood

Authors: Mo Zhou, Samantha Ashby, Lyn Ebert

Abstract:

In China, the changes that men experience in the perinatal period are not well researched. Men are also at risk of maladaptation to parenthood. The aim of this research is to review current studies regarding changes that Chinese men experience during transitioning to parenthood. 5 databases were employed to search relevant papers. The search found 128 articles. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 35 articles were included in this integrative review. Results showed the changes that Chinese fathers experienced during the transition to parenthood can be divided into two aspects: family relationships and mental problems. During transition to parenthood, fathers usually experienced an increase in their disappointment with marital conflict resolution and decreased sexual intimacy with their partner. Mental health declined, with fathers often feeling depressed and/or anxious during this time. Some men were diagnosed with clinical depression. The predictors of these changes included three domains: personal background (age and income), family background (gender of infant, relationship status and unplanned child) and cultural background (‘doing the month’, Confucianism, policy, social support).

Keywords: China, men, fatherhood, life change, postpartum

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5162 Association of Calcium Intake Adequacy with Wealth Indices among Selected Female Adults Living in Depressed and Non-Depressed Area in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Maria Viktoria Melgo

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the possible association between calcium intake and wealth indices of selected female adults. Specifically, it aimed to: a) determine the calcium intake adequacy of the respondents. b) determine the relationship, if any, between calcium intake adequacy, area and wealth indices. The study used the survey design and employed convenience sampling in selecting participants. Two hundred females aged 20 – 64 years old were covered in the study from depressed and non-depressed areas. Data collected were calcium intake taken from two 24-hour food recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and wealth indices using housing characteristics, household assets and access to utilities and infrastructure. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to determine the frequency distribution and association between the given variables, respectively, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and OpenEpi software. The results showed that there were 86% of respondents in the depressed area with an inadequate calcium intake while there were 78% of respondents in the non-depressed area with an adequate calcium intake. No significant relationship was obtained in most wealth indices with calcium intake adequacy and area but appliance and ownership of main material of the house showed a significant relationship to calcium intake adequacy by area. The study recommends that the Local Government Unit (LGU) should provide seminars or nutrition education that will further enhance the knowledge of the people in the community. The study also recommends to conduct a similar study but with different, larger sample size, different location nonetheless if it is in urban or rural and include the anthropometry measurement of the respondents.

Keywords: association, calcium intake adequacy, metro Manila, Philippines, wealth indices

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5161 Prevalence of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in School Going Adolescents in India

Authors: Anshu Gupta, Charu Gupta

Abstract:

Background: Adolescence is the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. It is marked by immense turmoil in emotional and behavioral spheres. Adolescents are at risk of an array of behavioral and emotional problems, resulting in social, academic and vocational function impairments. Conflicts in the family and inability of the parents to cope with the changing demands of an adolescent have a negative impact on the overall development of the child. This augers ill for the individual’s future, resulting in depression, delinquency and suicides among other problems. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems in school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years residing in Ludhiana city. Method: A total of 1380 school children in the age group of 13 to 15 years were assessed by the adolescent health screening questionnaire (FAPS) and Youth Self-Report (2001) questionnaire. Statistical significance was ascertained by t-test, chi-square test (x²) and ANOVA, as appropriate. Results: A considerably high prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was found in school going adolescents (26.5%), more in girls (31.7%) than in boys (24.4%). In case of boys, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 28.2%, followed by a significant decline by the age of 14 years, i.e., 24.2% and 15 years, i.e., 19.6%. In case of girls also, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 32.4% followed by a marginal decline in the 14 years i.e., 31.8% and 15 year age group, i.e., 30.2%. Demographic factors were non contributory. Internalizing syndrome (22.4%) was the most common problem followed by the neither internalizing nor externalizing (17.6%) group. In internalizing group, most (26.5%) of the students were observed to be anxious/ depressed. Social problem was observed to be the most frequent (10.6%) among neither internalizing nor externalizing group. Aggressive behavior was the commonest (8.4%) among externalizing group. Internalizing problems, mainly anxiety and depression, were commoner in females (30.6%) than males (24.6%). More boys (16%) than girls (13.4%) were reported to suffer from externalizing disorders. A critical review of the data showed that most of the adolescents had poor knowledge about reproductive health. Almost 36% reported that the source of their information on sexual and reproductive health being friends and the electronic media. There was a high percentage of adolescents who reported being worried about sexual abuse (20.2%) with majority of them being girls (93.6%) reflecting poorly on the social setup in the country. About 41% of adolescents reported being concerned about body weight and most of them being girls (92.4%). Up to 14.5% reported having thoughts of using alcohol or drugs perhaps due to the easy availability of substances of abuse in this part of the country. 12.8% (mostly girls) reported suicidal thoughts. Summary/conclusion: There is a high prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems among school-going adolescents. Resolution of these problems during adolescence is essential for attaining a healthy adulthood. The need of the hour is to spread awareness among caregivers and formulation of effective management strategies including school mental health programme.

Keywords: adolescence, behavioral, emotional, internalizing problem

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5160 Cognitive and Environmental Factors Affecting Graduate Student Perception of Mathematics

Authors: Juanita Morris

Abstract:

The purpose of this study will examine the mediating relationships between the theories of intelligence, mathematics anxiety, gender stereotype threat, meta-cognition and math performance through the use of eye tracking technology, affecting student perception and problem-solving abilities. The participants will consist of (N=80) female graduate students. Test administered were the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale, Tobii Eye Tracking software, gender stereotype threat through Google images, and they will be asked to describe their problem-solving approach allowed to measure metacognition. Participants will be administered mathematics problems while having gender stereotype threat shown to them through online images while being directed to look at the eye tracking software Tobii. We will explore this by asking ‘Is mathematics anxiety associated with the theories of intelligence and gender stereotype threat and how does metacognition and math performance place a role in mediating those perspectives?’. It is hypothesized that math-anxious students are more likely affected by the gender stereotype threat and that may play a role in their performance? Furthermore, we also want to explore whether math anxious students are more likely to be an entity theorist than incremental theorist and whether those who are math anxious will be more likely to be fixated on variables associated with coefficients? Path analysis and independent samples t-test will be used to generate results for this study. We hope to conclude that both the theories of intelligence and metacognition mediate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and gender stereotype threat.

Keywords: math anxiety, emotions, affective domains fo learning, cognitive underlinings

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5159 The Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Group Therapy on Improving Depressed Mothers of Child Abuser Families

Authors: Roya Maqami, Kaveh Qaderi Bagajan, Mohammad Mahdi Yousefi, Saeed Moradi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of solution-focused group therapy on improving the depressed mothers of child abuser families. This study was carried out in the form of a semi-pilot, pre-test and post-test on two groups (experimental and control). Subjects include all mothers and their children that are the members of Shush and Naser Khosro child home. Beck Depression Inventory and Child Trauma Questionnaire were used to collect data. First, child abuse questionnaire was completed by children, Then Beck Depression Inventory was completed by their mothers that 22 of them were recognized as depressed and randomly divided in two groups of experimental and control. After applying pre-test for both of these groups, the intervention of solution- focused group therapy was performed in five sessions on experimental group. Finally, post-test was applied on both groups and subsequently in a month, follow-up test was performed. T-test, multivariate variance, and repeated measurement analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. According to the findings, it can be concluded that this therapy leads to the improvement of depressed mother's mood. As a result, the intervention of solution-focused group therapy is useful in order to improve the depressing mood of mothers of child abuser families.

Keywords: child abuse, depressed mothers, child abuser families, solution focused group therapy

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5158 Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A Short Term Study

Authors: Hyang Lim, Sungwon Choi

Abstract:

Many previous studies in area of adolescents' depression have used a longitudinal design. The previous studies have found that the developmental trajectory of them is only one. But it needs to be examined whether the trajectory is applied to all adolescents. Some factors in their home and/or school have an effect on adolescents' depression and more likely to be specific groups. The present study was a longitudinal study aimed to identify the trajectories and to explore the predictors of adolescents' depression. The study used Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) data. In this study, 2,351 second and third-year of middle school and first of high school students' data was analyzed by using semi-parametric group modeling (SGM). There were 5 trajectory groups for adolescents; low depressed stables, low depressed risers, moderately depressed decreases, moderately depressed stables, severe depressed decreases. The predictors of adolescents' depression were parental abuse, parental neglect, annual family income, parental academic background, friendship at school, and teacher-student relationship at school. All predictors had the significant difference across trajectory group profile for adolescents. The findings of the present study recommend to promote the socioeconomic status and to train social skill for the interpersonal relationship at the home and school. And the results suggest that the proper prevention programs for each group in the middle adolescents that target selected factors may be helpful in reducing the level of depression.

Keywords: adolescent, depression, KCYPS, school life, semi-parametric group-based modeling

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5157 Adult Attachment Security as a Predictor of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy among College Students in the United States

Authors: Mai Kaneda, Sarah Feeney

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This study examined the association between adult attachment security and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) among college students in the United States. Previous studies show that attachment security is associated with levels of CDMSE among college students. Given that a majority of studies examining career development variables have used parental attachment measures, this study adds to understanding of this phenomenon by utilizing a broader measure of attachment. The participants included 269 college students (76% female) between the ages of 19-29. An anonymous survey was distributed online via social media as well as in hard copy format in classrooms. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and CDMSE. Results revealed anxious attachment was a significant predictor of CDMSE (B = -.13, p = .01), such that greater anxiety in attachment was associated with lower levels of CDMSE. When accounting for anxious attachment, avoidant attachment was no longer significant as a predictor of CDMSE (B = -.12, p = .10). The variance in college CDMSE explained by the model was 7%, F(2,267) = 9.51, p < .001. Results for anxious attachment are consistent with existing literature that finds insecure attachment to be related to lower levels of CDMSE, however the non-significant results for avoidant attachment as a predictor of CDMSE suggest not all types of attachment insecurity are equally related to CDMSE. Future research is needed to explore the nature of the relationship between different dimensions of attachment insecurity and CDMSE.

Keywords: attachment, career decision-making, college students, self-efficacy

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5156 Observing the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Meditation on Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Pain Patients

Authors: Kim Rod

Abstract:

People whose chronic pain limits their independence are especially likely to become anxious and depressed. Mindfulness training has shown promise for stress-related disorders. Methods: Chronic pain patients who complained of anxiety and depression and who scored higher than moderate in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as moderate in Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) were observed for eight weeks, three days a week for an hour of Mindfulness Meditation training with an hour daily home Mindfulness Meditation practice. Pain was evaluated on study entry and completion, and patients were given the Patients’ Global Impression of Change (PGIC) to score at the end of the training program. Results: Forty-seven patients (47) completed the Mindfulness Meditation Training program. Over the year-long observation, patients demonstrated noticeable improvement in depression, anxiety, pain, and global impression of change. Conclusion: Chronic pain patients who suffer with anxiety and depression may benefit from incorporating Mindfulness Meditation into their treatment plans.

Keywords: mindfulness, meditation, depression, anxiety, chronic pain

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5155 Adolescent-Parent Relationship as the Most Important Factor in Preventing Mood Disorders in Adolescents: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to Social Studies

Authors: Elżbieta Turska

Abstract:

Introduction: One of the most difficult times in a person’s life is adolescence. The experiences in this period may shape the future life of this person to a large extent. This is the reason why many young people experience sadness, dejection, hopelessness, sense of worthlessness, as well as losing interest in various activities and social relationships, all of which are often classified as mood disorders. As many as 15-40% adolescents experience depressed moods and for most of them they resolve and are not carried into adulthood. However, (5-6%) of those affected by mood disorders develop the depressive syndrome and as many as (1-3%) develop full-blown clinical depression. Materials: A large questionnaire was given to 2508 students, aged 13–16 years old, and one of its parts was the Burns checklist, i.e. the standard test for identifying depressed mood. The questionnaire asked about many aspects of the student’s life, it included a total of 53 questions, most of which had subquestions. It is important to note that the data suffered from many problems, the most important of which were missing data and collinearity. Aim: In order to identify the correlates of mood disorders we built predictive models which were then trained and validated. Our aim was not to be able to predict which students suffer from mood disorders but rather to explore the factors influencing mood disorders. Methods: The problems with data described above practically excluded using all classical statistical methods. For this reason, we attempted to use the following Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods: classification trees with surrogate variables, random forests and xgboost. All analyses were carried out with the use of the mlr package for the R programming language. Resuts: The predictive model built by classification trees algorithm outperformed the other algorithms by a large margin. As a result, we were able to rank the variables (questions and subquestions from the questionnaire) from the most to least influential as far as protection against mood disorder is concerned. Thirteen out of twenty most important variables reflect the relationships with parents. This seems to be a really significant result both from the cognitive point of view and also from the practical point of view, i.e. as far as interventions to correct mood disorders are concerned.

Keywords: mood disorders, adolescents, family, artificial intelligence

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5154 A Review of Challenges of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Depressed People

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri

Abstract:

Shock therapy has been used in persons living with depression and deeply depressed persons. It has been used in children also. Shock therapy has been also among its pros believed to improve the quality of life and an effective treatment of depression. The review of the literature on ECT papers have highlighted that benefits to users of ECT are elusive, and iatrogenic harm often occurs showing that the approach will always fall far in comporting to psychological ethics. On the contrary, ECT is known as shock therapy which is the administration of electric shock within the brain; it has been challenged on ethical grounds if it’s proper ethically. From this ethical aperture, it has emerged that relapse rates are approximately higher than 50%, it results in diencephalon disturbances and has also side effects related to cognitive function among other negative effects. It is from these reviewed studies that that ECT should not be viewed as an effective treatment of depression as it does not comport to the mores of psychological ethics.

Keywords: anterograde amnesia, depression, electroconvulsive therapy, ethics, retrograde amnesia

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5153 Some Factors Affecting Reproductive Traits in Nigerian Indigenous Chickens under Intensive Management System

Authors: J. Aliyu, A. O. Raji, A. A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

The study was carried out to assess the fertility, early and late embryonic mortalities as well as hatchability by strain, season and hen’s weight in Nigerian indigenous chickens reared on deep litter. Four strains (normal feathered, naked neck, frizzle and dwarf) of hens maintained at a mating ratio of 1 cock to 4 hens, fed breeders mash and water ad libitum were used in a three year experiment. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS package and the means, where significant, were separated using the least significant difference (LSD). There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of strain on all the traits studied. Fertility was generally high (84.29 %) in all the strains. Early embryonic mortality was significantly lowest (P < 0.01) in naked neck which had the highest late embryonic mortality (P < 0.001). Hatchability was significantly highest (P < 0.01) in normal feathered (80.23 %) and slightly depressed in frizzle (74.95 %) and dwarf (72.27 %) while naked neck had the lowest (60.80 %). Season of the year had significant effects on early embryonic mortality. Dry hot season significantly (P < 0.05) depressed fertility while early embryonic mortality was depressed in the wet season (15.33 %). Early and late embryonic mortalities significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing weight of hen. Dwarf, frizzle and normal feathered hens could be used to improve hatchability as well as reduce early and late embryonic mortalities in Nigerian indigenous chickens.

Keywords: chicken, fertility, hatchability, indigenous, strain

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5152 A Study of Applying the Use of Breathing Training to Palliative Care Patients, Based on the Bio-Psycho-Social Model

Authors: Wenhsuan Lee, Yachi Chang, Yingyih Shih

Abstract:

In clinical practices, it is common that while facing the unknown progress of their disease, palliative care patients may easily feel anxious and depressed. These types of reactions are a cause of psychosomatic diseases and may also influence treatment results. However, the purpose of palliative care is to provide relief from all kinds of pains. Therefore, how to make patients more comfortable is an issue worth studying. This study adopted the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel and applied spontaneous breathing training, in the hope of seeing patients’ psychological state changes caused by their physiological state changes, improvements in their anxious conditions, corresponding adjustments of their cognitive functions, and further enhancement of their social functions and the social support system. This study will be a one-year study. Palliative care outpatients will be recruited and assigned to the experimental group or the control group for six outpatient visits (once a month), with 80 patients in each group. The patients of both groups agreed that this study can collect their physiological quantitative data using an HRV device before the first outpatient visit. They also agreed to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” before the first outpatient visit, to fill a self-report questionnaire after each outpatient visit, and to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” after the last outpatient visit. The patients of the experimental group agreed to receive the breathing training under HRV monitoring during the first outpatient visit of this study. Before each of the following three outpatient visits, they were required to fill a self-report questionnaire regarding their breathing practices after going home. After the outpatient visits, they were taught how to practice breathing through an HRV device and asked to practice it after going home. Later, based on the results from the HRV data analyses and the pre-tests and post-tests of the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire”, the influence of the breathing training in the bio, psycho, and social aspects were evaluated. The data collected through the self-report questionnaires of the patients of both groups were used to explore the possible interfering factors among the bio, psycho, and social changes. It is expected that this study will support the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel, meaning that bio, psycho, and social supports are closely related, and that breathing training helps to transform palliative care patients’ psychological feelings of anxiety and depression, to facilitate their positive interactions with others, and to improve the quality medical care for them.

Keywords: palliative care, breathing training, bio-psycho-social model, heart rate variability

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5151 Stress and Coping among Adolescents in Selected Schools in the Capital City of India

Authors: N. Mathew, A. Qureshi, D. C. Khakha, R. Sagar

Abstract:

Adolescents in India, account for one-fifth of the total population and are a significant human resource. Present study was conducted to find out various life stressors of adolescents, coping strategies adopted by them and the impact of stress on adolescent mental health. A descriptive, cross sectional study conducted on schools in the south zone of Delhi, capital city of the country. Data was collected on 360 adolescents between the age group of 13-17 years on socio-demographic profile, Adolescent life event stress scale, brief cope and youth self report for ages 11-18. Adolescents had significantly higher stress on uncontrollable events such as family events, relocation events, accident events and ambiguous events as compared to controllable events such as sexual events, deviance events and autonomy events (p<0.01).Adolescent stress was significantly correlated with various demographic variables in the study. The most frequently used coping strategies by the adolescents were positive reframing, planning, active coping, and instrumental support. It has also been found that the stress has a significant impact on adolescent mental health in the form of either internalizing problems such as anxious, withdrawn and somatic problems or externalizing problems such as rule breaking and aggressive behaviors. Out of the total sample of 360 adolescents 150 were identified as having psycho-social morbidity, including 59 borderline cases and 91 high-risk cases Study pointed out the need for mental health screening among the adolescents and also indicated the need for mental health inputs in educational institutions.

Keywords: adolecents, stress, coping, mental health

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5150 An Approach to Solving Some Inverse Problems for Parabolic Equations

Authors: Bolatbek Rysbaiuly, Aliya S. Azhibekova

Abstract:

Problems concerning the interpretation of the well testing results belong to the class of inverse problems of subsurface hydromechanics. The distinctive feature of such problems is that additional information is depending on the capabilities of oilfield experiments. Another factor that should not be overlooked is the existence of errors in the test data. To determine reservoir properties, some inverse problems for parabolic equations were investigated. An approach to solving the inverse problems based on the method of regularization is proposed.

Keywords: iterative approach, inverse problem, parabolic equation, reservoir properties

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5149 Impact of Social Stress on Mental Health: A Study on Sanitation Workers of India and Social Work

Authors: Farhat Nigar

Abstract:

Social stress is stress which arises from one's relationships with others and from the social environment. When a person finds that they are not capable of coping with a situation, stress arises. Sanitation workers faces a lot of discrimination from the society which leads to stress and have severe impact on their mental health. Sanitation workers face lot of work pressure which sometimes leads to mental health problems, but there is lack of proper data of sanitation workers dealing with mental health problems which is a big obstacle before evolving policies for the welfare of sewage and septic tank workers which needs attention. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of social stress on the mental health of sanitation workers and to explore the scope of social work in coping with mental health problems of workers. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 100 sanitation workers of Aligarh city through convenience sampling. Data were collected from respondents by schedule and interview method. Most of the respondents said that they don’t enjoy equal status in society and at the workplace as well which leads to stress. Many of them said that social stress leads to poor performance in the workplace. Some of the workers feel depressed when their work is not appreciated and recognized in society. Majority of respondents has stress in financial and employment-related difficulties. Thus it can be said that social stress has several impacts on mental health which leads to poor performance, lack of confidence, and motivation which sometimes leads to depression. Social work can play a very important and challenging role in overcoming these difficulties by providing education, motivation and guiding them and by making them aware of their rights and duties.

Keywords: discrimination, health, stress, sanitation workers

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5148 Trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress among Breast Cancer Patients: Assessment at First Year of Diagnosis

Authors: Jyoti Srivastava, Sandhya S. Kaushik, Mallika Tewari, Hari S. Shukla

Abstract:

Little information is available about the development of psychological well being over time among women who have been undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the trajectories of depression anxiety and stress among women with early-stage breast cancer. Of the 48 Indian women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer recruited from surgical oncology unit, 39 completed an interview and were assessed for depression anxiety and stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-DASS 21) before their first course of chemotherapy (baseline) and follow up interviews at 3, 6 and 9 months thereafter. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress symptoms. Logistic Regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in distinct groups. Most women showed mild to moderate level of depression and anxiety (68%) while normal to mild level of stress (71%). But one in 11 women was chronically anxious (9%) and depressed (9%). Young age, having a partner, shorter education and receiving chemotherapy but not radiotherapy might characterize women whose psychological symptoms remain strong nine months after diagnosis. By looking beyond the mean, it was found that several socio-demographic and treatment factors characterized the women whose depression, anxiety and stress level remained severe even nine months after diagnosis. The results suggest that support provided to cancer patients should have a special focus on a relatively small group of patient most in need.

Keywords: psychological well being, growth mixture modeling, logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors

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5147 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the growing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grows more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterised by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion, and translation problems etc. Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
5146 Addressing Undernourishment of Pupils in a Depressed Community through Feeding Program and Vitamin Supplementation

Authors: Alma M. Corpuz

Abstract:

This study evaluated the supplemental feeding program for 59 undernourished pupils in an elementary school located in one of the depressed communities in Tarlac City, Philippines in SY 2013-2014. Pupils were fed for one month with heavy breakfast and afternoon snacks. They were also given vitamins daily. Findings revealed that most of the pupils regained normal Body Mass Indices (BMIs) during a routine weighing in the school opening. In addition, results revealed that the academic performance of the pupils in the 4th Quarter, after the feeding program, was higher compared to the 3rd Quarter period. The researchers recommended that school extension programs should prioritize activities to address malnutrition among pupils to help them perform well in academics. In addition, feeding programs must include heavy meal plans like what was implemented in this project. The feeding program must also include giving of milk and vitamins to ensure significant improvement in their nutrition. It is also important that feacalysis and deworming be performed before the feeding program and proper handwashing be integrated into the feeding activity.

Keywords: wasted, severely wasted, body mass index, supplemental feeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5145 Risk Tolerance in Youth With Emerging Mood Disorders

Authors: Ange Weinrabe, James Tran, Ian B. Hickie

Abstract:

Risk-taking behaviour is common during youth. In the time between adolescence and early adulthood, young people (aged 15-25 years) are more vulnerable to mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. What impact does an emerging mood disorder have on decision-making in youth at critical decision points in their lives? In this article, we explore the impact of risk and ambiguity on youth decision-making in a clinical setting using a well-known economic experiment. At two time points, separated by six to eight weeks, we measured risky and ambiguous choices concurrently with findings from three psychological questionnaires, the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the 17-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Adolescent Version (QIDS-A17), and the 12-item Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE-12), for young help seekers aged 16-25 (n=30, mean age 19.22 years, 19 males). When first arriving for care, we found that 50% (n=15) of participants experienced severe anxiety (K10 ≥ 30) and were severely depressed (QIDS-A17 ≥ 16). In Session 2, taking attrition rates into account (n=5), we found that 44% (n=11) remained severe across the full battery of questionnaires. When applying multiple regression analyses of the pooled sample of observations (N=55), across both sessions, we found that participants who rated severely anxious avoided making risky decisions. We suggest there is some statistically significant (although weak) (p=0.09) relation between risk and severe anxiety scores as measured by K10. Our findings may support working with novel tools with which to evaluate youth experiencing an emerging mood disorder and their cognitive capacities influencing decision-making.

Keywords: anxiety, decision-making, risk, adolescence

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