Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: mood

172 Mood Recognition Using Indian Music

Authors: Vishwa Joshi

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The study of mood recognition in the field of music has gained a lot of momentum in the recent years with machine learning and data mining techniques and many audio features contributing considerably to analyze and identify the relation of mood plus music. In this paper we consider the same idea forward and come up with making an effort to build a system for automatic recognition of mood underlying the audio song’s clips by mining their audio features and have evaluated several data classification algorithms in order to learn, train and test the model describing the moods of these audio songs and developed an open source framework. Before classification, Preprocessing and Feature Extraction phase is necessary for removing noise and gathering features respectively.

Keywords: music, mood, features, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
171 Balancing the Need for Closure: A Requirement for Effective Mood Development in Flow

Authors: Cristian Andrei Nica

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The state of flow relies on cognitive elements that sustain openness for information processing in order to promote goal attainment. However, the need for closure may create mental constraints, which can impact affectivity levels. This study aims to observe the extent in which need for closure moderates the interaction between flow and affectivity, taking into account the mediating role of the mood repair motivation in the interaction process between need for closure and affectivity. Using a non-experimental, correlational design, n=73 participants n=18 men and n=55 women, ages between 19-64 years (m= 28.02) (SD=9.22), completed the Positive Affectivity-Negative Affectivity Schedule, the need for closure scale-revised, the mood repair items and an adapted version of the flow state scale 2, in order to assess the trait aspects of flow. Results show that need for closure significantly moderates the flow-affectivity process, while the tolerance of ambiguity sub-scale is positively associated with negative affectivity and negatively to positive affectivity. At the same time, mood repair motivation significantly mediates the interaction between need for closure and positive affectivity, whereas the mediation process for negative affectivity is insignificant. Need for closure needs to be considered when promoting the development of positive emotions. It has been found that the motivation to repair one’s mood mediates the interaction between need for closure and positive affectivity. According to this study, flow can trigger positive emotions when the person is willing to engage in mood regulation strategies and approach meaningful experiences with an open mind.

Keywords: flow, mood regulation, mood repair motivation, need for closure, negative affectivity, positive affectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
170 Social Communication Problems, Social Anxiety, and Mood Problems among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder from Teachers' Perspective

Authors: Naila Tallas Mahajna, Jamal Al Khateeb

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This study examined the level of social communication problems, social anxiety, and mood problems among children with ASD (age 6-13 years) enrolled in special classes (n=46) and regular classes (n=36) from teachers' perspective in the schools of a part of Palestine. Teachers responded to three questionnaires - social communication problems, social anxiety and mood problems- that were used to answer the research questions. Results: social communication problems, social anxiety and mood problems were of medium rates for students with ASD enrolled in reguler and special classes. No significant differences in the level of social communication problems could be attributed to class type (Regular, Special) or the grade level-(1st – 3rd, 4th - 6th). There were significant differences in social anxiety levels that could be attributed to grade level in favor of the 4th - 6th grades but there were no significant differences according to class type (Regular, Special). There were statistically significant differences in mood problems levels that could be attributed to the class type in favor of special classes, but no differences were found according to grade level. There was a direct significant relationship between communication problems, social anxiety, and mood problems. Conclusion: social communication problems may be an important risk factor for the development of social anxiety and mood problems among students with ASD.

Keywords: social communication problems, social anxiety, mood problems, autism spectrum disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
169 When and Why Unhappy People Avoid Enjoyable Experiences

Authors: Hao Shen, Aparna Labroo

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Across four studies, we show people in a negative mood avoid anticipated enjoyable experiences because of the subjective difficulty in simulating those experiences, and they misattribute these feelings of difficulty to reduced pleasantness of the anticipated experience. We observe the avoidance of enjoyable experiences only for anticipated experiences that involve smile-like facial-muscular simulation. When the need for facial-muscular simulation is attenuated, or when the anticipated experience relies on facial-muscular simulation to a lesser extent, people in a negative mood no longer avoid enjoyable experiences, but rather seek such experiences because they fit better with their ongoing mood-repair goals.

Keywords: emotion regulation, mood repair, embodiment, anticipated experiences

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168 Assessment of the Validity of Sentiment Analysis as a Tool to Analyze the Emotional Content of Text

Authors: Trisha Malhotra

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Sentiment analysis is a recent field of study that computationally assesses the emotional nature of a body of text. To assess its test-validity, sentiment analysis was carried out on the emotional corpus of text from a personal 15-day mood diary. Self-reported mood scores varied more or less accurately with daily mood evaluation score given by the software. On further assessment, it was found that while sentiment analysis was good at assessing ‘global’ mood, it was not able to ‘locally’ identify and differentially score synonyms of various emotional words. It is further critiqued for treating the intensity of an emotion as universal across cultures. Finally, the software is shown not to account for emotional complexity in sentences by treating emotions as strictly positive or negative. Hence, it is posited that a better output could be two (positive and negative) affect scores for the same body of text.

Keywords: analysis, data, diary, emotions, mood, sentiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
167 Meditation Aided with 40 Hz Binaural Beats Enhances the Cognitive Function and Mood State

Authors: Rubina Shakya, Srijana Dangol, Dil Islam Mansur

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The exposure of constant stress stimuli in our daily lives is causing deterioration of neural connectivity in the brain. Interestingly, the improvement in larger-scale neural communication has been argued to rely on brain rhythms, which might be sensitive to binaural beats of particular frequency bands. The theoretical idea behind neural entrainment is that the rhythmic oscillatory activity within and between different brain regions can enhance cognitive function and mood state. So, we aimed to investigate whether the binaural beats of 40 Hz could enhance the cognition and the mood stability of the medical students at Kathmandu University of age 18-25 years old, which possibly, in the long run, might help to enhance their work productivity. The participants were asked to focus on the auditory stimuli of binaural beats with 200 Hz on the right side and 240 Hz on the left side of the headset for 15 minutes, every alternative day of three consecutive weeks. The Stroop’s test and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) were applied to assess the cognitive function and the mood state, respectively. The binaural beats significantly decreased the reaction time for the incoherent component of Stroop’s test in both male and female participants. For the mood state, scores of all positive emotions except ‘Calmness’ were significantly increased in the case of males. Whereas, scores of all positive emotions except ‘Vigor’ were significantly increased in the case of females. The results suggested that the meditation aided by binaural beats of 40 Hz helps in improving cognition and mood states to some extent.

Keywords: binaural beats, cognitive function, gamma neural oscillation, mood states

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
166 The Effect of Mood and Normative Conformity on Prosocial Behavior

Authors: Antoine Miguel Borromeo, Kristian Anthony Menez, Moira Louise Ordonez, David Carl Rabaya

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This study aimed to test if induced mood and normative conformity have any effect specifically on prosocial behavior, which was operationalized as the willingness to donate to a non-government organization. The effect of current attitude towards the object of the prosocial behavior was also considered with a covariate test. Undergraduates taking an introductory course on psychology (N = 132) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were asked how much money they were willing to donate after being presented a video about coral reef destruction and a website that advocates towards saving the coral reefs. A 3 (Induced mood: Positive vs Fear and Sadness vs Anger, Contempt, and Disgust) x 2 (Normative conformity: Presence vs Absence) between-subjects analysis of covariance was used for experimentation. Prosocial behavior was measured by presenting a circumstance wherein participants were given money and asked if they were willing to donate an amount to the non-government organization. An analysis of covariance revealed that the mood induced has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(2,125) = 0.654, p > 0.05. The analysis also showed how normative conformity has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(1,125) = 0.238, p > 0.05, as well as their interaction F(2, 125) = 1.580, p > 0.05. However, the covariate, current attitude towards corals was revealed to be significant, F(1,125) = 8.778, p < 0.05. From this, we speculate that inherent attitudes of people have a greater effect on prosocial behavior than temporary factors such as mood and conformity.

Keywords: attitude, induced mood, normative conformity, prosocial behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
165 A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population

Authors: Imaneh Abbasi, Ladan Fata, Majid Sadeghi, Sara Banihashemi, Abolfazl Mohammadee

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Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors of development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is to compare some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical population were selected using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there were not any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.

Keywords: transdiagnostic, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, emotion regulation

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164 Effective Parameter Selection for Audio-Based Music Mood Classification for Christian Kokborok Song: A Regression-Based Approach

Authors: Sanchali Das, Swapan Debbarma

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Music mood classification is developing in both the areas of music information retrieval (MIR) and natural language processing (NLP). Some of the Indian languages like Hindi English etc. have considerable exposure in MIR. But research in mood classification in regional language is very less. In this paper, powerful audio based feature for Kokborok Christian song is identified and mood classification task has been performed. Kokborok is an Indo-Burman language especially spoken in the northeastern part of India and also some other countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar etc. For performing audio-based classification task, useful audio features are taken out by jMIR software. There are some standard audio parameters are there for the audio-based task but as known to all that every language has its unique characteristics. So here, the most significant features which are the best fit for the database of Kokborok song is analysed. The regression-based model is used to find out the independent parameters that act as a predictor and predicts the dependencies of parameters and shows how it will impact on overall classification result. For classification WEKA 3.5 is used, and selected parameters create a classification model. And another model is developed by using all the standard audio features that are used by most of the researcher. In this experiment, the essential parameters that are responsible for effective audio based mood classification and parameters that do not significantly change for each of the Christian Kokborok songs are analysed, and a comparison is also shown between the two above model.

Keywords: Christian Kokborok song, mood classification, music information retrieval, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
163 Narrative Family Therapy and the Treatment of Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Authors: Jamie E. Banker

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For many families, pregnancy and the postpartum time are filled with both anticipation and change. For some pregnant or postpartum women, this time is marked by the onset of a mood or anxiety disorder. Experiencing a mood or anxiety disorders during this time of life differs from depression or anxiety at other times of life. Not only because of the physical changes occurring in the mother’s body but also the mental and physical preparation necessary to redefine family roles, responsibilities, and develop new identities in the life transition. The presence of a mood or anxiety disorder can influence the way in which a mother defines herself and can complicate her understanding of her abilities and competencies as a mother. The complexity of experiencing a mood or anxiety disorder in the midst of these changes necessitates specific treatment interventions to match both the symptomatology and psychological adjustments. This study explores the use of narrative family therapy techniques when treating a mother who is experiencing postpartum depression. Externalization is a common technique used in narrative family therapy and can help client’s separate their identity from the problems they are experiencing. This is crucial to a new mom who is in the middle of defining her identity during her transition to parenthood. The goal of this study is to examine how the use of externalization techniques help postpartum women separate their mood and anxiety symptoms from their identity as a mother. An exploratory case study design was conducted in a single setting, private practice therapy office, and explored how a narrative family therapy approach can be used to treat perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The therapy sessions were audio recorded and transcribed. Constructivism and narrative theory are used as theoretical frameworks and data from the therapy sessions, and a follow-up survey was triangulated and analyzed. During the course of the treatment, the participant reports using the new externalizing labels for her symptoms. Within one month of treatment, the participant reports that she could stop herself from thinking the harmful thoughts faster, and within three months, the harmful thoughts went away. The main themes in this study were building courage and less self-blame. This case highlights the role narrative family therapy can play in the treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders and the importance of separating a women’s mood from her identity as a mother. This conceptual framework was beneficial to the postpartum mother when treating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder symptoms.

Keywords: externalizing techniques, narrative family therapy, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, postpartum depression

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162 Adolescent-Parent Relationship as the Most Important Factor in Preventing Mood Disorders in Adolescents: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to Social Studies

Authors: Elżbieta Turska

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Introduction: One of the most difficult times in a person’s life is adolescence. The experiences in this period may shape the future life of this person to a large extent. This is the reason why many young people experience sadness, dejection, hopelessness, sense of worthlessness, as well as losing interest in various activities and social relationships, all of which are often classified as mood disorders. As many as 15-40% adolescents experience depressed moods and for most of them they resolve and are not carried into adulthood. However, (5-6%) of those affected by mood disorders develop the depressive syndrome and as many as (1-3%) develop full-blown clinical depression. Materials: A large questionnaire was given to 2508 students, aged 13–16 years old, and one of its parts was the Burns checklist, i.e. the standard test for identifying depressed mood. The questionnaire asked about many aspects of the student’s life, it included a total of 53 questions, most of which had subquestions. It is important to note that the data suffered from many problems, the most important of which were missing data and collinearity. Aim: In order to identify the correlates of mood disorders we built predictive models which were then trained and validated. Our aim was not to be able to predict which students suffer from mood disorders but rather to explore the factors influencing mood disorders. Methods: The problems with data described above practically excluded using all classical statistical methods. For this reason, we attempted to use the following Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods: classification trees with surrogate variables, random forests and xgboost. All analyses were carried out with the use of the mlr package for the R programming language. Resuts: The predictive model built by classification trees algorithm outperformed the other algorithms by a large margin. As a result, we were able to rank the variables (questions and subquestions from the questionnaire) from the most to least influential as far as protection against mood disorder is concerned. Thirteen out of twenty most important variables reflect the relationships with parents. This seems to be a really significant result both from the cognitive point of view and also from the practical point of view, i.e. as far as interventions to correct mood disorders are concerned.

Keywords: mood disorders, adolescents, family, artificial intelligence

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161 Transitivity, Mood and Modality Analysis in Malaysian News Headlines on Healthy Eating

Authors: Faith Fang Xi Ooi, Kam-Fong Lee

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Headlines are generally the summary of the content of news articles. With the added influence of hectic lifestyles, readers may rely solely on the headlines for information. In the media, what is reported concerning health issues are government responses and community involvement. There is a need for a call to action to curb health issues and not just reporting on what the government is doing about these health-related issues. In other words, linguistic elements of persuasive communicative function should be realized when reporting on health issues. Hence, this paper aims at identifying and analyzing the transitivity, Mood and Modality systems in two hundred news headlines from two Malaysian online news portals, namely The Star Online and New Straits Times. This study employs the purposive sampling method to obtain the news headlines on healthy eating using the search keyword ‘healthy eating’ and is based on Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) framework. The results show that the Material process dominates the process types along with its participants of Scope and Goal. The mood type that constitutes most of the headlines in the two newspapers is the declarative mood. Moreover, for Modality, the median Probability constitutes the highest in the headlines on healthy eating. This study contributes to the implications of being a source of reference for news writers and producers in constructing news headlines and for health campaign strategists to realize the persuasive appeals to influence behaviors and attitudes of the public towards healthy eating.

Keywords: healthy eating, modality, mood, news headlines, SFL

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160 The Effects of Collaborative Videogame Play on Flow Experience and Mood

Authors: Eva Nolan, Timothy Mcnichols

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Gamers spend over 3 billion hours collectively playing video games a week, which is arguably not nearly enough time to indulge in the many benefits gaming has to offer. Much of the previous research on video gaming is centered on the effects of playing violent video games and the negative impacts they have on the individual. However, there is a dearth of research in the area of non-violent video games, specifically the emotional and cognitive benefits playing non-violent games can offer individuals. Current research in the area of video game play suggests there are many benefits to playing for an individual, such as decreasing symptoms of depression, decreasing stress, increasing positive emotions, inducing relaxation, decreasing anxiety, and particularly improving mood. One suggestion as to why video games may offer such benefits is that they possess ideal characteristics to create and maintain flow experiences, which in turn, is the subjective experience where an individual obtains a heightened and improved state of mind while they are engaged in a task where a balance of challenge and skill is found. Many video games offer a platform for collaborative gameplay, which can enhance the emotional experience of gaming through the feeling of social support and social inclusion. The present study was designed to examine the effects of collaborative gameplay and flow experience on participants’ perceived mood. To investigate this phenomenon, an in-between subjects design involving forty participants were randomly divided into two groups where they engaged in solo or collaborative gameplay. Each group represented an even number of frequent gamers and non-frequent gamers. Each participant played ‘The Lego Movie Videogame’ on the Playstation 4 console. The participant’s levels of flow experience and perceived mood were measured by the Flow State Scale (FSS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The following research hypotheses were investigated: (i.) participants in the collaborative gameplay condition will experience higher levels of flow experience and higher levels of mood than those in the solo gameplay condition; (ii.) participants who are frequent gamers will experience higher levels of flow experience and higher levels of mood than non-frequent gamers; and (iii.) there will be a significant positive relationship between flow experience and mood. If the estimated findings are supported, this suggests that engaging in collaborative gameplay can be beneficial for an individual’s mood and that experiencing a state of flow can also enhance an individual’s mood. Hence, collaborative gaming can be beneficial to promote positive emotions (higher levels of mood) through engaging an individual’s flow state.

Keywords: collaborative gameplay, flow experience, mood, games, positive emotions

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159 Mood Choices and Modality Patterns in Donald Trump’s Inaugural Presidential Speech

Authors: Mary Titilayo Olowe

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The controversies that trailed the political campaign and eventual choice of Donald Trump as the American president is so great that expectations are high as to what the content of his inaugural speech will portray. Given the fact that language is a dynamic vehicle of expressing intentions, the speech needs to be objectively assessed so as to access its content in the manner intended through the three strands of meaning postulated by the Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG): the ideational, the interpersonal and the textual. The focus of this paper, however, is on the interpersonal meaning which deals with how language exhibits social roles and relationship. This paper, therefore, attempts to analyse President Donald Trump’s inaugural speech to elicit interpersonal meaning in it. The analysis is done from the perspective of mood and modality which are housed in SFG. Results of the mood choice which is basically declarative, reveal an information-centered speech while the high option for the modal verb operator ‘will’ shows president Donald Trump’s ability to establish an equal and reliant relationship with his audience, i.e., the Americans. In conclusion, the appeal of the speech to different levels of Interpersonal meaning is largely responsible for its overall effectiveness. One can, therefore, understand the reason for the massive reaction it generates at the center of global discourse.

Keywords: interpersonal, modality, mood, systemic functional grammar

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158 Body Mass Hurts Adolescent Girls More than Thin-Ideal Images

Authors: Javaid Marium, Ahmad Iftikhar

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This study was aimed to identify factors that affect negative mood and body image dissatisfaction in women. positive and negative affect, self esteem, body image satisfaction and figure rating scale was administered to 97 female undergraduate students. This served as a base line data for correlation analysis in the first instance. One week later participants who volunteered to appear in the second phase of the study (N=47) were shown thin- ideal images as an intervention and soon after they completed positive and negative affect schedule and body image states scale again as a post test. Results indicated body mass as a strong negative predictor of body image dis/satisfaction, self esteem was a moderate predictor and mood was not a significant predictor. The participants whose actual body shape was markedly discrepant with the ideally desired body shape had significantly low level of body image satisfaction (p < .001) than those with low discrepancy. Similar results were found for self esteem (p < .004). Both self esteem and body mass predicted body satisfaction about equally and significantly. However, on viewing thin-ideal images, the participants of different body weight showed no change in their body image satisfaction than before. Only the overweight participants were significantly affected on negative mood as a short term reaction after viewing the thin ideal images. Comparing the three groups based on their body mass, one-way ANOVA revealed significant difference on negative mood as well as body image satisfaction. This reveals body mass as a potent and stable factor that consistently and strongly affected body satisfaction not the transient portrayal of thin ideal images.

Keywords: body image satisfaction, thin-ideal images, media, mood affects, self esteem

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157 A Study on the Development of Self-Help Therapy for Bipolar Disorder

Authors: Bae Yu been, Choi Sung won, Lee Ju yeon, Yang Dan Bi

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The purpose of this study is to develop a self-help therapy program for bipolar disorder (BD). Psychosocial treatment is adjunct to pharmacotherapy for BD, however, it is limited and they demand high costs. Therefore, the objective of the study is to overcome these limitations by developing the self-treatment for BD. The study was examined the efficacy of the self-treatment program for BD. A randomized controlled trial compared the self-help therapy (ST) intervention with a treatment as usual (TAU) group. ST group has conducted the program for 8 weeks (16 sessions). Mood chart, Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder Questionnaire, Attitudes toward seeking professional help Scale, BIS, CERQ, YMRS, MADRS were used by pre, post, and follow up. The efficacy of the self-help therapy was analyzed by using mixed ANOVAs. There were significant differences in the rate of occurrence of mania or depression between the two groups. ST group reported stable moods on mood chart, and reductions in mood symptoms and improvements in quality of life and treatment adherence. This study was confirmed applicable to BD to the self-help therapy for patients with BD conducted first in Korea.

Keywords: self help therapy, bipolar disorder, self help, self therapy

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156 Application of the MOOD Technique to the Steady-State Euler Equations

Authors: Gaspar J. Machado, Stéphane Clain, Raphael Loubère

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The goal of the present work is to numerically study steady-state nonlinear hyperbolic equations in the context of the finite volume framework. We will consider the unidimensional Burgers' equation as the reference case for the scalar situation and the unidimensional Euler equations for the vectorial situation. We consider two approaches to solve the nonlinear equations: a time marching algorithm and a direct steady-state approach. We first develop the necessary and sufficient conditions to obtain the existence and unicity of the solution. We treat regular examples and solutions with a steady shock and to provide very-high-order finite volume approximations we implement a method based on the MOOD technology (Multi-dimensional Optimal Order Detection). The main ingredient consists in using an 'a posteriori' limiting strategy to eliminate non physical oscillations deriving from the Gibbs phenomenon while keeping a high accuracy for the smooth part.

Keywords: Euler equations, finite volume, MOOD, steady-state

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155 An Under-Recognized Factor in the Development of Postpartum Depression: Infertility

Authors: Memnun Seven, Aygül Akyüz

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Having a baby, giving birth and being a mother are generally considered happy events, especially for women who have had a history of infertility and may have suffered emotionally, physically and financially. Although the transition from the prenatal period to the postnatal period is usually desired and planned, it is a developmental and cognitive transition period full of complex emotional reactions. During this period, common mood disorders for women include maternity blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. Postpartum depression is a common and serious mood disorder which can jeopardize the health of the mother, baby and family within the first year of delivery. Knowing the risks factors is an important issue for the early detection and early intervention of postpartum depression. However, knowing that a history of infertility may contribute to the development of postpartum depression, there are few studies assessing the effects of infertility during the diagnosis and treatment of depression. In this review, the effects of infertility on the development of postpartum depression and nurse/midwives’ roles in this issue are discussed in light with the literature.

Keywords: infertility, postpartum depression, risk factors, mood disorder

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154 Defense Mechanism Maturity and the Severity of Mood Disorder Symptoms

Authors: Maja Pandža, Sanjin Lovrić, Iva Čolak, Josipa Mandarić, Miro Klarić

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This study explores the role of symptoms related to mood disorders salience on different types of defense mechanisms (mature, neurotic, immature) predominance. Total of 177 both clinical and non-clinical participants in Mostar, Bosnia & Herzegovina, completed a battery of questionnaires associated with defense mechanisms and self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms. The sample was additionally divided into four groups, given the level of symptoms experienced: 1. minimal, 2. mild, 3. moderate, 4. severe depression/anxiety. Participants with minimal anxiety and depression symptoms use mature defense mechanisms more often than other three groups. Immature mechanisms are most commonly used by the group with severe depression/anxiety levels in comparison with other groups. These differences are discussed on the dynamic level of analysis to have a better understanding of the relationship between defense mechanisms' maturity and degree of mood disorders' symptom severity. Also, results given could serve as an implication for the psychotherapeutic treatment plans.

Keywords: anxiety/depression symptoms, clinical/non-clinical sample, defense mechanism maturity, dynamic approach

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153 The Manifestation of Decadent Mood in Vagif Samadoglu's Poetry

Authors: İlahe Hajiyeva Mesim

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The term "Azerbaijani decadent literature" that dates back to the 70s of the 20th century emerged due to the frustration of the people's wishes concerning egalitarian society and bright future pledged by Soviet Russia. The decadent mood - despair, loneliness, stagnation born of this delusion became the major theme of Azerbaijani literature. One of the zealous promulgators of the philosophy of decadence in Azerbaijani literature, so to speak, the founder of "Azerbaijani decadent literature" appeared to be Vagif Samadoglu known as a poet, playwright, essayist whose poems reflecting his decadent mood and motifs have become the scope of research in this paper. In his poems, the poet depicts realities with unusual metaphors, symbols and similes, giving them new breath. Vagif Samadoglu's poetry is particularly based on absurd situations of life. The figurative language and non-traditional forms of expression of associative thinking unique to the poet distinguish him from his other counterparts. A different view of reality and special approach to objects had enabled Vagif Samadoglu to occupy a leading place among modernist writers. The key purpose of the article is to reveal similar properties of decadent character in Vagif Samadoglu's poetry.

Keywords: Azerbaijan decadent literature, Vagif Samadoglu, poetry, modernism

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152 Risk Tolerance in Youth With Emerging Mood Disorders

Authors: Ange Weinrabe, James Tran, Ian B. Hickie

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Risk-taking behaviour is common during youth. In the time between adolescence and early adulthood, young people (aged 15-25 years) are more vulnerable to mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. What impact does an emerging mood disorder have on decision-making in youth at critical decision points in their lives? In this article, we explore the impact of risk and ambiguity on youth decision-making in a clinical setting using a well-known economic experiment. At two time points, separated by six to eight weeks, we measured risky and ambiguous choices concurrently with findings from three psychological questionnaires, the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the 17-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Adolescent Version (QIDS-A17), and the 12-item Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE-12), for young help seekers aged 16-25 (n=30, mean age 19.22 years, 19 males). When first arriving for care, we found that 50% (n=15) of participants experienced severe anxiety (K10 ≥ 30) and were severely depressed (QIDS-A17 ≥ 16). In Session 2, taking attrition rates into account (n=5), we found that 44% (n=11) remained severe across the full battery of questionnaires. When applying multiple regression analyses of the pooled sample of observations (N=55), across both sessions, we found that participants who rated severely anxious avoided making risky decisions. We suggest there is some statistically significant (although weak) (p=0.09) relation between risk and severe anxiety scores as measured by K10. Our findings may support working with novel tools with which to evaluate youth experiencing an emerging mood disorder and their cognitive capacities influencing decision-making.

Keywords: anxiety, decision-making, risk, adolescence

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151 The Effect of Mood and Creativity on Product Creativity: Using LEGO as a Hands-On Activity

Authors: Kaewmart Pongakkasira

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This study examines whether construction of LEGO reflects affective states and creativity as the clue to develop effective learning resources for classrooms. For this purpose, participants are instructed to complete a hands-on activity by using LEGO. Prior to the experiment, participants’ affective states and creativity are measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Alternate Uses Task (AUT), respectively. Then, subjects are asked to freely combine LEGO as unusual as possible versus constraint LEGO combination and named the LEGO products. Creativity of the LEGO products is scored for originality and abstractness of titles. It is hypothesized that individuals’ mood and creativity may affect product creativity. If so, there might be correlation among the three parameters.

Keywords: affective states, creativity, hands-on activity, LEGO

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150 EEG-Based Classification of Psychiatric Disorders: Bipolar Mood Disorder vs. Schizophrenia

Authors: Han-Jeong Hwang, Jae-Hyun Jo, Fatemeh Alimardani

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An accurate diagnosis of psychiatric diseases is a challenging issue, in particular when distinct symptoms for different diseases are overlapped, such as delusions appeared in bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and schizophrenia (SCH). In the present study, we propose a useful way to discriminate BMD and SCH using electroencephalography (EEG). A total of thirty BMD and SCH patients (15 vs. 15) took part in our experiment. EEG signals were measured with nineteen electrodes attached on the scalp using the international 10-20 system, while they were exposed to a visual stimulus flickering at 16 Hz for 95 s. The flickering visual stimulus induces a certain brain signal, known as steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), which is differently observed in patients with BMD and SCH, respectively, in terms of SSVEP amplitude because they process the same visual information in own unique way. For classifying BDM and SCH patients, machine learning technique was employed in which leave-one-out-cross validation was performed. The SSVEPs induced at the fundamental (16 Hz) and second harmonic (32 Hz) stimulation frequencies were extracted using fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and they were used as features. The most discriminative feature was selected using the Fisher score, and support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier. From the analysis, we could obtain a classification accuracy of 83.33 %, showing the feasibility of discriminating patients with BMD and SCH using EEG. We expect that our approach can be utilized for psychiatrists to more accurately diagnose the psychiatric disorders, BMD and SCH.

Keywords: bipolar mood disorder, electroencephalography, schizophrenia, machine learning

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149 Cardiopulmonary Disease in Bipolar Disorder Patient with History of SJS: Evidence Based Case Report

Authors: Zuhrotun Ulya, Muchammad Syamsulhadi, Debree Septiawan

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Patients with bipolar disorder are three times more likely to suffer cardiovascular disorders than the general population, which will influence their level of morbidity and rate of mortality. Bipolar disorder also affects the pulmonary system. The choice of long term-monotherapy and other combinative therapies have clinical impacts on patients. This study investigates the case of a woman who has been suffering from bipolar disorder for 16 years, and who has a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome. At present she is suffering also from cardiovascular and pulmonary disorder. An analysis of the results of this study suggests that there is a relationship between cardiovascular disorder, drug therapies, Steven Johnson Syndrome and mood stabilizer obtained from the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and ProQuest (publications between 2005 and 2015). Combination therapy with mood stabilizer is recommended for patients who do not have side effect histories from these drugs. The replacement drugs and combinations may be applied, especially for those with bipolar disorders, and the combination between atypical antipsychotic groups and mood stabilizers is often made. Clinicians, however, should be careful with the patients’ physical and metabolic changes, especially those who have experienced long-term therapy and who showed a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome (for which clinicians probably prescribed one type of medicine).

Keywords: cardiopulmonary disease, bipolar disorder, SJS, therapy

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148 Emotion Motives Predict the Mood States of Depression and Happiness

Authors: Paul E. Jose

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A new self-report measure named the General Emotion Regulation Measure (GERM) assesses four key goals for experiencing broad valenced groups of emotions: 1) trying to experience positive emotions (e.g., joy, pride, liking a person); 2) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions; 3) trying to experience negative emotions (e.g., anger, anxiety, contempt); and 4) trying to avoid experiencing negative emotions. Although individual differences in GERM motives have been identified, evidence of validity with common mood outcomes is lacking. In the present study, whether GERM motives predict self-reported subjective happiness and depressive symptoms (CES-D) was tested with a community sample of 833 young adults. It was predicted that the GERM motive of trying to experience positive emotions would positively predict subjective happiness, and analogously trying to experience negative emotions would predict depressive symptoms. An initial path model was constructed in which the four GERM motives predicted both subjective happiness and depressive symptoms. The fully saturated model included three non-significant paths, which were subsequently pruned, and a good fitting model was obtained (CFI = 1.00; RMR = .007). Two GERM motives significantly predicted subjective happiness: 1) trying to experience positive emotions ( = .38, p < .001) and 2) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions ( = -.48, p <.001). Thus, individuals who reported high levels of trying to experience positive emotions reported high levels of happiness, and individuals who reported low levels of trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions also reported high levels of happiness. Three GERM motives significantly predicted depressive symptoms: 1) trying to avoid experiencing positive emotions ( = .20, p <.001); 2) trying to experience negative emotions ( = .15, p <.001); and 3) trying to experience positive emotions (= -.07, p <.001). In agreement with predictions, trying to experience positive emotions was positively associated with subjective happiness and trying to experience negative emotions was positively associated with depressive symptoms. In essence, these two valenced mood states seem to be sustained by trying to experience similarly valenced emotions. However, the three other significant paths in the model indicated that emotional motives play a complicated role in supporting both positive and negative mood states. For subjective happiness, the GERM motive of not trying to avoid positive emotions, i.e., not avoiding happiness, was also a strong predictor of happiness. Thus, people who report being the happiest are those individuals who not only strive to experience positive emotions but also are not ambivalent about them. The pattern for depressive symptoms was more nuanced. Individuals who reported higher depressive symptoms also reported higher levels of avoiding positive emotions and trying to experience negative emotions. The strongest predictor for depressed mood was avoiding positive emotions, which would suggest that happiness aversion or fear of happiness is an important motive for dysphoric people. Future work should determine whether these patterns of association are similar among clinically depressed people, and longitudinal data are needed to determine temporal relationships between motives and mood states.

Keywords: emotions motives, depression, subjective happiness, path model

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147 Is Presence of Psychotic Features Themselves Carry a Risk for Metabolic Syndrome?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Elsawy M., Nagui R.

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Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome affect around 20% of general population , authors have incriminated antipsychotics as serious risk factor that may provoke such derangement. The aim of our study is to assess metabolic syndrome in patients presenting psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations) whether schizophrenia or mood disorder and compare results in terms of drug naïf, on medication and healthy control. Subjects and Methods: The study recruited 40 schizophrenic patients, half of them drug naïf and the other half on antipsychotics, 40 patients with mood disorder with psychotic features, half of them drug naïf and the other half on medication, 20 healthy control. Exclusion criteria were put in order to exclude patients having already endocrine or metabolic disorders that my interfere with results obtain to minimize confusion bias. Metabolic syndrome assessed by measuring parameters including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, HDL, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance Results: No difference was found when comparing drug naïf to those on medication in both schizophrenic and psychotic mood disorder arms, schizophrenic patients whether on medication or drug naïf should difference with control group for fasting glucose, schizophrenic patients on medication also showed difference in insulin resistance compared to control group. On the other hand, patients with psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication showed difference from control group for fasting insulin level. Those on medication also differed from control for insulin resistance Conclusion: Our study didn’t reveal difference in metabolic syndrome among patients with psychotic features whether on medication or drug naïf. Only patients with Psychotic features on medication showed insulin resistance. Schizophrenic patients drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting glucose while psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting insulin. This study suggest that presence of psychotic features themselves regardless being on medication or not carries a risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Limitation: This study is limited by number of participants and larger numbers in future studies should be included in order to extrapolate results. Cohort longitudinal studies are needed in order to evaluate such hypothesis.

Keywords: schizophrenia, metabolic syndrome, psychosis, insulin, resistance

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146 The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Stem Cell Factor Levels in Serum of Adolescent and Young Adults with Mood Disorders: A Two Year Follow-Up Study

Authors: Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Maria Skibinska, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Natalia Lepczynska, Pawel Kapelski, Joanna Pawlak, Joanna Hauser

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Introduction: Inflammation and cytokines have emerged as a promising target in mood disorders research; however there are still very limited numbers of study regarding inflammatory alterations among adolescents and young adults with mood disorders. The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) are the pleiotropic cytokines which may play an important role in mood disorders pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of these factors in serum of adolescent and young adults with mood disorders compared to healthy controls. Subjects: We involved 79 patients aged 12-24 years in 2-year follow-up study with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders: bipolar disorder (BP) and unipolar disorder with BP spectrum. Study group includes 23 males (mean age 19.08, SD 3.3) and 56 females (18.39, SD 3.28). Control group consisted 35 persons: 7 males (20.43, SD 4.23) and 28 females (21.25, SD 2.11). Clinical diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were assessed using Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (SCID) in young adults respectively. Clinical assessment includes evaluation of clinical factors and symptoms severity (rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale). Clinical and biological evaluations were made at control visits respectively at baseline (week 0), euthymia (at month 3 or 6) and after 12 and 24 months. Methods: Serum protein concentration was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Human MIF and SCF DuoSet ELISA kits were used. In the analyses non-parametric tests were used: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation. We defined statistical significance as p < 0.05. Results: Comparing MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania at baseline and euthymia (at month 3 or 6) we did not find any statistical differences. At baseline patients with age above 18 years old had decreased MIF level compared to patients younger than 18 years. MIF level at baseline positively correlated with age (p=0.004). Positive correlations of SCF level at month 3 and 6 with depression or mania occurrence at month 24 (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively) was detected. Strong correlations between MIF and SCF levels at baseline (p=0.0005) and month 3 (p=0.03) were observed. Discussion: Our results did not show any differences in MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania and euthymia in young patients. Further studies on larger groups are recommended. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.

Keywords: cytokines, MIF, mood disorders, SCF

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145 An Event-Related Potentials Study on the Processing of English Subjunctive Mood by Chinese ESL Learners

Authors: Yan Huang

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Event-related potentials (ERPs) technique helps researchers to make continuous measures on the whole process of language comprehension, with an excellent temporal resolution at the level of milliseconds. The research on sentence processing has developed from the behavioral level to the neuropsychological level, which brings about a variety of sentence processing theories and models. However, the applicability of these models to L2 learners is still under debate. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying English subjunctive mood processing by Chinese ESL learners. To this end, English subject clauses with subjunctive moods are used as the stimuli, all of which follow the same syntactic structure, “It is + adjective + that … + (should) do + …” Besides, in order to examine the role that language proficiency plays on L2 processing, this research deals with two groups of Chinese ESL learners (18 males and 22 females, mean age=21.68), namely, high proficiency group (Group H) and low proficiency group (Group L). Finally, the behavioral and neurophysiological data analysis reveals the following findings: 1) Syntax and semantics interact with each other on the SECOND phase (300-500ms) of sentence processing, which is partially in line with the Three-phase Sentence Model; 2) Language proficiency does affect L2 processing. Specifically, for Group H, it is the syntactic processing that plays the dominant role in sentence processing while for Group L, semantic processing also affects the syntactic parsing during the THIRD phase of sentence processing (500-700ms). Besides, Group H, compared to Group L, demonstrates a richer native-like ERPs pattern, which further demonstrates the role of language proficiency in L2 processing. Based on the research findings, this paper also provides some enlightenment for the L2 pedagogy as well as the L2 proficiency assessment.

Keywords: Chinese ESL learners, English subjunctive mood, ERPs, L2 processing

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144 Study on the Neurotransmitters and Digestion of Amino Acids Affecting Psychological Chemical Imbalance

Authors: Yoonah Lee, Richard Kyung

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With technological advances in the computational biomedical field, the ability to measure neurotransmitters’ chemical imbalances that affect depression and anxiety has been established. By comparing the thermodynamics stability of amino acid supplements, such as glutamine, tyrosine, phe-nylalanine, and methionine, this research analyzes mood-regulating neurotransmitters, amino acid supplements, and antipsychotic substances (ie. Reserpine molecule and CRF complexes) in relation to depression and anxiety and suggests alternative complexes that are low in energy to act as more efficient treatments for mood disorders. To determine a molecule’s thermodynamic stability, this research examines the molecular energy using Avogadro, a software for building virtual molecules and calculating optimized geometry using GAFF (General Amber Force Field) and UFF (Universal Force Field). The molecules, built using Avogadro, is analyzed using their theoretical values and atomic properties.

Keywords: amino acids, anxiety, depression, neurotransmitters

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143 Investigating Acute and Chronic Pain after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Patti Kastanias, Wei Wang, Karyn Mackenzie, Sandra Robinson, Susan Wnuk

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Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is recognized as a chronic disease. Pain in the obese individual is a multidimensional issue. An increase in BMI is positively correlated with pain incidence and severity, especially in central obesity where individuals are twice as likely to have chronic pain. Both obesity and chronic pain are also associated with mood disorders. Pain is worse among obese individuals with depression and anxiety. Bariatric surgery provides patients with an effective solution for long-term weight loss and associated health problems. However, not much is known about acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery and its contributing factors, including mood disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) at one large multidisciplinary bariatric surgery centre led two studies to examine acute and chronic pain and pain management over time after bariatric surgery. The purpose of the initial study was to examine the incidence and severity of acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery. The aim of the secondary study was to further examine chronic pain, specifically looking at psychological factors that influence severity or incidence of both neuropathic and somatic pain as well as changes in opioid use. The initial study was a prospective, longitudinal study where patients having bariatric surgery at one surgical center were followed up to 6 months postop. Data was collected at 7 time points using validated instruments for pain severity, pain interference, and patient satisfaction. In the second study, subjects were followed longitudinally starting preoperatively and then at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively to capture changes in chronic pain and influencing variables over time. Valid and reliable instruments were utilized for all major study outcomes. In the first study, there was a trend towards decreased acute post-operative pain over time. The incidence and severity of chronic pain was found to be significantly reduced at 6 months post bariatric surgery. Interestingly, interference of chronic pain in daily life such as normal work, mood, and walking ability was significantly improved at 6 months postop however; this was not the case with sleep. Preliminary results of the secondary study indicate that pain severity, pain interference, anxiety and depression are significantly improved at 6 months postoperatively. In addition, preoperative anxiety, depression and emotional regulation were predictive of pain interference, but not pain severity. The results of our regression analyses provide evidence for the impact of pre-existing psychological factors on pain, particularly anxiety in obese populations.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, mood disorders, obesity, pain

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