Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6836

Search results for: psychological and behavioral problems

6836 Reliability and Validity Examinations of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL): One of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

In this study, three Chinese versions of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales were used to examine adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. These three scales are CBCL, TRF, and YSR. In order to further understand the robustness of these scales, their reliability and construct validity have been examined. Each scale consists of about 113 items plus relevant background variables. These 113 items were further classified into 8 psychological and behavioral problems: emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints, withdrawn, attention problems, aggressive behavior, social problems, thought problems, and association problems. The study explored the item and construct correlation relations and the correlations between the corresponding constructs among three scales. The results indicated that the associations between item and constructs varied. The construct validities were very robust.

Keywords: ASEBA, construct validity, psychological and behavioral problems, reliability

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6835 Hierarchically Modeling Cognition and Behavioral Problems of an Under-Represented Group

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

This study examines adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. The Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) were used as the instrument. The problem framework consists of internal, external and social behavioral problems which are theoretically developed based on about 113 items plus relevant background variables. In this study, the sample consist of 1,975 sixth and seventh grade students in Northeast China. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect the data, meaning that samples were from different school districts, schools, and classes. The researchers looked at both macro and micro effect. Therefore, multilevel analysis techniques were used in the data analysis. The parts of the research results indicated that the background variables such as extracurricular activities were directly related to students’ internal problems.

Keywords: behavioral problems, anxious/depressed problems, internalizing problems, mental health, under-represented groups, empirically-based assessment, hierarchical modeling, ASEBA, multilevel analysis

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6834 Impact of Teacher’s Behavior in Class Room on Socialization and Mental Health of School Children: A Student’s Perspective

Authors: Umaiza Bashir, Ushna Farukh

Abstract:

The present study examined the perspective of school students regarding teacher’s behavioral pattern during a teaching in classroom and its influence on the students’ socialization particularly forming peer relationships with the development of emotional, behavioral problems in school children. To study these dimension of teacher-student classroom relationship, 210 school children (105 girls and 105 boys) within the age range of 14 to 18 years were taken from the government, private schools. The cross-sectional research design was used in which stratified random sampling was done. Teacher-student interaction scale was used to assess the teacher-student relationship in the classroom, which had two factors such as positive and negative interaction. Peer relationship scale was administered to investigate the socialization of students, and School Children Problem Scale was also given to the participants to explore their emotional, behavioral issues. The analysis of Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant positive relationship between negative teacher-student interaction and student’s emotional-behavioral as well as social problems. Another analysis of t-test revealed that boys perceived more positive interaction with teachers than girls (p < 0.01). Girls showed more emotional behavioral problems than boys (p < 0.001) Linear regression explained that age, gender, negative teacher’s interaction with students and victimization in social gathering predicts mental health problems in school children. This study suggests and highlights the need for the school counselors for the better mental health of students and teachers.

Keywords: teacher-student interaction, school psychology, student’s emotional behavioral problems

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6833 Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Sri Lankan Adolescents

Authors: Thyagi Ponnamperuma

Abstract:

Background: Comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological problems is common. Recent studies focused to investigate the underlying relationship between PTSD and comorbid psychopathologies. Among adolescents, higher rates of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) have been reported following trauma, often coexisted with PTSD. The current study, thus, examined the relationship of posttraumatic stress symptoms to EBP in adolescents exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Further, the study investigated the relationship of trauma and comorbid PTSS to the self-perceived negative impact of EBP on daily functioning. Methods: Participants were 729 Sri Lankan adolescents (age 12 to 16 years; 54.9% female) living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, school-based screening was conducted and completed measures of, trauma exposure, PTSS, EBP, and related functional impairment. Results: Participants reported a high prevalence of trauma exposure (n = 438), including interpersonal violence (n = 155). DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD were met by 23.7% of the trauma-exposed sample. Across all participants, 13.4% and 16.7% displayed clinically relevant levels of EBP and functional impairment, respectively. Among the trauma-exposed, 7% met criteria for both EBP and PTSD. EBP total scores and caseness were significantly higher in trauma-exposed adolescents with PTSD than in either those without PTSD or the non-traumatized control group. In subscale analysis, higher prevalence of serious emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems were reported in the PTSD positive group; the PTSD negative group did not differ significantly from the control group on any of the problem scales. In regression analyses, PTSS (β = .28, p < .001) and interpersonal violence (β = .13, p = .033) were significant predictors of EBP, cumulative trauma (β = .11, p = .076) showed no significant effect. Further, PTSS exacerbated the impact of EBP on daily functioning (β = 0.29, p = .023). Conclusion: PTSS were closely linked to EBP in adolescents, even years after the traumatic experience. PTSD and emotional and behavioral problems together pose a heightened risk for impaired daily functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the causal pathway.

Keywords: adolescents, comorbidity, emotional and behavioral problems, functional impairment, posttraumatic stress, traumatic events

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6832 Pattern and Clinical Profile of Children and Adolescent Visiting Psychiatry Out Patient Department of Tertiary Health Center Amidst COVID Pandemic- a Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Poornima Khadanga, Gaurav Pawar, Madhavi Rairikar

Abstract:

Background: The COVID 19 pandemic, with its unparalleled mental health repercussions, has impacted people globally and has catalyzed a Mental Health pandemic among the youth. The detrimental effects on mental health needs to be pondered at the earliest. Aims: To study the behavioral problems among children and adolescents visiting Psychiatry Outpatient Department Tertiary Health Care during COVID pandemic and its correlation with socio-demographic profiles. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted by interviewing 120 participants between 4 to 17 years of age and their parents, visiting Psychiatry OPD. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and diagnosed by DSM-5. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS-21. Results: Male participants showed significant association with conduct (t=2.36, p=0.02) and hyperactive problems (t=5.07, p<0.05). Increase in screen time showed a positive correlation with conduct problems (r=0.22. p=0.02). Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (18.3%) was the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric illness. Total difficulty score was significantly associated with difficult temperament (F=68.69, p<0.05). Conclusion: The study brings to light the pattern of behavioral problems that emerged during recent times of uncertainties among the young ones, including those with special needs. The increase in disruptive behaviors with increase screen time needs to be addressed at the earliest.

Keywords: behavioral problems, pandemic, screen time, temperament

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6831 A Unified Theory of the Primary Psychological and Social Sciences

Authors: George McMillan

Abstract:

This paper introduces the methodology to create a baseline equation for the philosophical and social sciences in the behavioral-political-economic-demographic sequence. The two major ideological political-economic philosophies (Hume-Smith and Marx-Engels) are systematized into competing integrated three dimensional behavioral-political-economic models. The paper argues that Hume-Smith’s empathy-sympathy behavioral assumptions are a sufficient starting point to create the integrated causal model sought by Tooby and Cosmides. The author then shows that the prerequisite advances in psychology and demographic studies now exist to generate the universal economic theory sought by von Neumann-Morgenstern and the integrated behavioral-economic method of Gintis—a psychological (i.e., behavioral) socio-economic model. By updating Hume-Smith’s work with a modern understanding of psychology, as presented by Fromm and others, a new integrated societal model as postulated by Harsanyi can be created that intertwines the social and psychological sciences. The author argues that this fundamentally psychology-based model also can serve as a baseline equation for all social sciences as desired by Kant and Mach, as well as the ahistorical (psychological) philosophic model noted by Husserl, Heidegger, Tillich, and Strauss. The author concludes with a discussion of the necessary next steps to generating a detailed model that fuses these disciplines.

Keywords: Unified Social Theory

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6830 Externalizing Behavior Problems Influencing Social Behavior in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

This study focuses on early adolescent externalizing behavioral problems which specifically concentrate on rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the externalizing behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 1975 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a hierarchical modeling method was used to explore the causal relations among background variables, breaking behavior variables and aggressive behavior variables.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, breaking behavior, early adolescence, externalizing problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
6829 Examining the Predicting Effect of Mindfulness on Psychological Well-Being among Undergraduate Students

Authors: Piyanee Klainin-Yobas, Debbie Ramirez, Zenaida Fernandez, Jenneth Sarmiento, Wareerat Thanoi, Jeanette Ignacio, Ying Lau

Abstract:

In many countries, university students experience various stressors that may negatively affect their psychological well-being (PWB). Hence, they are at risk for physical and mental problems. This research aimed to examine the predicting effects of mindfulness, self-efficacy, and social support on psychological well-being among undergraduate students. A non-experimental research was conducted at a university in the Philippines. All students enrolled in undergraduate programs were eligible for this study unless they had chronic medical or mental health problems. Power analysis was used to calculate an adequate sample size and a convenience sampling of 630 was recruited. Data were collected through online self-reported questionnaires from year 2013 to 2015. All self-reported scales used in this study had sound psychometric properties. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and structural equation modeling were performed to analyze the research data. Results showed that the participants were mostly Filipino, female, Christian, and in Schools of Nursing. Mindfulness, self-efficacy, support from family, support from friends, and support from significant others were significant predictors of psychological well-being. Mindfulness was the strongest predictor of positive psychological well-being whereas self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of negative psychological well-being. In conclusion, findings from this study add knowledge to the existing literature regarding the predictors of psychological well-being. Psychosocial interventions, with the focus on strengthening mindfulness and self-efficacy, could be delivered to undergraduate students to help them enhance psychological well-being. More studies can be undertaken to test the interventions and multi-centered research can be conducted to enhance generalizability of research findings.

Keywords: mindfulness, self-efficacy, social support, psychological wellbeing

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6828 Differences in the Perception of Behavior Problems in Pre-school Children among the Teachers and Parents

Authors: Jana Kožárová

Abstract:

Even the behavior problems in pre-school children might be considered as a transitional problem which may disappear by their transition into elementary school; it is an issue that needs a lot of attention because of the fact that the behavioral patterns are adopted in the children especially in this age. Common issue in the process of elimination of the behavior problems in the group of pre-school children is a difference in the perception of the importance and gravity of the symptoms. The underestimation of the children's problems by parents often result into conflicts with kindergarten teachers. Thus, the child does not get the support that his/her problems require and this might result into a school failure and can negatively influence his/her future school performance and success. The research sample consisted of 4 children with behavior problems, their teachers and parents. To determine the most problematic area in the child's behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) filled by parents and Caregiver/Teacher Form (CTF-R) filled by teachers were used. Scores from the CBCL and the CTR-F were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient in order to find the differences in the perception of behavior problems in pre-school children.

Keywords: behavior problems, Child Behavior Checklist, Caregiver/Teacher Form, Pearson correlation coefficient, pre-school age

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6827 Prevalence of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in School Going Adolescents in India

Authors: Anshu Gupta, Charu Gupta

Abstract:

Background: Adolescence is the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. It is marked by immense turmoil in emotional and behavioral spheres. Adolescents are at risk of an array of behavioral and emotional problems, resulting in social, academic and vocational function impairments. Conflicts in the family and inability of the parents to cope with the changing demands of an adolescent have a negative impact on the overall development of the child. This augers ill for the individual’s future, resulting in depression, delinquency and suicides among other problems. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems in school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years residing in Ludhiana city. Method: A total of 1380 school children in the age group of 13 to 15 years were assessed by the adolescent health screening questionnaire (FAPS) and Youth Self-Report (2001) questionnaire. Statistical significance was ascertained by t-test, chi-square test (x²) and ANOVA, as appropriate. Results: A considerably high prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was found in school going adolescents (26.5%), more in girls (31.7%) than in boys (24.4%). In case of boys, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 28.2%, followed by a significant decline by the age of 14 years, i.e., 24.2% and 15 years, i.e., 19.6%. In case of girls also, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 32.4% followed by a marginal decline in the 14 years i.e., 31.8% and 15 year age group, i.e., 30.2%. Demographic factors were non contributory. Internalizing syndrome (22.4%) was the most common problem followed by the neither internalizing nor externalizing (17.6%) group. In internalizing group, most (26.5%) of the students were observed to be anxious/ depressed. Social problem was observed to be the most frequent (10.6%) among neither internalizing nor externalizing group. Aggressive behavior was the commonest (8.4%) among externalizing group. Internalizing problems, mainly anxiety and depression, were commoner in females (30.6%) than males (24.6%). More boys (16%) than girls (13.4%) were reported to suffer from externalizing disorders. A critical review of the data showed that most of the adolescents had poor knowledge about reproductive health. Almost 36% reported that the source of their information on sexual and reproductive health being friends and the electronic media. There was a high percentage of adolescents who reported being worried about sexual abuse (20.2%) with majority of them being girls (93.6%) reflecting poorly on the social setup in the country. About 41% of adolescents reported being concerned about body weight and most of them being girls (92.4%). Up to 14.5% reported having thoughts of using alcohol or drugs perhaps due to the easy availability of substances of abuse in this part of the country. 12.8% (mostly girls) reported suicidal thoughts. Summary/conclusion: There is a high prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems among school-going adolescents. Resolution of these problems during adolescence is essential for attaining a healthy adulthood. The need of the hour is to spread awareness among caregivers and formulation of effective management strategies including school mental health programme.

Keywords: adolescence, behavioral, emotional, internalizing problem

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6826 The Impact of Basic TRIZ Training on Psychological Flexibility among University Students

Authors: Bakr M. Saeid

Abstract:

Psychological flexibility is a basic ability that allows people to adapt to a changing, difficult world. TRIZ is a Theory of Solving Inventive Problems that has many applications in both science & technology and creativity development; this research aimed to investigate the impact of basic TRIZ training on psychological flexibility among university students. The research sample included (30) university students divided into two groups: experimental group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PFQ) was conducted in the pre-test and post-test on the experimental and control group, as the study treatment was applied to the experimental group only. Data were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon z test; results showed the effectiveness of the TRIZ training program on the development of psychological flexibility and its five factors. Results were interpreted, recommendations were presented.

Keywords: psychological flexibility, TRIZ, positive perception of change, self as flexible and innovative, perception of reality

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6825 Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Mini Mental State Examination-2 in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Case Studies

Authors: Cornelia-Eugenia Munteanu

Abstract:

From a psychological perspective, psychopathology is the area of clinical psychology that has at its core psychological assessment and psychotherapy. In day-to-day clinical practice, psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy are used independently, according to their intended purpose and their specific methods of application. The paper explores how the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Mini Mental State Examination-2 (MMSE-2) psychological tools contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy (CBT). This combined approach, psychotherapy in conjunction with assessment of personality and cognitive functions, is illustrated by two cases, a severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms and a mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The order in which CBT, MMPI-2, and MMSE-2 were used in the diagnostic and therapeutic process was determined by the particularities of each case. In the first case, the sequence started with psychotherapy, followed by the administration of blue form MMSE-2, MMPI-2, and red form MMSE-2. In the second case, the cognitive screening with blue form MMSE-2 led to a personality assessment using MMPI-2, followed by red form MMSE-2; reapplication of the MMPI-2 due to the invalidation of the first profile, and finally, psychotherapy. The MMPI-2 protocols gathered useful information that directed the steps of therapeutic intervention: a detailed symptom picture of potentially self-destructive thoughts and behaviors otherwise undetected during the interview. The memory loss and poor concentration were confirmed by MMSE-2 cognitive screening. This combined approach, psychotherapy with psychological assessment, aligns with the trend of adaptation of the psychological services to the everyday life of contemporary man and paves the way for deepening and developing the field.

Keywords: assessment, cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, MMPI-2, MMSE-2, psychopathology

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6824 Selected Childhood Experiences, Current Psychological Status and Its Associates among Imprisoned Women in Welikada Prison, Colombo Sri Lanka

Authors: Jayathilake Wijethunga B. G. Mudiyanselage, Jeewantha Ranawaka, Nirosha Lansakara

Abstract:

Introduction: Women imprisonment is rising in the world. Imprisoned women have more psychological problems and more adverse childhood experiences than the general population. Female prisoners who had psychological problems had more adverse childhood experiences than the prisoners who did not have psychological problems. Most of the imprisoned women are mothers. Mothers are the principal carer for the children. The psychological status of imprisoned female is worth seeking along with its associates since this is a group of women who need others assistance to make their life adjusted. Any intervention that could uplift their psychological wellbeing would make their life better if they are to be released out of the prison. Since there are no studies done in Sri Lanka to study the imprisoned women psychological wellbeing and their childhood experiences, it is important to study on this to find the magnitude of the problem in Sri Lanka. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at the Welikada Prison, Colombo, among the imprisoned women. 273 imprisoned women were selected using simple random sampling technique. Using interviewer administered questionnaire 270 women were interviewed. Three women did not consent for the study. Frequencies of the selected socio demographic characteristics and selected childhood experiences calculated. GHQ 30 questionnaire was used to assess the psychological distress. Odds ratio was used to calculate the associations between the psychological distress and the selected socio demographic characteristics, selected childhood experiences. Results: Response rate was 98.9%. Mean age of the imprisoned women were 41.28years (SD ±11.86yrs) and Most of women were within the age group of 35-49 years (38.1%). Of them 68.5% were currently married and majority had at least one child. (86.3%). House hold member’s smoking (58.5%) and alcohol (40.4%) use was the commonest adverse childhood experience experienced by the imprisoned women. Nearly one fourth (22.6%) of the imprisoned women had attempted suicide during their life and more than half (55.7%) of them had attempted before the age of 18 years. Similarly of the 258 women who had been sexually active during their life, half (50.0%) of the women had exposed to sexual activities during first eighteen years of life and mean age at first sexual exposure was 19.2 (SD±4.86) years. Nearly three forth (73.7%) of imprisoned women were psychologically distressed in the study sample. Being a women of aged less than 25 years((OR=4.51, 95% CI=1.035-19.64)),previous history of suicidal attempts(OR=2.10,95%CI =1.00-4.41), not having enough foods to eat( OR=2.97, 1.009-8.75) and absence of someone to tell worries (OR=0.355, 95% CI =0.113-0.945) during childhood were significantly associate with psychological distress. Conclusion: Nearly three forth of the imprisoned women were psychologically distressed and younger age, history of suicidal attempts, the absence of someone to tell their worries and not having enough food to eat during childhood were risk factors for psychological distress. Recommendation: Need to strengthen the rehabilitation and mental health services to the imprisoned women.

Keywords: adverse childhood experiences, imprisoned women, psychological distress, prisoners

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
6823 Determinants of Consultation Time at a Family Medicine Center

Authors: Ali Alshahrani, Adel Almaai, Saad Garni

Abstract:

Aim of the study: To explore duration and determinants of consultation time at a family medicine center. Methodology: This study was conducted at the Family Medicine Center in Ahad Rafidah City, at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia. It was conducted on the working days of March 2013. Trained nurses helped in filling in the checklist. A total of 459 patients were included. A checklist was designed and used in this study. It included patient’s age, sex, diagnosis, type of visit, referral and its type, psychological problems and additional work-up. In addition, number of daily bookings, physician`s experience and consultation time. Results: More than half of patients (58.39%) had less than 10 minutes’ consultation (Mean+SD: 12.73+9.22 minutes). Patients treated by physicians with shortest experience (i.e., ≤5 years) had the longest consultation time while those who were treated with physicians with the longest experience (i.e., > 10 years) had the shortest consultation time (13.94±10.99 versus 10.79±7.28, p=0.011). Regarding patients’ diagnosis, those with chronic diseases had the longest consultation time (p<0.001). Patients who did not need referral had significantly shorter consultation time compared with those who had routine or urgent referral (11.91±8.42,14.60±9.03 and 22.42±14.81 minutes, respectively, p<0.001). Patients with associated psychological problems needed significantly longer consultation time than those without associated psychological problems (20.06±13.32 versus 12.45±8.93, p<0.001). Conclusions: The average length of consultation time at Ahad Rafidah Family Medicine Center is approximately 13 minutes. Less-experienced physicians tend to spend longer consultation times with patients. Referred patients, those with psychological problems, those with chronic diseases tend to have longer consultation time. Recommendations: Family physicians should be encouraged to keep their optimal consultation time. Booking an adequate number of patients per shift would allow the family physician to provide enough consultation time for each patient.

Keywords: consultation, quality, medicine, clinics

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6822 Climacteric Disorder among Women: A Qualitative Review

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Manmeet Gill

Abstract:

The climacteric is a wide phenomenon. Women of the entire world go through it at their own level. It’s a topic on which women hesitate to talk openly. It includes breast tenderness, uterine bleeding, arthralgia, hemorrhage, changes in emotional level such as facing depression, emotional breakdown, irritability and others. Other than such emotional breakdown nausea, vomiting, headache, gaining or losing weight is common problem associated with the climacteric disorder. The purpose of the present study is to assess the Climacteric disorders among women such as during menopause whatever a woman or girl faces mentally or physically. This is mainly done in women when they reached the age of 12 to 48 worldwide. For completing the study two objectives have been taken. The first objective of the study is to analyze the symptoms which lead to Climacteric among women such as Vaginal problems, Breast changes, Behavioral problems, Weight gain, Problems in the urinary tract etc. and the second Objective is to identify the variables which affect Climacteric these are Physical variables (lack of energy, joint soreness, stiffness, back pain etc.), Psychological variables (anxiety, poor memory, inability to concentrate) and Vasomotor variables (hormone estrogen fall, etc). The secondary source of method or data is used to deal with the theme of paper. Sometimes the word climacteric is interchanged with the term menopause and all these changes are high during the period of menopause among women.

Keywords: climacteric and their symposiums, disorder, reviews, in middle age

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6821 Reliability Evidence of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Based on a Chinese Sample

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgiana Duarte

Abstract:

The Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is the one of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales, by which behavioral and emotional problems of early adolescents were examined. In order to further understand the robustness of the scale, its reliability has been examined. CBCL consists of 8 problems to measure internalizing, externalizing and social problems. In internalizing problem, there are Anxious, Withdrawn and Somatic Complaints. In this study, as an example, we only examined the anxious aspect which consisted of 13 questions. Cronbach alpha and factor analysis methods were used to examine the reliability of the scale. The result indicated that Cronbach alpha value was above 0.80.

Keywords: anxious/depressed problems, ASEBA, CBCL, Cronbach Alpha, reliability

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6820 Mechanisms of Action in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in People with Physical and/or Psychological Conditions: A Systematic Review

Authors: Modi Alsubaie, Willem Kuyken, Rebecca Abbott, Barnaby Dunn, Chris Dickens, Tina Keil, William Henley

Abstract:

Background: Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Method: Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ClinicalTrials.gov) were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). Results: We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. Conclusion: There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions.

Keywords: MBCT, MBSR, mechanisms, physical conditions, psychological conditions, systematic review

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6819 Successful Management of a Boy with Mild Persistent Asthma: A Longitudinal Case

Authors: A. Lubis, L. Setiawati, A. R. Setyoningrum, A. Suryawan, Irwanto

Abstract:

Asthma is a condition that causing chronic health problems in children. In addition to basic therapy against disease, we must try to reduce the impact of chronic health problems and also optimize their medical aspect of growth and development. A boy with mild asthma attack frequent episode did not showed any improvement with medical treatment and his asthma control test was 11. From radiologic examination he got hyperaerated lung and billateral sinusitis maxillaris; skin test results were house dust, food and pet allergy; an overweight body; bad school grades; psychological and environmental problem. We followed and evaluated this boy in 6 months, treated holistically. Even we could not do much on environmental but no more psychological and school problems, his on a good bodyweight and his asthma control test was 22. A case of a child with mild asthma attack frequent episode was reported. Asthma clinical course show no significant improvement when other predisposing factor is not well-controlled and a child’s growth and development may be affected. Improving condition of the patient can be created with the help of loving and caring way of nurturing from the parents and supportive peer group. Therefore, continuous and consistent monitoring is required because prognosis of asthma is generally good when regularly and properly controlled.

Keywords: asthma, chronic health problems, growth, development

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6818 Psycholgical Contract Violation and Its Impact on Job Satisfaction Level: A Study on Subordinate Employees in Enterprises of Hanoi, Vietnam

Authors: Quangyen Tran, YeZhuang Tian, Chengfeng Li

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Psychological contract violations may lead to damaging an organization through losing its potential employees; it is a very significant concept in understanding the employment relationships. The authors selected contents of psychological contract violation scale based on the nine areas of violation most relevant to managerial samples (High pay, training, job security, career development, pay based on performance, promotion, feedback, expertise and quality of co-workers and support with personal problems), using regression analysis, the degree of psychological contract violations was measured by an adaptation of a multiplicative scale with Cronbach’s alpha as a measure of reliability. Through the regression analysis, psychological contract violations was found have a positive impact on employees’ job satisfaction, the frequency of psychological contract violations was more intense among male employees particularly in terms of training, job security and pay based on performance. Job dissatisfaction will lead to a lowering of employee commitment in the job, enterprises in Hanoi, Vietnam should therefore offer lucrative jobs in terms of salary and other emoluments to their employees.

Keywords: psychological contract, psychological contract violation, job satisfaction, subordinate employees, employers’ obligation

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6817 An Analysis of the Relation between Need for Psychological Help and Psychological Symptoms

Authors: İsmail Ay

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In this study, it was aimed to determine the relations between need for psychological help and psychological symptoms. The sample of the study consists of 530 university students getting educated in University of Atatürk in 2015-2016 academic years. Need for Psychological Help Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory were used to collect data in the study. In data analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation model with latent variables were used. Normality and homogeneity analyses were used to analyze the basic conditions of parametric tests. The findings obtained from the study show that as the psychological symptoms increase, need for psychological help also increases. The findings obtained through the study were approached according to the literature.

Keywords: psychological symptoms, need for psychological help, structural equation model, correlation

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6816 The Causal Relationships between Educational Environments and Rule-Breaking Behavior Issues in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

This study focused on early adolescent rule-breaking behavioral problems using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the rule-breaking behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a path analysis method was used to explore the correlational and causal relationships among background variables and breaking behavior variables.

Keywords: ASEBA, rule-breaking, path analysis, early adolescent

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
6815 The Effect of Psychological Capital and Psychological Empowerment on Employees' Commitment to Change

Authors: Muthmainah Mufidah, Wustari L. H. Mangundjaya

Abstract:

Organizations nowadays have to change and adjust themselves to the changing external environment in order to survive the globalization era. However, not all the organizational change had been succeeded. Commitment to change is one important factor why the change process often failed. Even so, this commitment to change cannot be separated with the individual’s characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify the role of psychological capital and psychological empowerment as the individual’s positive characteristic on commitment to change. This research was conducted on Indonesian employees who have or are currently experiencing a change in their organization. Data was collected using Commitment to Change Inventory, Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. The results showed that both psychological capital and psychological empowerment have a positive and significant influence on commitment to change.

Keywords: commitment to change, psychological capital, psychological empowerment, organizational change

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6814 Optimism, Hope and Mental Health: Optimism, Hope, Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Distress among Students, University of Pune, India

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationships between hope, optimism and mental health (psychological well-being and psychological distress) among students. A total of 222 students (132 males and 90 females) at the University of Pune from India completed inventories Revision of the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), the Trait Hope Scale (THS) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) that assessed their optimism, hope and psychological well-being and psychological distress. The results of the study showed that optimism and hope were significantly correlated with each other. Optimism is positively related to psychological well-being and optimism is negatively related to psychological distress. Also, hope was positively related to psychological well-being. However, the findings suggest that optimism and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Hope, optimism, psychological distress, psychological well-being

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6813 An Approach to Solving Some Inverse Problems for Parabolic Equations

Authors: Bolatbek Rysbaiuly, Aliya S. Azhibekova

Abstract:

Problems concerning the interpretation of the well testing results belong to the class of inverse problems of subsurface hydromechanics. The distinctive feature of such problems is that additional information is depending on the capabilities of oilfield experiments. Another factor that should not be overlooked is the existence of errors in the test data. To determine reservoir properties, some inverse problems for parabolic equations were investigated. An approach to solving the inverse problems based on the method of regularization is proposed.

Keywords: iterative approach, inverse problem, parabolic equation, reservoir properties

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6812 Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-Based Sample

Authors: Cao Yuping, Li Longfei, Zhao Xingfu, Zhang Yalin

Abstract:

Purpose: This study examined the effects of exposure to domestic physical violence (DPV) on children’s behavior in a community sample. Method: Ninety-three 12-16 year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were matched with 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV based on age, gender, family composition and parental age and education level. Participation included assessment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by the adolescents and their parents respectively. Results: CBCL total score and anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing scores were significantly higher in adolescents exposed to DPV than those in controls (all ps<0.05).The CBCL total score and scores of anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing behaviors of boys were significantly higher in the research group than in the controls (all ps<0.05). Delinquency scores in abused adolescents were significantly higher than in DPV witnessed (p<0.05), but no other scores of CBCL were significant different. Different subtypes of behavioral problems were associated with different types of abuse. Conclusions: DPV exposure is associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witness DPV alone have similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors.

Keywords: domestic violence, child, behavior, community, China

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6811 Sports Psychology: The View in Future

Authors: Malkin Valery, Rogaleva Liudmila

Abstract:

During the last 50-60 years the sports psychology has become firmly established in sports. At the same time, the sport practice brings evidence that it is only beginning to solve some of the most important problems in sports. It is untimely to say that the sports psychology has become a compulsory and efficient part of the sportsman’s preparation. It seems that the further development of the sports psychology can be seen, on the one hand, in the re-orientation of the psychologists from the regulation of the sportsman’s mentality to the process of forming the subject of the sport activity able to take the overall responsibility for the result of the sport activity, able to independently set objectives and to overcome the psychological difficulties that arise in the process of attaining these objectives. In its turn, it will require the change in the very approach to the psychologist’s work. The psychologist and the couch will turn from the specialists in correcting the negative manifestations of the sportsman’s mentality to the specialists in forming the subjects of the sport activity. It will require the creation of the technologies that can form the subjects on all the age-specific stages of the sport activity, that can form the most important psychological qualities (psychological stability, mental reliability, etc.). Getting these technologies will enable the couch to change from the consumer of the psychological knowledge to the immediate participant of the psychological process.

Keywords: sports psychology, subject, sportsman’s preparation, psychological knowledge

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6810 The Patterns of Cross-Sentence: An Event-Related Potential Study of Mathematical Word Problem

Authors: Tien-Ching Yao, Ching-Ching Lu

Abstract:

Understanding human language processing is one of the main challenges of current cognitive neuroscience. The aims of the present study were to use a sentence decision task combined with event-related potentials to investigate the psychological reality of "cross-sentence patterns." Therefore, we take the math word problems the experimental materials and use the ERPs' P600 component to verify. In this study, the experimental material consisted of 200 math word problems with three different conditions were used ( multiplication word problems、division word problems type 1、division word problems type 2 ). Eighteen Mandarin native speakers participated in the ERPs study (14 of whom were female). The result of the grand average waveforms suggests a later posterior positivity at around 500ms - 900ms. These findings were tested statistically using repeated measures ANOVAs at the component caused by the stimulus type of different questions. Results suggest that three conditions present significant (P < 0.05) on the Mean Amplitude, Latency, and Peak Amplitude. The result showed the characteristic timing and posterior scalp distribution of a P600 effect. We interpreted these characteristic responses as the psychological reality of "cross-sentence patterns." These results provide insights into the sentence processing issues in linguistic theory and psycholinguistic models of language processing and advance our understanding of how people make sense of information during language comprehension.

Keywords: language processing, sentence comprehension, event-related potentials, cross-sentence patterns

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6809 Functions and Effects of Green Facades in the Developing Countries: Case Study of Tehran

Authors: S. Jahani, V. Choopankareh

Abstract:

Many people lost their life caused by environmental pollution every year. The negative effects of environmental crises appear to be much higher in Asian countries. The most important environmental issue in the developing countries and especially in Tehran, to our best knowledge, is air pollution that has affected many aspects of life in society. Environmental topics related to technology’s development have been salient issues among the main concerns of designers. Green facades are the most considerable solutions which designers and architectures are focused on, all over the world. But there are lots of behavioral and psychological problems about this point. In this line, this excavation has tried to reveal the cultural and psychological influences of green façade in developing countries like Tehran. Green façades in developing countries are so useless, although they are so expensive. As a matter of fact, users consider green facade as a decorative item. This research is an attempt to recognize the reasons which show green façades as worthless element. Also, some solutions are presented to promote green façades in the developing countries as an intrinsic solution. There are so many environmental threats, especially about air pollution, for a city as Tehran, which might be solved by green facades.

Keywords: air pollution, developing countries, effects, green facades

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6808 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the growing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grows more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterised by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion, and translation problems etc. Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems

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6807 Psychological Effects of Economic Recession on Educated Youth: Evidences from Pakistan

Authors: Mubashra Khalid, Saadia Amir

Abstract:

This study initiated to explore the empirical relationship between psychological effects of economic recession on the educated youth in Pakistan. The diminishing economic resources during recession can create certain psychological consequences on the physical and cognitive aspects of the individuals. It may generate symptoms like aggression, depression, anxiety, frustration, stress and physical health related problems among the young generation. The sample of the study was consisted of 300 students belonging to six public sector universities of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Two hypotheses were advanced in this study regarding the relationship between recession and its effects on educated youth. The findings of the research represent that a significant relationship exists between decrease in employment opportunities and growing rate of aggression among educated youth and a significant association was found between economic instability and its influence on the learning abilities of the students during recession.

Keywords: psychological effects, recession, educated youth

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