Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10027

Search results for: thermal management

10027 Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Bambang Ariantara, Nandy Putra, Rangga Aji Pamungkas

Abstract:

The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gives the best performance that produces the thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm2.

Keywords: electric vehicle, flat-plate loop heat pipe, lithium-ion battery, thermal management system

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10026 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector

Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal management

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10025 Operating System Support for Mobile Device Thermal Management and Performance Optimization in Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: Yasith Mindula Saipath Wickramasinghe

Abstract:

Augmented Reality applications require a high processing power to load, render and live stream high-definition AR models and virtual scenes; it also requires device sensors to work excessively to coordinate with internal hardware, OS and give the expected outcome in advance features like object detection, real time tracking, as well as voice and text recognition. Excessive thermal generation due to these advanced functionalities has become a major research problem as it is unbearable for smaller mobile devices to manage such heat increment and battery drainage as it causes physical harm to the devices in the long term. Therefore, effective thermal management is one of the major requirements in Augmented Reality application development. As this paper discusses major causes for this issue, it also provides possible solutions in the means of operating system adaptations as well as further research on best coding practises to optimize the application performance that reduces thermal excessive thermal generation.

Keywords: augmented reality, device thermal management, GPU, operating systems, device I/O, overheating

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10024 Two Major Methods to Control Thermal Resistance of Focus Ring for Process Uniformity Enhance

Authors: Jin-Uk Park

Abstract:

Recently, the semiconductor industry is rapidly demanding complicated structures and mass production. From the point of view of mass production, the ETCH industry is concentrating on maintaining the ER (Etch rate) of the wafer edge constant regardless of changes over time. In this study, two major thermal factors affecting process were identified and controlled. First, the filler of the thermal pad was studied. Second, the significant difference of handling the thermal pad during PM was studied.

Keywords: etcher, thermal pad, wet cleaning, thermal conductivity

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10023 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electro-ceramics, firing

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10022 Investigate and Control Thermal Spectra in Nanostructures and 2D Van der Waals Materials

Authors: Joon Sang Kang, Ming Ke, Yongjie Hu

Abstract:

Controlling heat transfer and thermal properties of materials is important to many fields such as energy efficiency and thermal management of integrated circuits. Significant progress over the past decade has been made to improve material performance through structuring at the nanoscale, however a clear relationship between structure dimensions, interfaces, and thermal properties remains to be established. The main challenge comes from the unknown intrinsic spectral contribution from different phonons. Here, we describe our current progress on quantifying and controlling thermal spectra based on our recently developed technical approach using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. Our work brings further the promise of rational material design to achieve high performance through a synergistic experimental-modeling approach. This approach can be broadly applicable to a wide range of materials and energy systems. In particular, we demonstrate in-situ characterization and tunable thermal properties of 2D van der waals materials through ionic intercalations. The significant impacts of this research in improving the efficiency of thermal energy conversion and management will also be illustrated.

Keywords: energy, mean free path, nanoscale heat transfer, nanostructure, phonons, TDTR, thermoelectrics, 2D materials

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10021 Influence of Coatings on Energy Conservation in Construction Industry

Authors: Nancy Sakr, Mohamed Abou-Zeid

Abstract:

World energy consumption has increased rapidly in the past few years. Due to population growth, total energy consumption is increasing; a large amount of energy is wasted on the cooling and heating processes in buildings. However, using thermal heating management can minimize costs, heat consumption and create a management system for the heat insulation for buildings. This concept is being implemented through different approaches. Based on analysis and research, there is evidence in the energy consumption before and after testing and applying construction approaches for thermal heating management in building units. This investigation addresses the evaluation of the influence of external coatings on energy consumption. Coatings are considered one of the smart effective available approaches for energy efficiency. Unfortunately, this approach is not widely applied in the construction industry. It needs more data to prove effectiveness and credibility between people to use it as a smart thermal insulation approach. Two precedents have been analyzed in order to monitor buildings’ heat exposure, and how the buildings will be affected by thermal insulation materials. Data sheets from chemical companies which produce similar coatings are compared with the usual products and the protective thermal products.

Keywords: energy consumption, building envelope, thermal insulation, protective coatings

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10020 Systems Approach on Thermal Analysis of an Automatic Transmission

Authors: Sinsze Koo, Benjin Luo, Matthew Henry

Abstract:

In order to increase the performance of an automatic transmission, the automatic transmission fluid is required to be warm up to an optimal operating temperature. In a conventional vehicle, cold starts result in friction loss occurring in the gear box and engine. The stop and go nature of city driving dramatically affect the warm-up of engine oil and automatic transmission fluid and delay the time frame needed to reach an optimal operating temperature. This temperature phenomenon impacts both engine and transmission performance but also increases fuel consumption and CO2 emission. The aim of this study is to develop know-how of the thermal behavior in order to identify thermal impacts and functional principles in automatic transmissions. Thermal behavior was studied using models and simulations, developed using GT-Suit, on a one-dimensional thermal and flow transport. A power train of a conventional vehicle was modeled in order to emphasis the thermal phenomena occurring in the various components and how they impact the automatic transmission performance. The simulation demonstrates the thermal model of a transmission fluid cooling system and its component parts in warm-up after a cold start. The result of these analyses will support the future designs of transmission systems and components in an attempt to obtain better fuel efficiency and transmission performance. Therefore, these thermal analyses could possibly identify ways that improve existing thermal management techniques with prioritization on fuel efficiency.

Keywords: thermal management, automatic transmission, hybrid, and systematic approach

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10019 Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Sadeep Sasidharan, T. B. Isha

Abstract:

Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.

Keywords: electric vehicles, induction motor, inset permanent magnet motor, loss models, switched reluctance motor, thermal analysis

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10018 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou

Abstract:

Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties

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10017 A Literature Review of the Trend towards Indoor Dynamic Thermal Comfort

Authors: James Katungyi

Abstract:

The Steady State thermal comfort model which dominates thermal comfort practice and which posits the ideal thermal conditions in a narrow range of thermal conditions does not deliver the expected comfort levels among occupants. Furthermore, the buildings where this model is applied consume a lot of energy in conditioning. This paper reviews significant literature about thermal comfort in dynamic indoor conditions including the adaptive thermal comfort model and alliesthesia. A major finding of the paper is that the adaptive thermal comfort model is part of a trend from static to dynamic indoor environments in aspects such as lighting, views, sounds and ventilation. Alliesthesia or thermal delight is consistent with this trend towards dynamic thermal conditions. It is within this trend that the two fold goal of increased thermal comfort and reduced energy consumption lies. At the heart of this trend is a rediscovery of the link between the natural environment and human well-being, a link that was partially severed by over-reliance on mechanically dominated artificial indoor environments. The paper concludes by advocating thermal conditioning solutions that integrate mechanical with natural thermal conditioning in a balanced manner in order to meet occupant thermal needs without endangering the environment.

Keywords: adaptive thermal comfort, alliesthesia, energy, natural environment

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10016 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: characteristics curve, photovoltaic, thermal modelling, thermal efficiency

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10015 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.

Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation

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10014 The Implementation of a Numerical Technique to Thermal Design of Fluidized Bed Cooler

Authors: Damiaa Saad Khudor

Abstract:

The paper describes an investigation for the thermal design of a fluidized bed cooler and prediction of heat transfer rate among the media categories. It is devoted to the thermal design of such equipment and their application in the industrial fields. It outlines the strategy for the fluidization heat transfer mode and its implementation in industry. The thermal design for fluidized bed cooler is used to furnish a complete design for a fluidized bed cooler of Sodium Bicarbonate. The total thermal load distribution between the air-solid and water-solid along the cooler is calculated according to the thermal equilibrium. The step by step technique was used to accomplish the thermal design of the fluidized bed cooler. It predicts the load, air, solid and water temperature along the trough. The thermal design for fluidized bed cooler revealed to the installation of a heat exchanger consists of (65) horizontal tubes with (33.4) mm diameter and (4) m length inside the bed trough.

Keywords: fluidization, powder technology, thermal design, heat exchangers

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10013 An Attempt to Improve Student´s Understanding on Thermal Conductivity Using Thermal Cameras

Authors: Mariana Faria Brito Francisquini

Abstract:

Many thermal phenomena are present and play a substantial role in our daily lives. This presence makes the study of this area at both High School and University levels a very widely explored topic in the literature. However, a lot of important concepts to a meaningful understanding of the world are neglected at the expense of a traditional approach with senseless algebraic problems. In this work, we intend to show how the introduction of new technologies in the classroom, namely thermal cameras, can work in our favor to make a clearer understanding of many of these concepts, such as thermal conductivity. The use of thermal cameras in the classroom tends to diminish the everlasting abstractness in thermal phenomena as they enable us to visualize something that happens right before our eyes, yet we cannot see it. In our study, we will provide the same amount of heat to metallic cylindrical rods of the same length, but different materials in order to study the thermal conductivity of each one. In this sense, the thermal camera allows us to visualize the increase in temperature along each rod in real time enabling us to infer how heat is being transferred from one part of the rod to another. Therefore, we intend to show how this approach can contribute to the exposure of students to more enriching, intellectually prolific, scenarios than those provided by traditional approaches.

Keywords: teaching physics, thermal cameras, thermal conductivity, thermal physics

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10012 Temperature Control and Thermal Management of Cylindrical Lithium Batteries Using Phase Change Materials (PCMs)

Authors: S. M. Sadrameli, Y. Azizi

Abstract:

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have shown to be one of the most reliable energy storage systems for electric cars in the recent years. Ambient temperature has a significant impact on the performance, lifetime, safety and cost of such batteries. Increasing the temperature degrade the lithium batteries more quickly while working at low-temperature environment results reducing the power and energy capability of the system. A thermal management system has been designed and setup in laboratory scale for controlling the temperature at optimum conditions using PEG-1000 with the melting point in the range of 33-40 oC as a phase change material. Aluminum plates have been installed in the PCM to increase the thermal conductivity and increasing the heat transfer rate. Experimental tests have been run at different discharge rates and ambient temperatures to investigate the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the batteries. The comparison has been made between the system of 6 batteries with and without PCM and the results show that PCM with aluminum plates decrease the surface temperature of the batteries that would result better performance and longer lifetime of the batteries.

Keywords: lithium-ion batteries, phase change materials, thermal management, temperature control

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10011 Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

Keywords: building envelope, building mass effect, building thermal comfort, building thermal performance, school building

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10010 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800°C and 200-900°C. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation

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10009 Total Thermal Resistance of Graphene-Oxide-Substrate Stack: Role of Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Heat Flow of 2D Material Based Devices

Authors: Roisul H. Galib, Prabhakar R. Bandaru

Abstract:

In 2D material based device, an interface between 2D materials and substrates often limits the heat flow through the device. In this paper, we quantify the total thermal resistance of a graphene-based device by series resistance model and show that the thermal resistance at the interface of graphene and substrate contributes to more than 50% of the total resistance. Weak Van der Waals interactions at the interface and dissimilar phonon vibrational modes create this thermal resistance, allowing less heat to flow across the interface. We compare our results with commonly used materials and interfaces, demonstrating the role of the interface as a potential application for heat guide or block in a 2D material-based device.

Keywords: 2D material, graphene, thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistance

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10008 Working Mode and Key Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test Software for Spacecraft Test

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

A universal software platform is developed for improving the defects in the practical one. This software platform has distinct advantages in modularization, information management, and the interfaces. Several technologies such as computer technology, virtualization technology, network technology, etc. are combined together in this software platform, and four working modes are introduced in this article including single mode, distributed mode, cloud mode, and the centralized mode. The application area of the software platform is extended through the switch between these working modes. The software platform can arrange the thermal vacuum test process automatically. This function can improve the reliability of thermal vacuum test.

Keywords: software platform, thermal vacuum test, control and measurement, work mode

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10007 Study of Hydrothermal Behavior of Thermal Insulating Materials Based on Natural Fibers

Authors: J. Zach, J. Hroudova, J. Brozovsky

Abstract:

Thermal insulation materials based on natural fibers represent a very promising area of materials based on natural easy renewable row sources. These materials may be in terms of the properties of most competing synthetic insulations, but show somewhat higher moisture sensitivity and thermal insulation properties are strongly influenced by the density and orientation of fibers. The paper described the problem of hygrothermal behavior of thermal insulation materials based on natural plant and animal fibers. This is especially the dependence of the thermal properties of these materials on the type of fiber, bulk density, temperature, moisture and the fiber orientation.

Keywords: thermal insulating materials, hemp fibers, sheep wool fibers, thermal conductivity, moisture

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10006 Thermal Network Model for a Large Scale AC Induction Motor

Authors: Sushil Kumar, M. Dakshina Murty

Abstract:

Thermal network modelling has proven to be important tool for thermal analysis of electrical machine. This article investigates numerical thermal network model and experimental performance of a large-scale AC motor. Experimental temperatures were measured using RTD in the stator which have been compared with the numerical data. Thermal network modelling fairly predicts the temperature of various components inside the large-scale AC motor. Results of stator winding temperature is compared with experimental results which are in close agreement with accuracy of 6-10%. This method of predicting hot spots within AC motors can be readily used by the motor designers for estimating the thermal hot spots of the machine.

Keywords: AC motor, thermal network, heat transfer, modelling

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10005 An Overview of Thermal Storage Techniques for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Talha Shafiq

Abstract:

The traditional electricity operation in solar thermal plants is designed to operate on a single path initiating at power plant and executes at the consumer. Due to lack of energy storage facilities during this operation, a decrease in the efficiency is often observed with the power plant performance. This paper reviews the significance of energy storage in supply design and elaborates various methods that can be adopted in this regard which are equally cost effective and environmental friendly. Moreover, various parameters in thermal storage technique are also critically analyzed to clarify the pros and cons in this facility. Discussing the different thermal storage system, their technical and economical evaluation has also been reviewed.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage

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10004 Analysis of Thermal Damping in Si Based Torsional Micromirrors

Authors: R. Resmi, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

The thermal damping of a dynamic vibrating micromirror is an important factor affecting the design of MEMS based actuator systems. In the development process of new micromirror systems, assessing the extent of energy loss due to thermal damping accurately and predicting the performance of the system is very essential. In this paper, the depth of the thermal penetration layer at different eigenfrequencies and the temperature variation distributions surrounding a vibrating micromirror is analyzed. The thermal penetration depth corresponds to the thermal boundary layer in which energy is lost which is a measure of the thermal damping is found out. The energy is mainly dissipated in the thermal boundary layer and thickness of the layer is an important parameter. The detailed thermoacoustics is used to model the air domain surrounding the micromirror. The thickness of the boundary layer, temperature variations and thermal power dissipation are analyzed for a Si based torsional mode micromirror. It is found that thermal penetration depth decreases with eigenfrequency and hence operating the micromirror at higher frequencies is essential for reducing thermal damping. The temperature variations and thermal power dissipations at different eigenfrequencies are also analyzed. Both frequency-response and eigenfrequency analyses are done using COMSOL Multiphysics software.

Keywords: Eigen frequency analysis, micromirrors, thermal damping, thermoacoustic interactions

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10003 Thermal Comfort in Office Rooms in a Historic Building with Modernized Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: Hossein Bakhtiari, Mathias Cehlin, Jan Akander

Abstract:

Envelopes with low thermal performance is a common characteristic in many European historic buildings which leads to higher energy demand for heating and cooling as well as insufficient thermal comfort for the occupants. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort in the City Hall (Rådhuset) in Gävle, Sweden. This historic building is currently used as an office building. It is equipped with two relatively modern mechanical heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices in the offices. The district heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from an electric heat pump that rejects heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system controls HVAC equipment (heating, ventilation and air conditioning). The methodology is based on on-site measurements, data logging on the management system and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. The main aim of the study is to investigate whether or not it is enough to have modernized HVAC systems to get adequate thermal comfort in a historic building with poor envelope performance used as an office building in Nordic climate conditions.

Keywords: historic buildings, on-site measurements, standardized questionnaire, thermal comfort

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10002 Investigation on the Thermal Properties of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Prepared with Glass Powder

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal property of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) using glass powder as a substitute. Glass powder by proportion 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cement’s weight was added to specimens. At the end of a drying time of 28 days, thermal properties, compressive strength and bulk density of samples were determined. Thermal property is measured by Photothermal Deflection Technique by comparing the experimental of normalized amplitude and the phase curves of the photothermal signal to the corresponding theoretical ones. The findings indicate that incorporation of glass powder decreases the thermal properties of MOC.

Keywords: magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC), phototharmal deflection technique, thermal properties, Ddensity

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10001 Synthesis and Characterization of Ferromagnetic Ni-Cu Alloys for Thermal Rectification Applications

Authors: Josue Javier Martinez Flores, Jaime Alvarez Quintana

Abstract:

A thermal rectifier consists of a device which can load a different heat flow which depends on the direction of that flow. That device is a thermal diode. It is well known that heat transfer in solids basically depends on the electrical, magnetic and crystalline nature of materials via electrons, magnons and phonons as thermal energy carriers respectively. In the present research, we have synthesized polycrystalline Ni-Cu alloys and identified the Curie temperatures; and we have observed that by way of secondary phase transitions, it is possible manipulate the heat conduction in solid state thermal diodes via transition temperature. In this sense, we have succeeded in developing solid state thermal diodes with a control gate through the Curie temperature via the activation and deactivation of magnons in Ni-Cu ferromagnetic alloys at room temperature. Results show thermal diodes with thermal rectification factors up to 1.5. Besides, the performance of the electrical rectifiers can be controlled by way of alloy Cu content; hence, lower Cu content alloys present enhanced thermal rectifications factors than higher ones.

Keywords: thermal rectification, Curie temperature, ferromagnetic alloys, magnons

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10000 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong

Abstract:

Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

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9999 Effects of Aging on Thermal Properties of Some Improved Varieties of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) Roots

Authors: K. O. Oriola, A. O. Raji, O. E. Akintola, O. T. Ismail

Abstract:

Thermal properties of roots of three improved cassava varieties (TME419, TMS 30572, and TMS 0326) were determined on samples harvested at 12, 15 and 18 Months After Planting (MAP) conditioned to moisture contents of 50, 55, 60, 65, 70% (wb). Thermal conductivity at 12, 15 and 18 MAP ranged 0.4770 W/m.K to 0.6052W/m.K; 0.4804 W/m.K to 0.5530 W/m.K and 0.3764 to 0.6102 W/m.K respectively, thermal diffusivity from 1.588 to 2.426 x 10-7m2/s; 1.290 to 2.010 x 10-7m2/s and 0.1692 to 4.464 x 10-7m2/s and specific heat capacity from 2.3626 to 3.8991 kJ/kg.K; 1.8110 to 3.9703 kJ/kgK and 1.7311 to 3.8830 kJ/kg.K respectively within the range of moisture content studied across the varieties. None of the samples over the ages studied showed similar or definite trend in variation with others across the moisture content. However, second order polynomial models fitted all the data. Age on the other hand had a significant effect on the three thermal properties studied for TME 419 but not on thermal conductivity of TMS30572 and specific heat capacity of TMS 0326. Information obtained will provide better insight into thermal processing of cassava roots into stable products.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, moisture content, tuber age

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9998 Semi-Analytic Method in Fast Evaluation of Thermal Management Solution in Energy Storage System

Authors: Ya Lv

Abstract:

This article presents the application of the semi-analytic method (SAM) in the thermal management solution (TMS) of the energy storage system (ESS). The TMS studied in this work is fluid cooling. In fluid cooling, both effective heat conduction and heat convection are indispensable due to the heat transfer from solid to fluid. Correspondingly, an efficient TMS requires a design investigation of the following parameters: fluid inlet temperature, ESS initial temperature, fluid flow rate, working c rate, continuous working time, and materials properties. Their variation induces a change of thermal performance in the battery module, which is usually evaluated by numerical simulation. Compared to complicated computation resources and long computation time in simulation, the SAM is developed in this article to predict the thermal influence within a few seconds. In SAM, a fast prediction model is reckoned by combining numerical simulation with theoretical/empirical equations. The SAM can explore the thermal effect of boundary parameters in both steady-state and transient heat transfer scenarios within a short time. Therefore, the SAM developed in this work can simplify the design cycle of TMS and inspire more possibilities in TMS design.

Keywords: semi-analytic method, fast prediction model, thermal influence of boundary parameters, energy storage system

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