Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 617

Search results for: irritable bowel syndrome

617 Functional Dyspepsia and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Life sketches of Functional Illnesses (Non-Organic) in West Bengal, India

Authors: Urmita Chakraborty

Abstract:

To start with, Organic Illnesses are no longer considered as only health difficulties. Functional Illnesses that are emotional in origin have become the search areas in many investigations. In the present study, an attempt has made to study the psychological nature of Functional Gastro-Intestinal Disorders (FGID) in West Bengal. In the specialty of Gastroenterology, the medically unexplained symptom-based conditions are known as Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder (FGID). In the present study, Functional Dyspepsia (FD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) have been taken for investigations. 72 cases have been discussed in this context. Results of the investigation have been analyzed in terms of a qualitative framework. Theoretical concepts on persistent thoughts and behaviors will be delineated in the analysis. Processes of self-categorization will be implemented too. Aspects of Attachments and controlling of affect as well as meta-cognitive appraisals are further considered for the depiction.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, self-categorization

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616 Psychological Alarm among Individuals Suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Selim A., Albasher N., Bakrmom G., Alanzi S.

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort or pain and associated with alteration in frequency and/or form of bowel habit among other symptoms. This diagnosis is associated with increased levels of psychological distress, maladaptive coping, genetic risk factors, abnormal small and colonic intestine transit, change in stool frequency or form and abdominal discomfort or pain. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess psychological alarm among individuals suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Methods: A cross-sectional correlational research design was used to conduct the current study. A convenience sample of 504 participants was included in the present study. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, ROME III to identify Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Psychological Alarm Questionnaire. Results: Out of 504 participants who reported abdominal discomfort, 297 (58.9 %) participants met the diagnostic criteria of IBS. The mean age of the IBS participants was 30.16 years, females composed 75.1% of the IBS participants, and 55.2% did not seek medical help. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals when compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Conclusion: IBS is highly associated with significant psychological alarms including depression, anxiety and suicidal ideas.

Keywords: abdominal pain , irritable bowel syndrome, distress, psychological alarms

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615 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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614 Differential Expression of GABA and Its Signaling Components in Ulcerative Colitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pathogenesis

Authors: Surbhi Aggarwal, Jaishree Paul

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Background: Role of GABA has been implicated in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, type1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis where they modulate the immune response but role in gut inflammation has not been defined. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and diarrhoeal predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) both involve inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. UC is a chronic, relapsing and idiopathic inflammation of gut. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort and alternating bowel habits. Mild inflammation is known to occur in IBS-D. Aim: Aim of this study was to investigate the role of GABA in UC as well as in IBS-D. Materials and methods: Blood and biopsy samples from UC, IBS-D and controls were collected. ELISA was used for measuring level of GABA in serum of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR analysis was done to determine GABAergic signal system in colon biopsy of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR was done to check the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CurveExpert 1.4, Graphpad prism-6 software were used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired, two-way student`s t-test. All sets of data were represented as mean± SEM. A probability level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and conclusion: Significantly decreased level of GABA and altered GABAergic signal system was detected in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Significantly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines was also determined in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Hence we conclude that insufficient level of GABA in UC and IBS-D leads to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines which further contributes to inflammation. GABA may be used as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of gut inflammation or other inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: diarrheal predominant irritable bowel syndrome, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), inflammation, ulcerative colitis

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613 Risk of Fractures at Different Anatomic Sites in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Herng-Sheng Lee, Chi-Yi Chen, Wan-Ting Huang, Li-Jen Chang, Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen, Hsin-Yi Yang

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A variety of gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and coeliac disease, are recognized as risk factors for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. One recent study suggests that individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) might also be at increased risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Up to now, the association between IBS and the risk of fractures at different anatomic sites occurrences is not completely clear. We conducted a population-based cohort analysis to investigate the fracture risk of IBS in comparison with non-IBS group. We identified 29,505 adults aged ≥ 20 years with newly diagnosed IBS using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 2000-2012. A comparison group was constructed of patients without IBS who were matched according to gender and age. The occurrence of fracture was monitored until the end of 2013. We analyzed the risk of fracture events to occur in IBS by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Patients with IBS had a higher incidence of osteoporotic fractures compared with non-IBS group (12.34 versus 9.45 per 1,000 person-years) and an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.27, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.20 – 1.35). Site specific analysis showed that the IBS group had a higher risk of fractures for spine, forearm, hip and hand than did the non-IBS group. With further stratification for gender and age, a higher aHR value for osteoporotic fractures in IBS group was seen across all age groups in males, but seen in elderly females. In addition, female, elderly, low income, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and depressive disorders as independent osteoporotic fracture risk factors in IBS patients. The IBS is considered as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures, particularly in female individuals and fracture sites located at the spine, forearm, hip and hand.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, fracture, gender difference, longitudinal health insurance database, public health

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612 Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Different Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Medically Unexplained Symptoms: A Systematic Review

Authors: R. R. Billones, N. Lukkahatai, L. N. Saligan

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Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) have been used in medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). This systematic review describes the literature investigating the general effect of MBIs on MUS and identifies the effects of specific MBIs on specific MUS conditions. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA) and the modified Oxford quality scoring system (JADAD) were applied to the review, yielding an initial 1,556 articles. The search engines included PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsychINFO using the search terms: mindfulness, or mediations, or mindful or MBCT or MBSR and medically unexplained symptoms or MUS or fibromyalgia or FMS. A total of 24 articles were included in the final systematic review. MBIs showed large effects on socialization skills for chronic fatigue syndrome (d=0.65), anger in fibromyalgia (d=0.61), improvement of somatic symptoms (d=1.6) and sleep (d=1.12) for painful conditions, physical health for chronic back pain (d=0.51), and disease intensity for irritable bowel disease/syndrome (d=1.13). A manualized MBI that applies the four fundamental elements present in all types of interventions were critical to efficacy. These elements were psycho-education sessions specific to better understand the medical symptoms, the practice of awareness, the non-judgmental observance of the experience at the moment, and the compassion to ones’ self. The effectiveness of different mindfulness interventions necessitates giving attention to improve the gaps that were identified related to home-based practice monitoring, competency training of mindfulness teachers, and sound psychometric properties to measure the mindfulness practice.

Keywords: mindfulness-based interventions, medically unexplained symptoms, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome

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611 Association between a Serotonin Re-Uptake Transporter Gene Polymorphism and Mucosal Serotonin Level in Women Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Healthy Control: A Pilot Study from Northern India

Authors: Sunil Kumar, Uday C. Ghoshal

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Background and aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) is an important factor in gut function, playing key roles in intestinal peristalsis and secretion, and in sensory signaling in the brain-gut axis. Removal from its sites of action is mediated by a specific protein called the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT). Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the SERT gene have effects on transcriptional activity, resulting in altered 5-HT reuptake efficiency. Functional polymorphisms may underlie disturbance in gut function in individuals suffering with disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to assess the potential association between SERT polymorphisms and the diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) phenotype Subjects: A total of 36 northern Indian female patients and 55 female northern Indian healthy controls (HC) were subjected to genotyping. Methods: Leucocyte DNA of all subjects was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based technologies for SERT polymorphisms, specifically the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter (SERT-P). Statistical analysis was performed to assess association of SERT polymorphism allele with the D-IBS phenotype. Results: The frequency of distribution of SERT-P gene was comparable between female patients with IBS and HC (p = 0.086). However, frequency of SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype was significantly higher in female patients with D-IBS compared to C-IBS and A-IBS [17/19 (89.5%) vs. 4/12 (33.3%) vs. 1/5 (20%), p=0.001, respectively]. The mucosal level of serotonin was higher in D-IBS compared to C-IBS and A-IBS [Median, range (159.26, 98.78–212.1) vs. 110.4, 67.87–143.53 vs. 92.34, 78.8–166.3 pmol/mL, p=0.001, respectively]. The mucosal level of serotonin was higher in female patients with IBS with SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype compared deletion/insertion and insertion/insertion [157.65, 67.87–212.1 vs. 110.4, 78.1–143.32 vs. 100.5, 69.1–132.03 pmol/mL, p=0.001, respectively]. Patients with D-IBS with deletion/deletion genotype more often reported symptoms of abdominal pain, discomfort (p=0.025) and bloating (p=0.039). Symptoms development following lactose ingestion was strongly associated with D-IBS and SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype (p=0.004). Conclusions: Significant association was observed between D-IBS and the SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype, suggesting that the serotonin transporter is a potential candidate gene for D-IBS in women.

Keywords: serotonin, SERT, inflammatory bowel disease, genetic polymorphism

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610 A Case Report: The Role of Gut Directed Hypnotherapy in Resolution of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Medication Refractory Pediatric Male Patient

Authors: Alok Bapatla, Pamela Lutting, Mariastella Serrano

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Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits in the absence of an underlying organic cause. Although the exact etiology of IBS is not fully understood, one of the leading theories postulates a pathology within the Brain-Gut Axis that leads to an overall increase in gastrointestinal sensitivity and pejorative changes in gastrointestinal motility. Research and clinical practice have shown that Gut Directed Hypnotherapy (GDH) has a beneficial clinical role in improving Mind-Gut control and thereby comorbid conditions such as anxiety, abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. Aims: This study presents a 17-year old male with underlying anxiety and a one-year history of IBS-Constipation Predominant Subtype (IBS-C), who has demonstrated impressive improvement of symptoms following GDH treatment following refractory trials with medications including bisacodyl, senna, docusate, magnesium citrate, lubiprostone, linaclotide. Method: The patient was referred to a licensed clinical psychologist specializing in clinical hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), who implemented “The Standardized Hypnosis Protocol for IBS” developed by Dr. Olafur S. Palsson, Psy.D at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The hypnotherapy protocol consisted of a total of seven weekly 45-minute sessions supplemented with a 20-minute audio recording to be listened to once daily. Outcome variables included the GAD-7, PHQ-9 and DCI-2, as well as self-ratings (ranging 0-10) for pain (intensity and frequency), emotional distress about IBS symptoms, and overall emotional distress. All variables were measured at intake prior to administration of the hypnosis protocol and at the conclusion of the hypnosis treatment. A retrospective IBS Questionnaire (IBS Severity Scoring System) was also completed at the conclusion of the GDH treatment for pre-and post-test ratings of clinical symptoms. Results: The patient showed improvement in all outcome variables and self-ratings, including abdominal pain intensity, frequency of abdominal pain episodes, emotional distress relating to gut issues, depression, and anxiety. The IBS Questionnaire showed a significant improvement from a severity score of 400 (defined as severe) prior to GDH intervention compared to 55 (defined as complete resolution) at four months after the last session. IBS Questionnaire subset questions that showed a significant score improvement included abdominal pain intensity, days of pain experienced per 10 days, satisfaction with bowel habits, and overall interference of life affected by IBS symptoms. Conclusion: This case supports the existing research literature that GDH has a significantly beneficial role in improving symptoms in patients with IBS. Emphasis is placed on the numerical results of the IBS Questionnaire scoring, which reflects a patient who initially suffered from severe IBS with failed response to multiple medications, who subsequently showed full and sustained resolution

Keywords: pediatrics, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, hypnotherapy, gut-directed hypnosis

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609 Gastrointestinal Disturbances in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

Authors: Chandralekha Ashangari, Amer Suleman

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Background and Purpose: The Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) affects primarily young women. POTS is a form of dysautonomia that is estimated to impact between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 Americans, and millions more around the world. POTS is a form of orthostatic intolerance that is associated with many Gastrointestinal disturbances. The aim of this study is to determine the Gastrointestinal disturbances in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) patients.2. Methods: 249 patients referred to our clinic from January to November with POTS. Reviewed the medical records of 249 POTS patients and gastrointestinal symptoms. Results: however out of 249 patients, 226 patients are female (90.76%; average age 32.69), 23 patients are male (9.24%; average age 27.91) Data analysis: Out of 249 patients 189 patients (76%) had vomiting or nausea, 150 patients (60%) had irritable bowel syndrome, 128 patients (51%) had bloating, 125 patients (50%) had constipation , 80 patients (32%) had abdominal pain, 56 patients (22%) had delayed gastric emptying, 24 patients (10%) had lactose intolerance, 8 patients (3%) had Gastroesophageal reflux disease, 5 patients (2%) had Iron deficiency anemia, 6 patients (2%) had Peptic ulcer disease, 4 patients (2%) had Celiac Disease. Conclusion: Patients with POTS have a very high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms however the majority of abnormalities appear to be motility related. Motility testing should be performed be performed in POTS patients. The diagnostic yield of endoscopic procedures appears to be low.

Keywords: gastrointestinal disturbances, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), celiac disease, POTS patients

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608 A Rare Case of Endometriosis Lesion in Caecum Causing Acute Small Bowel Obstruction

Authors: Freda Halim

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Endometriosis in bowel is rare condition, about 3-37% of endometriosis cases. Most of bowel endometriosis rising in the rectosigmoid (90% of bowel endometriosis). The incidence of caecal endometriosis is very low ( < 5% of bowel endometriosis) and almost never causing acute small bowel obstruction. The aim of this paper is to show that although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is difficult to diagnose as it is rare, and may require laparotomy to make definite diagnosis, but it should be considered in infertile female patient. The case is 37 years old woman infertile woman with intestinal obstruction with pre-operative diagnosis total acute small bowel obstruction caused by right colonic mass, with sepsis as the complication. Before the acute small bowel obstruction, she complained of chronic right lower quadrant pain with chronic constipation alternate with chronic diarrhea, symptoms that happened both in bowel endometriosis and colorectal malignancy. She also complained of chronic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. She was married for 10 years with no child. The patient was never diagnosed with endometriosis and never seek medical attention for infertility and the chronic pelvic pain. The patient underwent Abdominal CT Scan, with results: massive small bowel obstruction, and caecal mass that causing acute small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction due to right colonic mass was made, and exploratory laparotomy was performed in the patient. During the laparotomy, mass at caecum and ileocaecal that causing massive small bowel obstruction was found and standard right hemicolectomy and temporary ileostomy were performed. The pathology examination showed ectopic endometriosis lesions in caecum and ileocaecal valve. The histopathology also confirmed with the immunohistochemistry, in which positive ER, PR, CD 10 and CD7 was found the ileocaecal and caecal mass. In the second operation, reanastomosis of the ileum was done 3 months after the first operation. The chronic pelvic pain is decreasing dramatically after the first and second operation. In conclusion, although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, but it can be considered as a cause in infertile female patient

Keywords: acute, bowel obstruction, caecum, endometriosis

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607 Outcome of Bowel Management Program in Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Roongtiwa Chobchuen, Angkana Srikhan, Pattra Wattanapan

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Background: Neurogenic bowel is common condition after spinal cord injury. Most of spinal cord injured patients have motor weakness, mobility impairment which leads to constipation. Moreover, the neural pathway involving bowel function is interrupted. Therefore, the bowel management program should be implemented in nursing care in the earliest time after the onset of the disease to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the outcome of bowel management program of the patients with spinal cord injury who admitted for rehabilitation program. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Rehabilitation ward in Srinagarind Hospital. Populations: patients with subacute to chronic spinal cord injury who admitted at rehabilitation ward, Srinagarind hospital, aged over 18 years old. Instrument: The neurogenic bowel dysfunction score (NBDS) was used to determine the severity of neurogenic bowel. Procedure and statistical analysis: All participants were asked to complete the demographic data; age gender, duration of disease, diagnosis. The individual bowel function was assessed using NBDS at admission. The patients and caregivers were trained by nurses about the bowel management program which consisted of diet modification, abdominal massage, digital stimulation, stool evacuation including medication and physical activity. The outcome of the bowel management program was assessed by NBDS at discharge. The chi-square test was used to detect the difference in severity of neurogenic bowel at admission and discharge. Results: Sixteen spinal cord injured patients were enrolled in the study (age 45 ± 17 years old, 69% were male). Most of them (50%) were tetraplegia. On the admission, 12.5%, 12.5%, 43.75% and 31.25% were categorized as very minor (NBDS 0-6), minor (NBDS 7-9), moderate (NBDS 10-13) and severe (NBDS 14+) respectively. The severity of neurogenic bowel was decreased significantly at discharge (56.25%, 18.755%, 18.75% and 6.25% for very minor, minor, moderate and severe group respectively; p < 0.001) compared with NBDS at admission. Conclusions: Implementation of the effective bowel program decrease the severity of the neurogenic bowel in patient with spinal cord injury.

Keywords: neurogenic bowel, NBDS, spinal cord injury, bowel program

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606 Closed Loop Large Bowel Obstruction Due to Appendiceal Signet Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Joshua Teo, Leo Phan

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Signet cell carcinoma of the appendix is the rarest and the most aggressive subtype of appendiceal malignancy, typically with non-specific presentations. We describe a case of a 62-year-old male with large bowel obstruction and CT demonstrating dilated large bowels from caecum to proximal sigmoid colon with pneumoperitoneum. Intra-operatively, closed-loop obstruction caused by dense adherence of sigmoid colon to caecum was noted, which had resulted in caecal perforation. Histopathology study indicated primary appendiceal malignancy of signet cell morphology with intra-peritoneal spread to the sigmoid colon. Large bowel obstruction from appendiceal malignancy has rarely been reported, and a similar presentation has not been described in the existing literature. When left-sided large bowel obstruction is suspected to be caused by a malignant stricture, it is essential to consider transperitoneal spread of appendiceal malignancy as potential aetiology, particularly in the elderly.

Keywords: appendiceal carcinoma, large bowel obstruction, signet ring cell cancer, caecal perforation

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605 Comparison of Efficacy between Low-Residue Diet and Clear-Liquid Diet in Colonoscopic Bowel Preparation at a Surgical Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sopana Wongtawee

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Purpose: Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a high quality, effective and safe colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of bowel preparation based on a low-residue diet before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet, and a low-residue diet until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy using sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®), the side effects of the two protocols and the patient satisfaction with them. Method: This was an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy met the criteria.They were randomized to either a low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with either fish, chicken or eggs before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet (Group 1) or a low-residue diet consisting of the same food and drink, until 16:00 the day before colonoscopy(Group 2). All of them received 45 ml of sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®) and three glasses of water (300 ml/glass) the evening before and the morning of the procedure. The cleansing efficacy of bowel preparation was rated according to the modified Rajawithi hospital bowel preparation score scale, patient satisfaction with bowel preparation was rated using Likert scale, and side effects of the 2 protocols was assessed using a patient questionnaire. Results: The cleansing efficacy between the two groups was significantly different (p=0.02). Satisfaction with bowel preparation and side effects were not different, except for the feeling of hunger in the first group (p=0.001). Conclusion: The low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with fish, chicken or eggs until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy achieved a better bowel-cleansing efficacy than the protocol consisting of clear liquid all day and rice porridge only before 8:00 one day before colonoscopy.

Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, sodium phosphate solution, nursing management

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604 A Rare Presentation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Small Bowel Stricture

Authors: Shivani Kuttuva, Bridget Fergie, Andrew Mishreki, Shovkat Mir, Fintan Bergin

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Diaphragm disease (DD) of the small bowel is a condition wherein the bowel lumen is divided into a series of short compartments by multiple circumferential membranes of mucosa and submucosa, leading to pinhole lumen and subsequent obstruction. It is a rare condition commonly attributed to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) usage. Herein we present a 31-yr-old-female with a history of NSAIDs usage for one year following neurosurgery, who presented with recurrent idiopathic small bowel obstruction, recalcitrant anemia, and impaction of capsule endoscope on investigating for anemia. The capsule endoscopy images had demonstrated multiple circumferential strictures with ulcers at its tip and villous atrophy in the proximal bowel, suggestive of NSAIDs related damage. However, due to the lack of awareness of the detrimental effects of NSAIDs on bowel mucosa distal to the duodenum, the underlying aetiology of this case remained a mystery for a significant duration. The patient had to undergo repeated laparotomies in order to relieve the symptoms of recurring acute small bowel obstruction. Upon examining the resected specimen under microscopy, the histopathological hallmark of expanded, fibrotic, and congested submucosa was picked up, leading to the confirmation of diaphragm disease. Thus, this case report aims to widen the awareness among clinicians and aid surgeons in devising a management plan for young individuals presenting with recurring episodes of obstruction due to diaphragm disease.

Keywords: capsule endoscopy, diaphragm disease, NSAIDs, recurrent small bowel obstruction

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603 Elevated Celiac Antibodies and Abnormal Duodenal Biopsies Associated with IBD Markers: Possible Role of Altered Gut Permeability and Inflammation in Gluten Related Disorders

Authors: Manav Sabharwal, Ruda Rai Md, Candace Parker, James Ridley

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Wheat is one of the most commonly consumed grains worldwide, which contains gluten. Nowadays, gluten intake is considered to be a trigger for GRDs, including Celiac disease (CD), a common genetic disease affecting 1% of the US population, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and wheat allergy. NCGS is being recognized as an acquired gluten-sensitive enteropathy that is prevalent across age, ethnic and geographic groups. The cause of this entity is not fully understood, and recent studies suggest that it is more common in participants with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with iron deficiency anemia, symptoms of fatigue, and has considerable overlap in symptoms with IBS and Crohn’s disease. However, these studies were lacking in availability of complete serologies, imaging tests and/or pan-endoscopy. We performed a prospective study of 745 adult patients who presented to an outpatient clinic for evaluation of chronic upper gastro-intestinal symptoms and subsequently underwent an upper endoscopic (EGD) examination as standard of care. Evaluation comprised of comprehensive celiac antibody panel, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) serologic markers, duodenal biopsies and Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy (VCE), when available. At least 6 biopsy specimens were obtained from the duodenum and proximal jejunum during EGD, and CD3+ Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and villous architecture were evaluated by a single experienced pathologist, and VCE was performed by a single experienced gastroenterologist. Of the 745 patients undergoing EGD, 12% (93/745) patients showed elevated CD3+ IELs in the duodenal biopsies. 52% (387/745) completed a comprehensive CD panel and 7.2% (28/387) were positive for at least 1 CD antibody (Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), being the most common antibody in 65% (18/28)). Of these patients, 18% (5/28) showed increased duodenal CD3+ IELs, but 0% showed villous blunting or distortion to meet criteria for CD. Surprisingly, 43% (12/28) were positive for at 1 IBD serology (ASCA, ANCA or expanded IBD panel (LabCorp)). Of these 28 patients, 29% (8/28) underwent a SB VCE, of which 100 % (8/8) showed significant jejuno-ileal mucosal lesions diagnostic for IBD. Findings of abnormal CD antibodies (7.2%, 28/387) and increased CD3+ IELs on duodenal biopsy (12%, 93/745) were observed frequently in patients with UGI symptoms undergoing EGD in an outpatient clinic. None met criteria for CD, and a high proportion (43%, 12/28) showed evidence of overlap with IBD. This suggests a potential causal link of acquired GRDs to underlying inflammation and gut mucosal barrier disruption. Further studies to investigate a role for abnormal antigen presentation of dietary gluten to gut associated lymphoid tissue as a cause are justified. This may explain a high prevalence of GRDs in the population and correlation with IBS, IBD and other gut inflammatory disorders.

Keywords: celiac, gluten sensitive enteropathy, lymphocitic enteritis, IBS, IBD

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602 Nutritional Advantages of Millet (Panucum Miliaceum L) and Opportunities for Its Processing as Value Added Foods

Authors: Fatima Majeed Almonajim

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Panucum miliaceum L is a plant from the genus Gramineae, In the world, millets are regarded as a significant grain, however, they are very little exploited. Millet grain is abundant in nutrients and health-beneficial phenolic compounds, making it suitable as food and feed. The plant has received considerable attention for its high content of phenolic compounds, low glycemic index, the presence of unsaturated fats and lack of gluten which are beneficial to human health, and thus, have made the plant being effective in treating celiac disease, diabetes, lowering blood lipids (cholesterol) and preventing tumors. Moreover, the plant requires little water to grow, a property that is worth considering. This study provides an overview of the nutritional and health benefits provided by millet types grown in 2 areas Iraq and Iran, aiming to compare the effect of climate on the components of millet. In this research, millet samples collected from the both Babylon (Iraqi) and Isfahan (Iranian) types were extracted and after HPTLC, the resulted pattern of the two samples were compared. As a result, the Iranian millet showed more terpenoid compounds than Iraqi millet, and therefore, Iranian millet has a higher priority than Iraqi millet in increasing the human body's immunity. On the other hand, in view of the number of essential amino acids, the Iraqi millet contains more nutritional value compared to the Iranian millet. Also, due to the higher amount of histidine in the Iranian millet, compiled to the lack of gluten found from previous studies, we came to the conclusion that the addition of millet in the diet of children, more specifically those children with irritable bowel syndrome, can be considered beneficial. Therefore, as a component of dairy products, millet can be used in preparing food for children such as dry milk.

Keywords: HPTLC, phytochemicals, specialty foods, Panucum miliaceum L, nutrition

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601 Metagenomics Features of The Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Anna D. Kotrova, Alexandr N. Shishkin, Elena I. Ermolenko

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The aim. To study the quantitative and qualitative colon bacteria ratio from patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. Fecal samples from patients of 2 groups were identified and analyzed: the first group was formed by patients with metabolic syndrome, the second one - by healthy individuals. The metagenomics method was used with the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The libraries of the variable sites (V3 and V4) gene 16S RNA were analyzed using the MiSeq device (Illumina). To prepare the libraries was used the standard recommended by Illumina, a method based on two rounds of PCR. Results. At the phylum level in the microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome compared to healthy individuals, the proportion of Tenericutes was reduced, the proportion of Actinobacteria was increased. At the genus level, in the group with metabolic syndrome, relative to the second group was increased the proportion of Lachnospira. Conclusion. Changes in the colon bacteria ratio in the gut microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome were found both at the type and the genus level. In the metabolic syndrome group, there is a decrease in the proportion of bacteria that do not have a cell wall. To confirm the revealed microbiota features in patients with metabolic syndrome, further study with a larger number of samples is required.

Keywords: gut microbiota, metabolic syndrome, metagenomics, tenericutes

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600 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Different Criteria in Population over 20 Years Old in Ahvaz

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Hajieh Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Leila Yazdanpanah

Abstract:

Objective: Metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X is a collection of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance and lipid abnormalities (elevated triglycerides, elevated LDL, and decrease the amount of HDL). That increases the incidence of diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people over 20 years of Ahvaz according to IDF, ATPIII, Harmonized I and Harmonized II. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling in six health centers in Ahvaz was done. After obtaining informed consent, questionnaire for each person filled up including demographic data and examinations, including blood pressure in sitting position, weight, height, waist circumference, and waist circumference measurement. Results: From all participating 912 people, (434 (2/47%) male and 478 (2/52%) female) were evaluated. Mean age was 42/27± 14years (44/2±14/26 for male and 40/5±13/5 for female). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22/8%, 28/4%, 30/9% and 16/9% according to ATPIII, IDF, Harmonized I and Harmonized II criteria respectively and increased with age in both sexes. IDF and Harmonized I had most kappa coordination (0/94). Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ahvaz. So, identification of the risk factors should be attempted to prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, IDF, ATP III, prevalence

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599 Application of Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment to Children with Down Syndrome

Authors: Olha Yarova

Abstract:

This study is a collaborative project between the American University of Central Asia and parent association of children with Down syndrome ‘Sunterra’ that took place in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. The purpose of the study was to explore whether principles and techniques of applied behavior analysis (ABA) could be used to teach children with Down syndrome socially significant behaviors. ABA is considered to be one of the most effective treatment for children with autism, but little research is done on the particularity of using ABA to children with Down syndrome. The data for the study was received during clinical observations; work with children with Down syndrome and interviews with their mothers. The results show that many ABA principles make the work with children with Down syndrome more effective. Although such children very rarely demonstrate aggressive behavior, they show a lot of escape-driven and attention seeking behaviors that are reinforced by their parents and educators. Thus functional assessment can be done to assess the function of problem behavior and to determine appropriate treatment. Prompting and prompting fading should be used to develop receptive and expressive language skills, and enhance motor development. Even though many children with Down syndrome work for praise, it is still relevant to use tangible reinforcement and to know how to remove them. Based on the results of the study, the training for parents of children with Down syndrome will be developed in Kyrgyzstan, country, where children with Down syndrome are not accepted to regular kindergartens and where doctors in maternity hospitals tell parents that their child will never talk, walk and recognize them

Keywords: down syndrome, applied behavior analysis, functional assessment, problem behavior, reinforcement

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598 Calculation of Organs Radiation Dose in Cervical Carcinoma External Irradiation Beam Using Day’s Methods

Authors: Yousif M. Yousif Abdallah, Mohamed E. Gar-Elnabi, Abdoelrahman H. A. Bakary, Alaa M. H. Eltoum, Abdelazeem K. M. Ali

Abstract:

The study was established to measure the amount of radiation outside the treatment field in external beam radiation therapy using day method of dose calculation, the data was collected from 89 patients of cervical carcinoma in order to determine if the dose outside side the irradiation treatment field for spleen, liver, both kidneys, small bowel, large colon, skin within the acceptable limit or not. The cervical field included mainly 4 organs which are bladder, rectum part of small bowel and hip joint these organ received mean dose of (4781.987±281.321), (4736.91±331.8), (4647.64±387.1) and (4745.91±321.11) respectively. The mean dose received by outfield organs was (77.69±15.24cGy) to large colon, (93.079±12.31cGy) to right kidney (80.688±12.644cGy) to skin, (155.86±17.69cGy) to small bowel. This was more significant value noted.

Keywords: radiation dose, cervical carcinoma, day’s methods, radiation medicine

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597 Compared Psychophysiological Responses under Stress in Patients of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Depressive Disorder

Authors: Fu-Chien Hung, Chi‐Wen Liang

Abstract:

Background: People who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) frequently complain about continuous tiredness, weakness or lack of strength, but without apparent organic etiology. The prevalence rate of the CFS is nearly from 3% to 20%, yet more than 80% go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as depression. The biopsychosocial model has suggested the associations among the CFS, depressive syndrome, and stress. This study aimed to investigate the difference between individuals with the CFS and with the depressive syndrome on psychophysiological responses under stress. Method: There were 23 participants in the CFS group, 14 participants in the depression group, and 23 participants in the healthy control group. All of the participants first completed the measures of demographic data, CFS-related symptoms, daily life functioning, and depressive symptoms. The participants were then asked to perform a stressful cognitive task. The participants’ psychophysiological responses including the HR, BVP and SC were measured during the task. These indexes were used to assess the reactivity and recovery rates of the automatic nervous system. Results: The stress reactivity of the CFS and depression groups was not different from that of the healthy control group. However, the stress recovery rate of the CFS group was worse than that of the healthy control group. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the CFS is a syndrome which can be independent from the depressive syndrome, although the depressive syndrome may include fatigue syndrome.

Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, stress response, misdiagnosis

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596 Analysis of Indoor Air Quality and Sick Building Syndrome in Control Room Oil Gas Refinery

Authors: Dessy Laksyana Utami

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The sick building syndrome comprises of various nonspecific symptoms that occur in the occupants of a building. It is commonly increases sickness absenteeism and causes a decrease in productivity of the workers. Evidence suggests that what is called the Sick Building Syndrome are at least three separate entities, which has at least one cause. The following are some of the factors that might be primarily responsible for Sick Building Syndrome such as: Chemical contaminants, Biological contaminants, Inadequate ventilation and Electromagnetic radiation. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) system in the building. As this syndrome is increasingly becoming a major occupational hazard. It was used the analytic cross-sectional design. Based on data obtained 80% of respondents reported significant ongoing health problems in the eyes, head, and the nose. 60% had bad symptoms in the throat, the stomach and cough, 50% had gastrointestinal disorders, 40% fatigue and 25% occurred all symptoms sick building syndrome. The 40 respondents were recruited to the study, with a mean age of 35 years (range 20-55). To support the evidence of Sick Building Syndrome, further checks are needed for some of the factors in next research, i.e. measurement of Chemical contaminants, Biological contaminants, inadequate ventilation & Electromagnetic radiation.

Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, indoor air quality, oil gas polution

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595 Comparing of Hypogonadism Frequency between Metabolic Syndrome Men with Normal Men

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Bahman Ghaderian, Homeira Rashidi, Mahmoud Mapar

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Background and Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered the most important public health threat of the 21st century. This syndrome is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including increased central abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein, high blood pressure, increased fasting glucose, and hyperinsulinemia. MetS has been associated with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED), and MetS may be considered a risk factor for ED. The aim of this study was finding an association between metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism in Khouzestan, Iran. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 60 patients divided into two groups consisted of 30 cases (with metabolic syndrome) and 30 controls. Total and free Serum Testosterone and FBS in all of them were measured. Data was analyzed with SPSS20 program. Results: There was a significant difference between two groups about free Testosterone (P=0.01), FBS (P=0.002) and LH (P=0.03). Conclusion: According to this finding, it is thought the prevalence of hypogonadism in men with metabolic syndrome is more than the general population.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, fasting blood sugar, hypogonadism, testosterone

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594 Metabolic Syndrome among Some Originates of Mbo Ethnic Group Living in Yaounde-Cameroon

Authors: Mandob Enyegue Damaris, Oko Ndjollo Viviane

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The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome is increasing throughout the world. The etiology of the metabolic syndrome is dependent on different factors such as ethnic group. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic syndrome among Mbo ethnic group people leaving in Yaounde, Cameroon. The study conducted on the hundred and thirty two people 40 men and 92 women aged between 18-60 years who were referred to the Andre Fouda Medical Fundation in Yaounde. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (A.T.P-III) 2001 guidelines. The mean of age, high fasting blood glucose, triglycerides levels and total cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in women with metabolic syndrome. High blood pressure level (56.80%), high fasting glucose (20.45%) and high waist circumference (10.60%) were respectively the most frequent characteristics in comparison to others metabolic components. The overall prevalence of MetS was (4.55%) and higher in women (3.03%) than in men (1.52%). The prevalence of MetS is low in originates of Mbo ethnic group of Yaounde. High blood pressure is the most common abnormality.

Keywords: individual components, metabolic syndrome, Mbo ethnic group, Yaounde-Cameroon

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593 Language Development in Rare Diseases: Angelman Syndrome vs Prader-Willi Syndrome

Authors: Sara Canas Pedrosa, Esther Moraleda SepuLveda

Abstract:

Angelman Syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are considered rare genetic disorders that share the same chromosomal region: 15q11.2-q13. This is why both share some common characteristics, such as, delay in language development. However, there is still little research that specifically focuses on the linguistic profile in these populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to know the characteristics of oral and written language that Angelman Syndrome and Prader-Willi Syndrome present from the point of view of parents. The sample consisted of 36 families (with children between 6 and 17 years old), of which 23 had children with AS and 13 had children with PWS. All of them answered the Language Assessment Scale of the standardized test CELF-4, Spanish Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Wiig, Secord & Semel, 2006). The scale is made up of 40 items that assesses the perception of parents in areas such as: difficulty of listening, speaking, reading and writing. The results indicate that the majority of parents manifest problems in almost all the sub-areas related to oral language and written language, taking into account that many do not achieve a literacy level, with similar results in comparison with both syndromes. These data support the importance of working on oral language delay and its relationship with the subsequent learning of literacy throughout its development.

Keywords: Angelman Syndrome , development, language, Prader-Willi Syndrome

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592 Gender Difference in the Association between Different Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Vitamin D Levels in Saudi Patients

Authors: Amal Baalash, Shazia Mukaddam, M. Adel El-Sayed

Abstract:

Background: Several studies have suggested non-skeletal effects of vitamin D and linked its deficiency with features of many chronic conditions. In this study, We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and different components of the metabolic syndrome in male and female Saudi patients. Methods: the study population consisted of 111 patients with metabolic syndrome (71 females and 40 males) aged 37-63 years enrolled from patients attending the internal medicine outpatient clinics of King Fahad Medical City. The parameters for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) were measured, which included waist circumference, TG, HDL-C, Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose (FBS). The association between each parameter and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was studied in both male and female patients separately. Results: in male patients, 25(OH) D levels were inversely associated with FBS and TG and positively associated with HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure, With highest association with the HDL-C levels. On the other hand 25(OH) D, Showed no significant association with any of the measured metabolic syndrome parameters in female patients. Conclusion: in Saudi patients with metabolic syndrome, the association between the parameters of metabolic syndrome and the levels of 25 (OH) D is more pronounced in males rather than females.

Keywords: gender, metabolic syndrome, Saudi patients, vitamin D

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591 Burnout Syndrome: A Study of Financial Professionals

Authors: Sara Santos, Maria João Santos

Abstract:

Thisarticleanalyzesthethemeofwork-family conflict and professional stress among financial workers and their relationships with burnout syndrome. This also studieshowthesocio demographicandworkingcharacteristicsoftheseprofessionalsinfluencetheirlevelsofburnout. Weadopted a mixedmethodbasedontheanalysisof 255 surveysand 24 interviewscarriedoutwith financial sector professionals. Thekeyresultsincludeverificationofhowtheseprofessionalsregister a positive relationshipbetweenwork-familyconflictandburnoutsyndrome as well as betweenprofessional stress andburnout. Thestudycontributes to a betterunderstandingoftheimpactsthatwork-familyconflictsandprofessional stress haveon financial professionalsandhowtheycontribute to thevariationsprevailingintheirrespectivelevelsofburnout.

Keywords: burnout syndrome, financial area, conflict, stres

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590 Pres Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Cases

Authors: Vaibhavi Birle

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare clinic-radiological syndrome associated with acute changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. It is characterized symptomatically by headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual blurring with radiological changes of white matter (vasogenic oedema) affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain. It is being increasingly recognized due to increased institutional deliveries and advances in imaging particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In spite of the increasing diagnosis the prediction of PRES and patient factors affecting susceptibility is still not clear. Hence, we conducted the retrospective study to analyse the factors associated with PRES at our tertiary centre.

Keywords: pres syndrome, eclampsia, maternal outcome, fetal outcome

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589 Incidence and Prevalence of Dry Eye Syndrome in Different Occupational Sector of Society

Authors: Vergeena Varghese, G. Gajalakshmi, Jayarajini Vasanth

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The present study deals with the indication of prevalence of dry eye and evaluates environmental risk factors attributed to dry eye in different occupational sectors. 240 subjects above 20 years and below 45 years of age were screened for dry eye. Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire based history and Schirmer’s test were used to diagnose dry eye. For Schirmer’s test Whatman strip and paracaine drop used as an anesthetic. Subject’s demographics include age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, occupation history and working environment. Out of a total of 240 subjects, 52 subjects were positive for dry eye syndrome (21.7%). The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14subjects (26.9%) out of a total of 40 subjects. In the construction sector, the prevalence of dry eye syndrome had 12 subjects (23.1%) out of 40 subjects and 9 subjects (17.3%) out of 40 subjects in agriculture sector. 7 subjects (13.5%) who had dry eye out of 40 subjects in the transport sector and in industrial 6 subjects (11.5%). In a normal sector, this was taken as control group had dry eye in 4 subjects (7.7%) out of 40 subjects. We also found the prevalence of dry eye in OS was higher than OD. Dry eye is a most common ocular condition. The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14 members than other sector. There was a significant correlation between environmental and occupational factors to cause dry eye. Excessive exposure to sunlight, wind, high temperature, and air pollution, electromagnetic radiation are the factors affect the tear film and ocular surface causing the dry eye syndrome.

Keywords: DES – dry eye syndrome, Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire, schirmer’s test, whatman vstrip

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588 Exploring Research Trends and Topics in Intervention on Metabolic Syndrome Using Network Analysis

Authors: Lee Soo-Kyoung, Kim Young-Su

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This study established a network related to metabolic syndrome intervention by conducting a social network analysis of titles, keywords, and abstracts, and it identified emerging topics of research. It visualized an interconnection between critical keywords and investigated their frequency of appearance to construe the trends in metabolic syndrome intervention measures used in studies conducted over 38 years (1979–2017). It examined a collection of keywords from 8,285 studies using text rank analyzer, NetMiner 4.0. The analysis revealed 5 groups of newly emerging keywords in the research. By examining the relationship between keywords with reference to their betweenness centrality, the following clusters were identified. Thus if new researchers refer to existing trends to establish the subject of their study and the direction of the development of future research on metabolic syndrome intervention can be predicted.

Keywords: intervention, metabolic syndrome, network analysis, research, the trend

Procedia PDF Downloads 127