Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: meditation

61 The Effect Study of Meditation Music in the Elderly

Authors: Metee Pigultong

Abstract:

The research aims at 1) composition of meditation music, 2) study of the meditation time reliability. The population is the older adults who meditated practitioners in the Thepnimitra Temple, Don Mueang District, Bangkok. The sample group was the older persons who meditated practitioners from the age of 60 with five volunteers. The research methodology was time-series to conduct the research progression. The research instruments included: 1) meditation music, 2) brain wave recording form. The research results found that 1) the music combines the binaural beats suitable for the meditation of the older persons, consisting of the following features: a) The tempo rate of the meditation music is no more than 60 beats per minute. b) The musical instruments for the meditation music arrangement include only 4-5 pieces. c) The meditation music arrangement needs to consider the nature of the right instrument. d) Digital music instruments are suitable for composition. e) The pure-tone sound combined in music must generate a brain frequency at the level of 10 Hz. 2) After the researcher conducted a 3-weeks brain training procedure, the researcher performed three tests for the reliability level using Cronbach's Alpha method. The result showed that the meditation reliability had the level = .475 as a moderate concentration.

Keywords: binaural beats, music therapy, meditation, older person, the Buddhist meditated practitioners

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60 Meditation Based Brain Painting Promotes Foreign Language Memory through Establishing a Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Zhepeng Rui, Zhenyu Gu, Caitilin de Bérigny

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In the current study, we designed an interactive meditation and brain painting application to cultivate users’ creativity, promote meditation, reduce stress, and improve cognition while attempting to learn a foreign language. User tests and data analyses were conducted on 42 male and 42 female participants to better understand sex-associated psychological and aesthetic differences. Our method utilized brain-computer interfaces to import meditation and attention data to create artwork in meditation-based applications. Female participants showed statistically significantly different language learning outcomes following three meditation paradigms. The art style of brain painting helped females with language memory. Our results suggest that the most ideal methods for promoting memory attention were meditation methods and brain painting exercises contributing to language learning, memory concentration promotion, and foreign word memorization. We conclude that a short period of meditation practice can help in learning a foreign language. These findings provide new insights into meditation, creative language education, brain-computer interface, and human-computer interactions.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, creative thinking, meditation, mental health

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59 Studying the Effect of Heartfulness Meditation on Brain Activity

Authors: Norman Farb, Anirudh Kumar, Abdul Subhan, Pallavi Gupta, Jahnavi Mundluru, Abdul Subhan, Shankar Pathmakanthan

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Long term meditation practice is increasingly recognized for its health benefits. Among a diversity of contemplative traditions, Heartfulness meditation represents a quickly growing set of practices that is largely unstudied. Heartfulness is unique in that it is a meditation practice that focuses on the Heart. It helps individuals to connect to themselves and find inner peace while meditating. In order to deepen ones’ meditation on the heart, the element of Yogic Energy (‘pranahuti’) is used as an aid during meditation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consistent EEG effects of Heartfulness meditation be observed in sixty experienced Heartfulness meditators, each of whom attended 6 testing sessions. In each session, participants performed three conditions: a set of cognitive tasks, Heartfulness guided relaxation, and Heartfulness Meditation. To measure EEG, the MUSE EEG head band (product of Interaxon Inc) was used. Participants during the cognitive portion were required to answer questions that tested their logical thinking (Cognitive Reflective Test) and creative thinking skills. (Random Associative Test) The order of condition was randomly counter balanced across six sessions. It was hypothesized that Heartfulness meditation would bring increased alpha (8-12Hz) brain activity during meditation and better cognitive task scores in sessions where the tasks followed meditation. Results show that cognitive task scores were higher after meditation in both CRT and RAT, suggesting stronger right brain and left brain activation. Heartfulness meditation produces a significant decrease in brain activity (as indexed by higher levels of alpha) during the early stages of meditation. As the meditation progressed deep meditative state (as indexed by higher levels of delta) were observed until the end of the condition. This lead to the conclusion that Heartfulness Meditation produces a state that is clearly distinguishable from effortful problem solving.

Keywords: heartfulness meditation, neuroplasticity, brain activity, relaxation response

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58 A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Meditation Awareness Training (Mat) on Work-Related Stress and Job Performance

Authors: Edo Shonin, William Van Gordon, Mark D. Griffiths

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Due to its potential to concurrently improve Work-Related Wellbeing (WRW) and job performance; occupational stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in meditation. Despite this, there is a scarcity of methodologically robust research examining the utility of meditation within occupational contexts. This study conducted the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of meditation on outcomes relating to both WRW and job performance. Office-based middle-hierarchy managers (n=152) were allocated to either an eight-week meditation intervention (Meditation Awareness Training: MAT) or an active control intervention. MAT participants demonstrated significant improvements (with strong effect-sizes) over control-group participants in levels of work-related stress, job satisfaction, psychological distress, and employer-rated job performance. It is concluded that MAT appears to be effective for improving both WRW and job performance in middle-hierarchy managers. There are a number of novel implications: (i) meditation can effectuate a perceptual shift in how employees experience their work and psychological environment and may thus constitute a cost-effective WRW intervention, (ii) meditation-based (i.e., present-moment-focused) working styles may be more effective than goal-based (i.e., future-orientated) working styles, and (iii) meditation may reduce the separation made by employees between their own interests and those of the organizations they work for.

Keywords: work-related stress, workplace wellbeing, occupational stress, job performance, meditation awareness training, mindfulness

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57 Teaching Buddhist Meditation: An Investigation into Self-Learning Methods

Authors: Petcharat Lovichakorntikul, John Walsh

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Meditation is in the process of becoming a globalized practice and its benefits have been widely acknowledged. The first wave of internationalized meditation techniques and practices was represented by Chan and Zen Buddhism and a new wave of practice has arisen in Thailand as part of the Phra Dhammakaya temple movement. This form of meditation is intended to be simple and straightforward so that it can easily be taught to people unfamiliar with the basic procedures and philosophy. This has made Phra Dhammakaya an important means of outreach to the international community. One notable aspect is to encourage adults to become like children to perform it – that is, to return to a naïve state prior to the adoption of ideology as a means of understanding the world. It is said that the Lord Buddha achieved the point of awakening at the age of seven and Phra Dhammakaya has a program to teach meditation to both children and adults. This brings about the research question of how practitioners respond to the practice of meditation and how should they be taught? If a careful understanding of how children behave can be achieved, then it will help in teaching adults how to become like children (albeit idealized children) in their approach to meditation. This paper reports on action research in this regard. Personal interviews and focus groups are held with a view to understanding self-learning methods with respect to Buddhist meditation and understanding and appreciation of the practices involved. The findings are considered in the context of existing knowledge about different learning techniques among people of different ages. The implications for pedagogical practice are discussed and learning methods are outlined.

Keywords: Buddhist meditation, Dhammakaya, meditation technique, pedagogy, self-learning

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56 Observing the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Meditation on Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Pain Patients

Authors: Kim Rod

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People whose chronic pain limits their independence are especially likely to become anxious and depressed. Mindfulness training has shown promise for stress-related disorders. Methods: Chronic pain patients who complained of anxiety and depression and who scored higher than moderate in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as moderate in Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) were observed for eight weeks, three days a week for an hour of Mindfulness Meditation training with an hour daily home Mindfulness Meditation practice. Pain was evaluated on study entry and completion, and patients were given the Patients’ Global Impression of Change (PGIC) to score at the end of the training program. Results: Forty-seven patients (47) completed the Mindfulness Meditation Training program. Over the year-long observation, patients demonstrated noticeable improvement in depression, anxiety, pain, and global impression of change. Conclusion: Chronic pain patients who suffer with anxiety and depression may benefit from incorporating Mindfulness Meditation into their treatment plans.

Keywords: mindfulness, meditation, depression, anxiety, chronic pain

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55 Changes in EEG and Emotion Regulation in the Course of Inward-Attention Meditation Training

Authors: Yuchien Lin

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This study attempted to investigate the changes in electroencephalography (EEG) and emotion regulation following eight-week inward-attention meditation training program. The subjects were 24 adults without meditation experiences divided into meditation and control groups. The quantitatively analyzed changes in psychophysiological parameters during inward-attention meditation, and evaluated the emotion scores assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS). The results were found: (1) During meditation, significant EEG increased for theta-band activity in the frontal and the bilateral temporal areas, for alpha-band activity in the left and central frontal areas, and for gamma-band activity in the left frontal and the left temporal areas. (2) The meditation group had significantly higher positive affect in posttest than in pretest. (3) There was no significant difference in the changes of EEG spectral characteristics and emotion scores in posttest and pretest for the control group. In the present study, a unique meditative concentration task with a constant level of moderate mental effort focusing on the center of brain was used, so as to enhance frontal midline theta, alpha, and gamma-band activity. These results suggest that this mental training allows individual reach a specific mental state of relaxed but focused awareness. The gamma-band activity, in particular, enhanced over left frontoparietal area may suggest that inward-attention meditation training involves temporal integrative mechanisms and may induce short-term and long-term emotion regulation abilities.

Keywords: meditation, EEG, emotion regulation, gamma activity

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54 Simultaneous Interpreting and Meditation: An Experimental Study on the Effects of Qigong Meditation on Simultaneous Interpreting Performance

Authors: Lara Bruno, Ilaria Tipà, Franco Delogu

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Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a demanding language task which includes the contemporary activation of different cognitive processes. This complex activity requires interpreters not only to be proficient in their working languages; but also to have a great ability in focusing attention and controlling anxiety during their performance. Effects of Qigong meditation techniques have a positive impact on several cognitive functions, including attention and anxiety control. This study aims at exploring the influence of Qigong meditation on the quality of simultaneous interpreting. 20 interpreting students, divided into two groups, were trained for 8 days in Qigong meditation practice. Before and after training, a brief simultaneous interpreting task was performed. Language combinations of group A and group B were respectively English-Italian and Chinese-Italian. Students’ performances were recorded and rated by independent evaluators. Assessments were based on 12 different parameters, divided into 4 macro-categories: content, form, delivery and anxiety control. To determine if there was any significant variation between the pre-training and post-training SI performance, ANOVA analyses were conducted on the ratings provided by the independent evaluators. Main results indicate a significant improvement of the interpreting performance after the meditation training intervention for both groups. However, group A registered a higher improvement compared to Group B. Nonetheless, positive effects of meditation have been found in all the observed macro-categories. Meditation was not only beneficial for speech delivery and anxiety control but also for cognitive and attention abilities. From a cognitive and pedagogical point of view, present results open new paths of research on the practice of meditation as a tool to improve SI performances.

Keywords: cognitive science, interpreting studies, Qigong meditation, simultaneous interpreting, training

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53 Meditation-Based Interventions in the Workplace

Authors: Louise Fitzgerald, John Allman

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Introduction: Having previously engaged in a meditation-based programme (MBP) for staff in general practice, we explore the evidence and extent to which MBPs are employed in the workplace. Aim of the study: We aim to understand the current workplace MBP intervention literature, which will help inform the suitability of these interventions within the workplace domain. Objectives: Uptake of MBPs in the workplace has grown as organizations look to support employee health, wellbeing, and performance. We will discuss the current MBP literature, including the large variability across MBPs and the associated difficulties in evaluating their efficacy. Learning points: 1) MBPs have a positive impact on cognitive function including concentration and memory and as such job performance. MBPs appear to have a positive impact on objective and subjective job satisfaction, productivity, motivation and work engagement. Meditation in the workplace may have positive impacts on mental health issues - including stress reduction and depression. 2) From our review MBPs appear to be implementable in a wide range of professions and work contexts - regardless of individual factors. Given many companies are focusing on health and wellbeing of employees, this could be included in employee wellbeing programmes. 3) Despite the benefits of mindfulness and meditation interventions in psychosocial workplace health and work performance the long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined.

Keywords: meditation-based programmes, mindfulness, meditation, well-being

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52 Change through Stillness: Mindfulness Meditation as an Intervention for Men with Self-Perceived Problematic Pornography Use

Authors: Luke Sniewski, Pante Farvid, Phil Carter, Rita Csako

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Background and Aims: Self-Perceived Problematic Porn Use (SPPPU) refers to individuals who identify as or perceive themselves to be addicted to porn. These individuals feel they are unable to regulate their porn consumption and experience adverse consequences as a result of their use in everyday life. To the author’s best knowledge, this research represents the first study to intervene with pornography use with mindfulness meditation, and aims to investigate the experiences and challenges of men with SPPPU as they engage in a mindfulness meditation intervention. As meditation is commonly characterized by sitting and observing one’s internal experience with non-reaction and acceptance, the study’s principal hypothesis was that consistent practice of meditation would develop the participant’s capacity to respond to cravings, urges, and unwanted thoughts in less reactive, more productive ways. Method: This 12-mixed method research utilised Single Case Experimental Design (SCED) methodology, with a standard AB design. Each participant was randomly assigned to an initial baseline time period between 2 to 5 weeks before learning the meditation technique and practicing it for the remainder of the 12-week study. The pilot study included 3 participants, while the intervention study included 12. The meditation technique used for the study involved a 15-minute guided breathing exercise in the morning, along with a 15-minute guided concentration meditation in the evening. Results: At the time of submission, only pilot study results were available. Results from the pilot study indicate an improved capacity for self-awareness of the uncomfortable mental and emotional states that drove their participants’ pornography use. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in daily porn use, total weekly time spent viewing porn, as well as lowered Pornography Craving Questionnaire (PCQ) and Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) scores. Conclusion: Pilot study results suggest that meditation could serve as a complementary tool for health professionals to provide clients in conjunction with therapeutic interventions. Study limitations, directions for future research, and clinical implications to be discussed as well.

Keywords: meditation, behavioural change, pornography, mindfulness

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51 Holistic Approach Illustrating the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pain and Stress Management for Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Priyanka Kalra

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Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes various practices like Ayurveda, Yoga & Meditation Acupressure Acupuncture and Reiki. These practices are frequently used by patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They have shown effectiveness in the management of pain and stress consequently improving overall quality of life post injury. Objective: The goals of the present case series were to evaluate the feasibility of 1) Using of Ayurvedic herbal oil massages in shoulder pain management, 2) Using yoga & meditation on managing the stress in spinal cord injury. Methodology: 15 SCI cases with muscular pain around shoulder were treated with Ayurvedic herbal oil massage for 10 days in CAM Department. Each session consisted of 30 min oil massage followed by 10 min hot towel fomentation. The patients continued regular therapy medications along with CAM. Another 15 SCI cases were treated with yoga and meditation for 15 days 30 min yoga (20 min Asana+ 10 min Pranayam + 15 min Meditation) in isolated yoga room of CAM department. Results: On the VAS scale the patients reported a reduction in their pain score by 70 %. On the PSS scale, the patients reported a reduction in their stress score by 80 %. Conclusion: These case series may encourage more people to explore CAM therapies.

Keywords: spinal cord injury, Ayurveda, complementary and alternative medicine, yoga, meditation

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50 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath, M. Avinash

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Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: brain, hemodynamic responses, yoga, meditation, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), walking, heart rate variability (HRV)

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49 Frontal Oscillatory Activity and Phase–Amplitude Coupling during Chan Meditation

Authors: Arthur C. Tsai, Chii-Shyang Kuo, Vincent S. C. Chien, Michelle Liou, Philip E. Cheng

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Meditation enhances mental abilities and it is an antidote to anxiety. However, very little is known about brain mechanisms and cortico-subcortical interactions underlying meditation-induced anxiety relief. In this study, the changes of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in which the amplitude of the beta frequency band were modulated in phase with delta rhythm were investigated after eight-week of meditation training. The study hypothesized that through a concentrate but relaxed mental training the delta-beta coupling in the frontal regions is attenuated. The delta-beta coupling analysis was applied to within and between maximally-independent component sources returned from the extended infomax independent components analysis (ICA) algorithm on the continuous EEG data during mediation. A unique meditative concentration task through relaxing body and mind was used with a constant level of moderate mental effort, so as to approach an ‘emptiness’ meditative state. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used in this study. To evaluate cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling of component sources, the modulation index (MI) with statistics to calculate circular phase statistics were estimated. Our findings reveal that a significant delta-beta decoupling was observed in a set of frontal regions bilaterally. In addition, beta frequency band of prefrontal component were amplitude modulated in phase with the delta rhythm of medial frontal component.

Keywords: phase-amplitude coupling, ICA, meditation, EEG

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48 Effectiveness of an Unorthodox Intervention for Work-Family Interaction: A Field Experiment

Authors: Hassan Rasool

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There is limited research in the intervention domain of work family interaction. We identified that meditation could be effective in coping work family conflict and nurturing work family facilitation across domains. We conducted pretest posttest control group field experiment on a sample of sixty employees to test the effectiveness of meditation in a financial sector organization. Empirical evidence confirms that the intervention was effective in coping work family conflict & nurturing facilitation across work & home domains. The intervention, also positively affected a known outcome (i.e. satisfaction at work and home) of work family interaction. Future research perspectives on the use of unorthodox interventions in the domain of work family interaction are also discussed.

Keywords: work family interaction, meditation, satisfaction, experiment

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47 Mindfulness and Employability: A Course on the Control of Stress during the Search for Work

Authors: O. Lasaga

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Defining professional objectives and the search for work are some of the greatest stress factors for final year university students and recent graduates. To manage correctly the stress brought about by the uncertainty, confusion and frustration this process often generates, a course to control stress based on mindfulness has been designed and taught. This course provides tools based on relaxation, mindfulness and meditation that enable students to address personal and professional challenges in the transition to the job market, eliminating or easing the anxiety involved. The course is extremely practical and experiential, combining theory classes and practical classes of relaxation, meditation and mindfulness, group dynamics, reflection, application protocols and session integration. The evaluation of the courses highlighted on the one hand the high degree of satisfaction and, on the other, the usefulness for the students in becoming aware of stressful situations and how these affect them and learning new coping techniques that enable them to reach their goals more easily and with greater satisfaction and well-being.

Keywords: employability, meditation, mindfulness, relaxation techniques, stress

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46 An Assessment of Electrical Activities of Students' Brains toward Teacher’s Specific Emotions

Authors: Hakan Aydogan, Fatih Bozkurt, Huseyin Coskun

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In this study, the signal of brain electrical activities of the sixteen students selected from the Department of Electrical and Energy at Usak University have been recorded during a lecturer performed happiness emotions for the first group and anger emotions for the second group in different time while the groups were in the classroom separately. The attention and meditation data extracted from the recorded signals have been analyzed and evaluated toward the teacher’s specific emotion states simultaneously. Attention levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer have a positive trend and attention levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer have a negative trend. The meditation or mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer are 34.3% higher comparing with the mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer.

Keywords: brainwave, attention, meditation, education

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45 Need and Willingness to Use ‘Meditation on Twin Hearts’ for Management of Anxiety and Depression for the Transgender Community: A Pilot Study

Authors: Neha Joshi, Srikanth Jois, Hector J. Peughero, Poornima Jayakrishna, Moulya R., Purnima Madivanan, Kiran Kumar K. Salagame

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Transgenders are a marginalized section of the community, who are at high risk of mental health problems due to their stigmatization, abandonment by family, prejudice, discrimination by society at large, and the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse from both within and outside their community. Their mental healthcare needs remain largely unaddressed due to lack of access, discrimination by healthcare professions, and lack of resources, including time and money, to seek conventional medical and psychotherapeutic treatments. Meditation is increasingly receiving acceptance as a tool for managing stress and anxiety by the patients as well as mental healthcare professionals. “Meditation on Twin Hearts” is a no cost, self-administered intervention that a person can practice anywhere and at any time of the day. This pilot study evaluates the need for alternate traditional and ingenious interventions like “Meditation of Twin Hearts” to address the mental healthcare needs of the transgender community and acceptance of such an intervention by the community. Thirteen individuals identifying themselves as transgender were invited to participate in one (Hunsur Taluk) of the five scheduled free meditation camps in Mysore. After obtaining informed consent for participation in the study, their mental health status is captured using an anonymous survey using standard, validated, self-reported questionnaires Generalised Anxiety Disorders (GAD)-7 for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised for suicidality. Then, they were requested to attend a session on “Meditation on Twin Hearts.” After the session, their feedback on willingness to further explore the meditation technique for managing their mental healthcare need was assessed through another survey form. Out of the 13 participants, 92% scored for anxiety (4 mild, and 8 moderate anxiety). In the depression scale, 5 scored for mild and 5 for moderate depression, with a total of 77% (10/13) scoring positively on depression scale. Nearly 70% of participants (9/13), scored greater than the clinical cutoff for the need for clinical intervention. The proportion of individuals at risk for suicide was particularly high in this group, with 8/ 13 (61.5%) participants scoring the clinical cutoff score of ≥ 7. Surprisingly, none of the participants had ever consulted a mental healthcare professional. All the participants (13/13; 100%) responded in affirmative to the question, “Will you be willing to continue meditation for management of your anxiety?” Six out of 13 participants described their experience of meditation as “happy” and 3 described it as “peaceful”. None of the participants reported any negative beliefs or experience regarding the meditation. The study provides evidence for the urgent yet unmet mental healthcare need of the transgender community. The findings of the study also supports the rationale of conducting future systematic research to evaluate and explore ingenious and traditional practices, such as meditation, to meet the healthcare needs, especially in marginalized populations in a low income setting such as Lower and Middle Income countries. Based on these preliminary findings, the Principal Investigator (PI) is planning to cover 4 more areas of Mysore district.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, meditation on twin heart, suicidality, transgender

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44 Impact of Preksha Meditation on Academic Anxiety of Female Teenagers

Authors: Neelam Vats, Madhvi Pathak Pillai, Rajender Lal, Indu Dabas

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The pressure of scoring higher marks to be able to get admission in a higher ranked institution has become a social stigma for school students. It leads to various social and academic pressures on them, causing psychological anxiety. This undue stress on students sometimes may even steer to aggressive behavior or suicidal tendencies. Human mind is always surrounded by the some desires, emotions and passions, which usually disturbs our mental peace. In such a scenario, we look for a solution that helps in removing all the obstacles of mind and make us mentally peaceful and strong enough to be able to deal with all kind of pressure. Preksha meditation is one such technique which aims at bringing the positive changes for overall transformation of personality. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the impact of Preksha Meditation on the academic anxiety on female teenagers. The study was conducted on 120 high school students from the capital city of India. All students were in the age group of 13-15 years. They also belonged to similar social as well as economic status. The sample was equally divided into two groups i.e. experimental group (N = 60) and control group (N = 60). Subjects of the experimental group were given the intervention of Preksha Meditation practice by the trained instructor for one hour per day, six days a week, for three months for the first experimental stage and another three months for the second experimental stage. The subjects of the control group were not assigned any specific type of activity rather they continued doing their normal official activities as usual. The Academic Anxiety Scale was used to collect data during multi-level stages i.e. pre-experimental stage, post-experimental stage phase-I, and post-experimental stage phase-II. The data were statistically analyzed by computing the two-tailed-‘t’ test for inter group comparison and Sandler’s ‘A’ test with alpha = or p < 0.05 for intra-group comparisons. The study concluded that the practice for longer duration of Preksha Meditation practice brings about very significant and beneficial changes in the pattern of academic anxiety.

Keywords: academic anxiety, academic pressure, Preksha, meditation

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43 Short-Term Effects of an Open Monitoring Meditation on Cognitive Control and Information Processing

Authors: Sarah Ullrich, Juliane Rolle, Christian Beste, Nicole Wolff

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Inhibition and cognitive flexibility are essential parts of executive functions in our daily lives, as they enable the avoidance of unwanted responses or selectively switch between mental processes to generate appropriate behavior. There is growing interest in improving inhibition and response selection through brief mindfulness-based meditations. Arguably, open-monitoring meditation (OMM) improves inhibitory and flexibility performance by optimizing cognitive control and information processing. Yet, the underlying neurophysiological processes have been poorly studied. Using the Simon-Go/Nogo paradigm, the present work examined the effect of a single 15-minute smartphone app-based OMM on inhibitory performance and response selection in meditation novices. We used both behavioral and neurophysiological measures (event-related potentials, ERPs) to investigate which subprocesses of response selection and inhibition are altered after OMM. The study was conducted in a randomized crossover design with N = 32 healthy adults. We thereby investigated Go and Nogo trials in the paradigm. The results show that as little as 15 minutes of OMM can improve response selection and inhibition at behavioral and neurophysiological levels. More specifically, OMM reduces the rate of false alarms, especially during Nogo trials regardless of congruency. It appears that OMM optimizes conflict processing and response inhibition compared to no meditation, also reflected in the ERP N2 and P3 time windows. The results may be explained by the meta control model, which argues in terms of a specific processing mode with increased flexibility and inclusive decision-making under OMM. Importantly, however, the effects of OMM were only evident when there was the prior experience with the task. It is likely that OMM provides more cognitive resources, as the amplitudes of these EKPs decreased. OMM novices seem to induce finer adjustments during conflict processing after familiarization with the task.

Keywords: EEG, inhibition, meditation, Simon Nogo

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42 Effect of Exercise and Mindfulness on Cognitive and Psycho-Emotional Functioning in Children with ADHD

Authors: Hannah Bigelow, Marcus D. Gottlieb, Michelle Ogrodnik, Jeffrey, D. Graham, Barbara Fenesi

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders affecting approximately 6% of children worldwide. ADHD is characterized by a combination of persistent deficits including impaired inhibitory control, working memory and task-switching. Many children with ADHD also have comorbid mental health issues such as anxiety and depression. There are several treatment options to manage ADHD impairments, including drug and behavioural management therapy, but they all have drawbacks, such as worsening mood disturbances or being inaccessible to certain demographics. Both physical exercise and mindfulness meditation serve as alternative options to potentially help mitigate ADHD symptoms. Although there is extensive support for the benefits of long-term physical exercise or mindfulness meditation programs, there is insufficient research investigating how acute bouts (i.e., single, short bouts) can help children with ADHD. Thus, the current study aimed to understand how single, short bouts of exercise and mindfulness meditation impacts executive functioning and psycho-emotional well-being in children with ADHD, as well as to directly compare the efficacy of these two interventions. The study used a a pre- post-test, within-subjects design to assess the effects of a 10-minute bout of moderate intensity exercise versus a 10-minute bout of mindfulness meditation (versus 10 minutes of a reading control) on the executive functioning and psycho-emotional well-being of 16 children and youth with ADHD aged 10-14 (male=11; White=80%). Participants completed all three interventions: 10 minutes of exercise, 10 minutes of mindfulness meditation, and 10 minutes of reading (control). Executive functioning (inhibitory control, working memory, task-switching) and psycho-emotional well-being (mood, self-efficacy) were assessed before and after each intervention. Mindfulness meditation promoted executive functioning, while exercise enhanced positive mood and self-efficacy. Critically, this work demonstrates that a single, short bout of mindfulness meditation session can promote inhibitory control among children with ADHD. This is especially important for children with ADHD as inhibitory control deficits are among the most pervasive challenges that they face. Furthermore, the current study provides preliminary evidence for the benefit of acute exercise for promoting positive mood and general self-efficacy for children and youth with ADHD. These results may increase the accessibility of acute exercise for children with ADHD, providing guardians and teachers a feasible option to incorporate just 10 minutes of exercise to assist children emotionally. In summary, this research supports the use of acute exercise and mindfulness meditation on varying aspects of executive functioning and psycho-emotional well-being in children and youth with ADHD. This work offers important insight into how behavioural interventions could be personalized according to a child’s needs.

Keywords: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), acute exercise, mindfulness meditation, executive functioning, psycho-emotional well-being

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41 Effect of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation on Perceived Stress and Sleep Quality in Adults

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla, Shashank Kulkarni, Shweta Singh

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Chronic stress and sleep quality reduces mental health and increases the risk of developing depression and anxiety as well. There is increasing evidence for the utility of meditation as an adjunct clinical intervention for conditions like depression and anxiety. The present study is an attempt to explore the impact of Sahaj Samadhi Meditation (SSM), a category of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation (ASTM), on perceived stress and sleep quality in adults. The study design was a single group pre-post assessment. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in this study. Fifty-two participants filled PSS, and 60 participants filled PSQI at the beginning of the program (day 0), after two weeks (day 16) and at two months (day 60). Significant pre-post differences for the perceived stress level on Day 0 - Day 16 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.46) and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.76) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced reduction in the perceived stress. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small to medium, but on the 60th day, a medium to large effect size of the intervention was observed. In addition to this, significant pre-post differences for the sleep quality on Day 0 - Day 16 and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.05) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced improvement in the sleep quality. Compared with Day 0 assessment, participants demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of sleep on Day 16 and Day 60. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small, but on the 60th day, a small to medium effect size of the intervention was observed. In the current study we found out that after practicing SSM for two months, participants reported a reduction in the perceived stress, they felt that they are more confident about their ability to handle personal problems, were able to cope with all the things that they had to do, felt that they were on top of the things, and felt less angered. Participants also reported that their overall sleep quality improved; they took less time to fall asleep; they had less disturbances in sleep and less daytime dysfunction due to sleep deprivation. The present study provides clear evidence of the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological interventions such as SSM in reducing stress and improving sleep quality. Thus, ASTM may be considered a useful intervention to reduce psychological distress in healthy, non-clinical populations, and it can be an alternative remedy for treating poor sleep among individuals and decreasing the use of harmful sedatives.

Keywords: automatic self transcending meditation, Sahaj Samadhi meditation, sleep, stress

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40 'Sit Down, Breathe, and Feel What?' Bringing a Contemplative Intervention into a Public Urban Middle School

Authors: Lunthita M. Duthely, John T. Avella, John Ganapati Coleman

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For as many as one in three adolescents living in the United States, the adolescent years is a period of low well-being and mental health challenges—from depressive symptoms to mild to moderate psychological diagnoses. Longitudinal population health studies demonstrated that these challenges persist in young adulthood, and beyond. The positive psychology (PS) approach is a more preventative approach to well-being, which contrasts the traditional, deficits approach to curing mental illness. The research among adult populations formed the basis for PS studies among adolescents. The empirical evidence for the effectiveness of PS interventions exists for both adult and youth populations. Positive Psychology interventions target individuals’ strengths, such as hope and optimism, and positive emotions, such as gratitude. Positive psychology interventions such as increasing gratitude, proved effective in many outcomes among youth, including psychological, social, and academically-related outcomes. Although gratitude-inducing studies have been conducted for the past decade in the United States, few studies have been conducted among samples of urban youth, particularly youth of diverse cultural backgrounds. For nearly two decades, the secular practice of meditation has been tested among adults and more recently among youth, focused mostly among clinical samples. The field of Contemplative Sciences explores practices such as Hatha Yoga, Tai Chi, and Meditation, as preventative practices among children and adolescents. A more recent initiative is to explore Contemplative Practices in the school environment. Contemplative Practices yield a variety of positive outcomes, including academic, social, psychological, physiological, and neurological changes among children and adolescents. Again, few studies were conducted among adolescents of diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research study was to test a gratitude-meditation intervention among middle school students attending a public charter school, located in an urban region of Metropolitan Miami. The objective of this presentation is to summarize the challenges and success of bringing a positive psychology and meditation intervention into an urban middle school. Also, the most recent findings on positive psychology and meditation interventions conducted in school environments will be presented as well.

Keywords: adolescents, contemplative intervention, gratitude, secular meditation, positive psychology, school engagement, Sri Chinmoy

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39 The Negative Impact of Mindfulness on Creativity: An Experimental Test

Authors: Marine Agogue, Beatrice Parguel, Emilie Canet

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Defined as receptive attention to and awareness of present events and experience, mindfulness has grown in popularity over the past 30 years to become a trendy buzzword in business media, which regularly reports on its organizational benefits. Mindfulness would enhance or impede creative thinking depending on the type of meditation. Specifically, focused-attention meditation (focusing attention on one object instead of being open to perceive and observe any sensation or thought) would not be or negatively correlated to creativity. This research explores whether mood, in its two dimensions (i.e., hedonic tone, activation level), could mediate this potentially negative effect. The rationale is that focused-attention meditation is likely to improve hedonic tone but, in the meantime, damage activation level, resulting in opposite effects on creativity through the mediation effect of creative self-efficacy, i.e., the belief that one can perform successfully in an ideation setting. To test this conceptual model, a survey was administered to 97 subjects (53% women, mean age: 25 years), randomly assigned to three conditions (a 10-minute focused-attention meditation session vs. a 10-minute psychometric tests session vs. a control condition) and asked to participate in the egg creative task. Creativity was measured in terms of fluency, expansivity, and originality, the other variables using existing scales: hedonic tone (e.g., joyful, happy), activation level (e.g., passive, sluggish), creative self-efficacy (e.g., ‘I felt confident in my ability to do the task effectively’) and self-perceived creativity (e.g., ‘I have lots of original ideas’). The chains of mediation were tested using PROCESS macro (model 6) and controlled for subjects’ gender, age, and self-perceived creativity. Comparing the mindfulness and the control conditions, no difference appeared in terms of creativity, nor any mediation chain by hedonic tone. However, subjects who participated in the meditation session felt less active than those in the control condition, which decreased their creative self-efficacy, and creativity (whatever the indicator considered). Comparing the mindfulness and the psychometric tests conditions, analyses showed that creativity was higher in the psychometric tests condition. As previously, no mediation chain appeared by hedonic tone. However, subjects who participated in the meditation session felt less active than those in the psychometric tests condition, which decreased their creative self-efficacy, and creativity. These findings confirm that focused-attention meditation does not enhance creativity. They demonstrate an emotional underlying mechanism based on activation level and suggest that both positive and active mood states have the potential to enhance creativity through creative self-efficacy. In the end, they should discourage organizations from trying to nudge creativity using mindfulness ad hoc devices.

Keywords: creativity, mindfulness, creative self-efficacy, experiment

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38 Health Professions Students' Knowledge of and Attitude toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Authors: Peter R. Reuter

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Health professionals play important roles in helping patients use Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) practices safely and accurately. Consequently, it is important for future health professionals to learn about CAM practices during their time in undergraduate and graduate programs. To satisfy this need for education, teaching CAM in nursing and medical schools and other health professions programs is becoming more prevalent. Our study was the first to look specifically at the knowledge of, and attitude toward CAM of undergraduate health professions students at a university in the U.S. Students were invited to participate in one of two anonymous online surveys depending on whether they were pre-health professions students or graduating health professions seniors. Of the 763 responses analyzed, 71.7% were from pre-health professions students, and 28.3% came from graduating seniors. The overall attitude of participants toward and interest in learning about CAM practices was generally fairly positive with graduating seniors being more positive than pre-health professions students. Yoga, meditation, massage therapy, aromatherapy, and chiropractic care were the practices most respondents had personal experience with. Massage therapy, yoga, chiropractic care, meditation, music therapy, and diet-based therapy received the highest ratings from respondents. Three-quarters of respondents planned on including aspects of holistic medicine in their future career as a health professional. The top five practices named were yoga, meditation, massage therapy, diet-based therapy, and music therapy. The study confirms the need to educate health professions students about CAM practices to give them the background information they need to select or recommend the best practices for their patients' needs.

Keywords: CAM education, health professions, health professions students, pre-health professions students

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37 Efficacy of Yoga and Meditation Based Lifestyle Intervention on Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Surabhi Gautam, Uma Kumar, Rima Dada

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A sustained acute-phase response in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is associated with increased joint damage and inflammation leading to progressive disability. It is induced continuously by consecutive stimuli of proinflammatory cytokines, following a wide range of pathophysiological reactions, leading to increased synthesis of acute phase proteins like C - reactive protein (CRP) and dysregulation in levels of immunomodulatory soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) molecule. This study was designed to explore the effect of yoga and meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on inflammatory markers in RA patients. Blood samples of 50 patients were collected at baseline (day 0) and after 30 days of YMLI. Patients underwent a pretested YMLI under the supervision of a certified yoga instructor for 30 days including different Asanas (physical postures), Pranayama (breathing exercises), and Dhayna (meditation). Levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-17A, soluble HLA-G and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured at day 0 and 30 interval. Parameters of disease activity, disability quotient, pain acuity and quality of life were also assessed by disease activity score (DAS28), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) respectively. There was reduction in mean levels of CRP (p < 0.05), IL-6 (interleukin-6) (p < 0.05), IL-17A (interleukin-17A) (p < 0.05) and ESR (p < 0.05) and elevation in soluble HLA-G (p < 0.05) at 30 days compared to baseline level (day 0). There was reduction seen in DAS28-ESR (p < 0.05), VAS (p < 0.05) and HAQ (p < 0.05) after 30 days with respect to the base line levels (day 0) and significant increase in WHOQOL-BREF scale (p < 0.05) in all 4 domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental health. The present study has demonstrated that yoga practices are associated with regression of inflammatory processes by reducing inflammatory parameters and regulating the levels of soluble HLA-G significantly in active RA patients. Short term YMLI has significantly improved pain perception, disability quotient, disease activity and quality of life. Thus this simple life style intervention can reduce disease severity and dose of drugs used in the treatment of RA.

Keywords: inflammation, quality of life, rheumatoid arthritis, yoga and meditation

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36 Meditation Aided with 40 Hz Binaural Beats Enhances the Cognitive Function and Mood State

Authors: Rubina Shakya, Srijana Dangol, Dil Islam Mansur

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The exposure of constant stress stimuli in our daily lives is causing deterioration of neural connectivity in the brain. Interestingly, the improvement in larger-scale neural communication has been argued to rely on brain rhythms, which might be sensitive to binaural beats of particular frequency bands. The theoretical idea behind neural entrainment is that the rhythmic oscillatory activity within and between different brain regions can enhance cognitive function and mood state. So, we aimed to investigate whether the binaural beats of 40 Hz could enhance the cognition and the mood stability of the medical students at Kathmandu University of age 18-25 years old, which possibly, in the long run, might help to enhance their work productivity. The participants were asked to focus on the auditory stimuli of binaural beats with 200 Hz on the right side and 240 Hz on the left side of the headset for 15 minutes, every alternative day of three consecutive weeks. The Stroop’s test and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) were applied to assess the cognitive function and the mood state, respectively. The binaural beats significantly decreased the reaction time for the incoherent component of Stroop’s test in both male and female participants. For the mood state, scores of all positive emotions except ‘Calmness’ were significantly increased in the case of males. Whereas, scores of all positive emotions except ‘Vigor’ were significantly increased in the case of females. The results suggested that the meditation aided by binaural beats of 40 Hz helps in improving cognition and mood states to some extent.

Keywords: binaural beats, cognitive function, gamma neural oscillation, mood states

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35 The Concept of Path in Original Buddhism and the Concept of Psychotherapeutic Improvement

Authors: Beth Jacobs

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The landmark movement of Western clinical psychology in the 20th century was the development of psychotherapy. The landmark movement of clinical psychology in the 21st century will be the absorption of meditation practices from Buddhist psychology. While millions of people explore meditation and related philosophy, very few people are exposed to the materials of original Buddhism on this topic, especially to the Theravadan Abhidharma. The Abhidharma is an intricate system of lists and matrixes that were used to understand and remember Buddha’s teaching. The Abhidharma delineates the first psychological system of Buddhism, how the mind works in the universe of reality and why meditation training strengthens and purifies the experience of life. Its lists outline the psychology of mental constructions, perception, emotion and cosmological causation. While the Abhidharma is technical, elaborate and complex, its essential purpose relates to the central purpose of clinical psychology: to relieve human suffering. Like Western depth psychology, the methodology rests on understanding underlying processes of consciousness and perception. What clinical psychologists might describe as therapeutic improvement, the Abhidharma delineates as a specific pathway of purified actions of consciousness. This paper discusses the concept of 'path' as presented in aspects of the Theravadan Abhidharma and relates this to current clinical psychological views of therapy outcomes and gains. The core path in Buddhism is the Eight-Fold Path, which is the fourth noble truth and the launching of activity toward liberation. The path is not composed of eight ordinal steps; it’s eight-fold and is described as opening the way, not funneling choices. The specific path in the Abhidharma is described in many steps of development of consciousness activities. The path is not something a human moves on, but something that moments of consciousness develop within. 'Cittas' are extensively described in the Abhidharma as the atomic-level unit of a raw action of consciousness touching upon an object in a field, and there are 121 types of cittas categorized. The cittas are embedded in the mental factors, which could be described as the psychological packaging elements of our experiences of consciousness. Based on these constellations of infinitesimal, linked occurrences of consciousness, citta are categorized by dimensions of purification. A path is a chain of citta developing through causes and conditions. There are no selves, no pronouns in the Abhidharma. Instead of me walking a path, this is about a person working with conditions to cultivate a stream of consciousness that is pure, immediate, direct and generous. The same effort, in very different terms, informs the work of most psychotherapies. Depth psychology seeks to release the bound, unconscious elements of mental process into the clarity of realization. Cognitive and behavioral psychologies work on breaking down automatic thought valuations and actions, changing schemas and interpersonal dynamics. Understanding how the original Buddhist concept of positive human development relates to the clinical psychological concept of therapy weaves together two brilliant systems of thought on the development of human well being.

Keywords: Abhidharma, Buddhist path, clinical psychology, psychotherapeutic outcome

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34 Development of Peaceful Wellbeing in Executive Practitioners through Mindfulness-Based Practices

Authors: Narumon Jiwattanasuk, Phrakrupalad Pannavoravat, Pataraporn Sirikanchana

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Mindfulness has become a perspective addressing positive wellbeing these days. The aims of this paper are to analyze the problems of executive meditation practitioners at the Buddhamahametta Foundation in Thailand and to provide recommendations on the process to develop peaceful wellbeing in executive meditation practitioners by applying the principles of the four foundations of mindfulness. This study is particularly focused on executives because there is not much research focusing on the well-being development of executives, and the researcher recognizes that executives can be an example within their organizations. This would be a significant influence on their employees and their families to be interested in practicing mindfulness. This improvement will then grow from an individual to the surrounding community such as family, workplace, society, and the nation. This would lead to happiness at the national level, which is the expectation of this research. The paper highlights mindfulness practices that can be performed on a daily basis. This study is qualitative research, and there are 10 key participants who are executives from various sectors such as hospitality, healthcare, retail, power energy, and so on. Three mindfulness-based courses were conducted over a period of 8 months, and in-depth interviews were done before the first course as well as at the end of every course. In total, four in-depth interviews were conducted. The information collected from the interviews was analyzed in order to create the process to develop peaceful well-being. Focus group discussions with the mindfulness specialists were conducted to help develop the mindfulness program as well. As a result of this research, it is found that the executives faced the following problems: stress, negative thinking loops, losing temper, seeking acceptance, worry about uncontrollable external factors, unable to control their words, and weight gain. The cultivation of the four foundations of mindfulness can develop peaceful wellbeing. The results showed that after the key informant executives attended the mindfulness courses and practiced mindfulness regularly, they have developed peaceful well-being in all aspects such as physical, psychological, behavioral, and intellectual by applying 12 mindfulness-based activities. The development of wellbeing, in the conclusion of this study, also includes various tools to support the continuing practice, including the handout of guided mindfulness practice, VDO clips about mindfulness practice, the online dhamma channel, and mobile applications to support regular mindfulness-based practices.

Keywords: executive, mindfulness activities, stress, wellbeing

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33 Hope in the Ruins of 'Ozymandias': Reimagining Temporal Horizons in Felicia Hemans 'the Image in Lava'

Authors: Lauren Schuldt Wilson

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Felicia Hemans’ memorializing of the unwritten lives of women and the consequent allowance for marginalized voices to remember and be remembered has been considered by many critics in terms of ekphrasis and elegy, terms which privilege the question of whether Hemans’ poeticizing can represent lost voices of history or only her poetic expression. Amy Gates, Brian Elliott, and others point out Hemans’ acknowledgement of the self-projection necessary for imaginatively filling the absences of unrecorded histories. Yet, few have examined the complex temporal positioning Hemans inscribes in these moments of self-projection and imaginative historicizing. In poems like ‘The Image in Lava,’ Hemans maps not only a lost past, but also a lost potential future onto the image of a dead infant in its mother’s arms, the discovery and consideration of which moves the imagined viewer to recover and incorporate the ‘hope’ encapsulated in the figure of the infant into a reevaluation of national time embodied by the ‘relics / Left by the pomps of old.’ By examining Hemans’ acknowledgement and response to Percy Bysshe Shelley’s ‘Ozymandias,’ this essay explores how Hemans’ depictions of imaginative historicizing open new horizons of possibility and reevaluate temporal value structures by imagining previously undiscovered or unexplored potentialities of the past. Where Shelley’s poem mocks the futility of national power and time, this essay outlines Hemans’ suggestion of alternative threads of identity and temporal meaning-making which, regardless of historical veracity, exist outside of and against the structures Shelley challenges. Counter to previous readings of Hemans’ poem as celebration of either recovered or poetically constructed maternal love, this essay argues that Hemans offers a meditation on sites of reproduction—both of personal reproductive futurity and of national reproduction of power. This meditation culminates in Hemans’ gesturing towards a method of historicism by which the imagined viewer reinvigorates the sterile, ‘shattered visage’ of national time by forming temporal identity through the imagining of trans-historical hope inscribed on the infant body of the universal, individual subject rather than the broken monument of the king.

Keywords: futurity, national temporalities, reproduction, revisionary histories

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32 From Past to Present Awareness about Complementary Therapies

Authors: Olcay Çam, Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Hacer Demirkol

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Complementary and alternative medicine are important for human health. It has stood out that from past to present people have resorted to particularly Turkish bath houses, cupping therapy, mud bath, hirudotheraphy and healing waters for the purpose of recovering from diseases and refresh their souls. Now, methods such as herbal treatments, massage, aromatherapy, prayer, meditation, yoga and thermal springs have been recently observed to be the most frequently used complementary therapies in Turkey. These methods are not known by people exactly. As a result, complementary therapies are applied along with the modern therapies in Turkey, we are considered to be effective in maintaining and improving individuals’ health.

Keywords: complementary therapy, health, health services, modern therapies

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