Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Phyllanthus spp.

14 Chelator-assisted Phytoextraction of Nickel from Nickeliferous Lateritic Soil by Phyllanthus sp. nov.

Authors: Grecco M. Ante, Princess Rochelle O. Gan


Plants that can absorb greater than 10,000 µg Ni/g dry mass in their stems and leaves are termed as ‘hypernickelophores’. Chelators are chemicals that make the metals in the soil more soluble, making them a potential enhancer for phytoextraction. This study aims to observe the effect of different concentrations of the chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on the metal uptake (or rate of phytoextraction) of Nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. The plant is found to be a hyperickelophore in normal conditions. The addition of EDTA increased the metal uptake of the plant. The increasing amount of the chelating agent causes a decrease in the phytoextraction of the plant but moves the onset of its peak of maximum nickel content in its tissue to an earlier time. The chelator-assisted phytoextraction of nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. is proven to be an efficient auxiliary mining operation for nickel laterite mines.

Keywords: phytomining, Phyllanthus sp. nov., EDTA, nickel, laterite

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13 Cholesterol Modulating Properties of a Proprietary Extract from Phyllanthus spp on Hypercholesteraemic Mice Models

Authors: Anne R. Fernandez, Mohammad Akmal Adnan, Tanes Prasat, Indu Bala Jaganath, Brian Kirby, Kamalan Jeevaratnam


Introduction: Plants from the Phyllantus genus have been used indigenously for the treatment of a variety of ailments for generations. A cocktail of phytonutrients prepared from a plant of the genus Phyllanthus has demonstrated the potential to alleviate ailments which include cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we investigated the cholesterol modulating properties of a highly purified proprietary extract of a Phyllanthus species in hypercholesteraemic mice. Methods: Hypercholesteraemia was induced in ICR mice by ad-libitum feeding of high fat diet daily for six weeks. The mice were then divided into 3 groups and force fed with 10mg/kg of atorvastatin, 200mg/kg of the proprietary Phyllanthus extract and water respectively. Blood samples were taken at the end of fourth week of treatment by a tail prick. At the end of the eighth week of treatment, mice were sacrificed and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides were measured. Results: The mean cholesterol levels in the mice fed with high fat diet were 44% (p < 0.05) higher than the mice on normal diet thus validating the model developed. The plasma HDL was significantly elevated in mice treated with the formulation (p ˂ 0.05) in comparison to the statin-treated and control mice. The total cholesterol levels in the mice treated with the proprietary extract were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 4 weeks of treatment in comparison to the mice treated with atorvastatin. By the end of 8 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the cholesterol levels of the mice in all groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that this proprietary extract from Phyllanthus species has the beneficial effect of reducing total cholesterol level more rapidly than atorvastatin and increasing HDL levels. Since an increase in the HDL cholesterol can reduce the risk of heart disease, this proprietary extract is a useful and safe therapeutic option compared to atorvastatin.

Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, hypercholesteraemic mice model, ICR mice, Phyllanthus spp.

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12 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Nguyen Cao Nguyen, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova


The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Zinc, Micro and macro elements, foliar fertilizer

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11 Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A. Sakoff, Christopher J. Scarlett


Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a traditional herbal plant for the treatment of chronic ailments such as hepatitis, diabetes and cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude P. amarus extracts and fractions using MTT and CCK-8 assays for cytotoxic evaluation. The outcomes indicated that P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively) than those of P. amarus water (PAW) extract, resulting antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of PAW extract, PAM fractions and phyllanthin (a major compound in P. amarus). Cytotoxic activity of PAM extract for cancer cell lines of MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was higher than those of PAW extract and PAM fractions. Therefore, we can conclude that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, Phyllanthus amarus, physicochemical

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10 Antimicrobial Activity of the Natural Products Derived from Phyllanthus Emblica and Gracilaria Fisheri Against Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Woraprat Amnuaychaichana


Several medicinal plants are well known to contain active constituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds with are plausible candidates for therapeutic purposes. An infectious disease caused by microbial infection is the leading cause of death. Antibiotics are typically used to eradicate these microbes, but recent evidence indicates that they are developing antibiotic-resistant effects. This study focused on antimicrobial activities of Phyllanthus emblica and Gracilaria fisheri using the agar disk diffusion method and broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. The extracts were screened against Staphylococcus aureus. Five concentrations of plant extracts were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by 2-fold dilution of plant extract. The results indicated that G. fisheri extract gave the maximum zones of inhibition of 11.7 mm against S. aureus while P. emblica showed no effects. The MIC values of G. fisheri extract against S. aureus was 500 µg/ml. To summarise, G. fisheri extracts demonstrated high efficacy of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus, which may pave the way for developing a formulation containing this plant. G. fisheri extract should be subjected to additional investigation in order to determine the mechanism of action of its antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Staphylococcus aureus, gracilaria fishery, Phyllanthus emblica

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9 In Vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Phyllanthus Emblica L. Extract

Authors: Benyapa Suksuwan


Introduction: Oxidative stress is identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases as the disproportion of free radicals in the body leads to tissue or cell damage. Polyphenols are the most common antioxidant found in plants and are efficient in capturing oxidative free radicals. Aim of the Study: This study focused on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from Phyllanthus Emblica L. as oxidative stress plays a vital role in developing and progressing many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Materials and Methods: The plant was extracted using a mixture solvent (ethyl alcohol: water in ratio 8:2). The total phenolic content of P. Emblica extract was determined using the Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and various antioxidant assays DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assays. Results and Discussion: The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, the IC₅₀ of P. Emblica extract via DPPH and ABTS assays were 68.10 μg/mL ± 0.455, and 49.24 μg/mL ± 0.716, respectively. Furthermore, P. Emblica extract showed antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in the DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. Emblica extract consisted of a high amount of total phenolic content, which possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, further antioxidant activity assays using human cell lines such as SOD, ROS, and RNS scavenging assays and in vitro antioxidant experiments should be performed in order.

Keywords: antioxidant, ABTS scavenging, DPPH scavenging assay, total phenol contents assay, Phyllanthus Emblica L

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8 Scale-Up Process for Phyllanthus niruri Enriched Extract by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Authors: Norsyamimi Hassim, Masturah Markom


Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been known as a sustainable and safe extraction technique for plant extraction due to the minimal usage of organic solvent. In this study, a scale-up process for the selected herbal plant (Phyllanthus niruri) was investigated by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) with food-grade (ethanol-water) cosolvent. The quantification of excess ethanol content in the final dry extracts was conducted to determine the safety of enriched extracts. The extraction yields obtained by scale-up SFE unit were not much different compared to the predicted extraction yields with an error of 2.92%. For component contents, the scale-up extracts showed comparable quality with laboratory-scale experiments. The final dry extract showed that the excess ethanol content was 1.56% g/g extract. The fish embryo toxicity test (FETT) on the zebrafish embryos showed no toxicity effects by the extract, where the LD50 value was found to be 505.71 µg/mL. Thus, it has been proven that SFE with food-grade cosolvent is a safe extraction technique for the production of bioactive compounds from P. niruri.

Keywords: scale-up, supercritical fluid extraction, enriched extract, toxicity, ethanol content

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7 Selected Ethnomedicinal Plants of Northern Surigao Del Sur: Their Antioxidant Activities in Terms of Total Phenolics, ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Power, and Ferric Reducing Ability

Authors: Gemma A. Gruyal


Plants can contain a wide variety of substances with antioxidative properties which are associated to important health benefits. These positive health effects are of great importance at a time when the environment is laden with many toxic substances. Five selected herbal plants namely, Mimosa pudica, Phyllanthus niruri, Ceiba pentandra, Eleusine polydactyla and Trema amboinensis, were chosen for the experiment to investigate their total phenolics content and antioxidant activities using ABTS radical cation decolorization power, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The total phenolic content of each herbal plants ranges from 0.84 to 42.59 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The antioxidant activity in the ABTS radical cation decolorization power varies from 0.005 to 0.362 mg trolox equivalent/g and the FRAP ranges from 0.30 to 28.42 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. Among the five medicinal plants, Mimosa pudica has been an excellent performer in terms of the 3 parameters measured; it is followed by Phyllanthus niruri. The five herbal plants do not have equivalent antioxidant power. The relative high values for M. pudica and P. niruri supports the medicinal value of both plants. The total phenolics, ABTS and FRAP correlate strongly with one another.

Keywords: ABTS, FRAP, Leaf extracts, phenol

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6 Preparation of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) Powder Using Spray Drying Technique

Authors: Shubham Mandliya, Pooja Pandey, H. N. Mishra


Amla (Phyllanthus emblica), a plant of Euphorbiaceous is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Amla is very high in vitamin C content. Spray drying of fruit juices represents another alternative way to improve the physicochemical stability and increase their shelf life. Samples of amla powder were produced using the spray drying method to investigate the effect of inlet temperatures and maltodextrin levels. The spray dryer model used was a laboratory scale dryer and samples were run at different temperatures and concentrations. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the spray-drying process for the development of amla powder. The resultant powders were then analyzed for vitamin C, moisture, solubility and dispersibility. The spray dried amla powder contains higher amounts of vitamin C when compared to commercial fruit juice powders. SEM analysis revealed that lower maltodextrin levels and higher inlet air temperatures resulted in smaller but smoother particles. At lower temperature, vitamin C content is high as compared to higher temperature. Spray drying is an effective as well as an economic method which can be commercially used for making powder rather than by tray or solar drying as more fraction is retained with less cost.

Keywords: Amla powder, physiochemical properties, response surface methodology, spray drying

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5 The Antiplasmodial Selectivity Index of the Alkaloid Extract Is Remarkable Among the Phytochemicals of Phyllanthus Amarus, Nuclea Latifolia and Polyalthia Longifolia

Authors: Ugochukwu Enyinnaya Uzuegbu, Adefunke Olukemi Opajobi, Chinwendu Obogheneophruhe Elu, Joan Ehioma Utalor, Joy Onyewonuwa Acha, Basil Edirin Ekuerhare, Evelyn Tarela Ojugbeli, Innocent Onyesom


About 60-80 % of the world population rely on plant based medicines which are used in traditional healthcare systems. It is now known that, the medicinal value of these plants lies in their bioactive phytochemical constituents which produce definite physiological effects on human body. These natural compounds formed the base of modern medicines. Therefore, this study, seeks to evaluate the antiplasmodial selectively index (SI) of the phytochemicals from three herbal plants used to treat malaria and associated fever in Nigerian tradomedicine. The three herbal plants (Phyllanthus amarus, Nuclea latifolia and Polyalthia longifolia) were authenticated and their leaves were used to prepare the phytochemical (alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, glycosides and anthraquinone) extracts. Then, in vitro antiplasmodial (IC50) activity of the extracts was assessed using 3D7 chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum maintained at 5 % hematocrit (human type O-positive red blood cells) in complete RPMI 1640 medium, while, cytotoxicity (CC50) was determined by the micro-assay technique using L929 animal cell fibroblasts and the lactate dehydrogenase method. Then, SI was calculated as CC50/IC50. Results indicate that the alkaloid extract of P. amarus had the highest antiplasmodial SI (IC50:3.2 µg/ml, CC50: 45 µg/ml and SI: 14) then, Nuclea latifolia, and P. longifolia had (SI=12 and 11). However, the glycoside extract of all the three plants and the anthraquinone extracts of P. longifolia and N. latifolia had the least activity (SI=1 in all) when compared with the other phytochemical extracts from the three plants. All the phytochemical extracts showed no toxicity against the animal cell fibroblasts with CC50 values ranging from 20 µg/ml to 63 µg/ml. While, confirming the potency of P. amarus, N. latifolia and P. longifolia as antimalarial herbs, purported by Nigerian traditional healers, the study, further adds that the alkaloid phytochemical is largely responsible for the antimalarial activity of all three plants. Therefore, further research is needed in order to identify and isolate the active alkaloid compounds which could be a source for developing advance antimalarial drug(s).

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, phytochemicals, alkaloid

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4 Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Extracts for Washing of Vegetables and Fruits

Authors: Pareshkumar Umedbhai Patel


Variety of microbes were isolated from surface of fruit and vegetables to get idea about normal flora of their surface. The process of isolation of microbes involved use of sterilized cotton swabs to wipe the surface of the samples. For isolation of Bacteria, yeast and fungi microbiological media used were nutrient agar medium, GYE agar medium and MRBA agar medium respectively. The microscopical and macroscopical characteristics of all the isolates were studied. Different plants with known antimicrobial activity were selected for obtaining samples for extraction e.g. Ficus (Ficus religosa) stem, Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) fruit, Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) leaves and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil. Antimicrobial activity of these samples was tested initially against known bacteria followed by study against microbes isolated from surface of vegetables and fruits. During the studies carried out throughout the work, lemongrass oil and Amla extract were found superior. Lemongrass oil and Amla extract respectively inhibited growth of 65% and 42% microbes isolated from fruit and vegetable surfaces. Rest two studied plant extracts showed only 11% of inhibition against the studied isolates. The results of isolate inhibition show the antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil better than the rest of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: herbal extracts, vegetables, fruits, antimicrobial activity

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3 Influence of Species and Harvesting Height on Chemical Composition, Buffer Nitrogen Solubility and in vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Browse Tree Leaves

Authors: Thabiso M. Sebolai, Victor Mlambo, Solomon Tefera, Othusitse R. Madibela


In some tree species, sustained herbivory can induce changes in biosynthetic pathways resulting in overproduction of anti-nutritional secondary plant compounds. This inductive mechanism, which has not been demonstrated in semi-arid rangelands of South Africa, may result in browse leaves of lower nutritive value. In this study we investigate the interactive effect of browsing pressure and tree species on chemical composition, buffer nitrogen solubility index (NSI), in vitro ruminal dry matter degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro ruminal N degradability (IVND) of leaves. Leaves from Maytenus capitata, Olea africana, Coddia rudis, Carissa macrocarpa, Rhus refracta, Ziziphus mucronata, Boscia oliedes, Grewia robusta, Phyllanthus vessucosus and Ehretia rigida trees growing in a communal grazing area were harvested at two heights: browsable ( < 1.5 m) and non-browsable ( > 1.5 m), representing high and low browsing pressure, respectively. The type of animals utilizing the communal rangeland includes cattle at 1 livestock unit (450kg)/12 to 15 hectors and goats at 1 livestock unit/4 ha. Harvested leaves were dried, milled and analysed for proximate components, soluble phenolics, condensed tannins, minerals and in vitro ruminal fermentation. A significant plant species and harvesting height interaction effect (P < 0.05) was observed for total nitrogen (N) and soluble phenolics concentration. Tree species and harvesting height affected (P < 0.05) condensed tannin (CTs) content where samples harvested from the non-browsable height had higher (0.61 AU550 nm/200 mg) levels than those harvested at browsable height (0.55 AU550 nm/200 mg) while their interaction had no effects. Macro and micro-minerals were only influenced (P < 0.05) by browse species but not harvesting height. Species and harvesting height interacted (P < 0.05) to influence IVDMD and IVND of leaves at 12, 24 and 36 hours of incubation. The different browse leaves contained moderate to high protein, moderate level of phenolics and minerals, suggesting that they have the potential to provide supplementary nutrients for ruminants during the dry seasons.

Keywords: browse plants, chemical composition, harvesting heights, phenolics

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2 Rheological Study of Wheat-Chickpea Flour Blend Bread for People with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Tasleem Zafar, Jiwan Sidhu


Introduction: Chickpea flour is known to offer many benefits to diabetic persons, especially in maintaining their blood sugar levels in the acceptable range. Under this project we have studied the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white flour (WF), whole wheat flour (WWF) and chickpea flour (BF), in addition to the effect of replacement of WF and WWF with BF on the rheological characteristics of these flour blends, with the ultimate objective of producing acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread for the diabetic consumers. Methods: WF and WWF were replaced with BF ranging from 0 to 40%, to investigate its effect on the rheological properties and functionality of blended flour dough using farinograph, viscoamylograph, mixograph and falling number apparatus as per the AACC standard methods. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) was carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF using Stable Micro System Texture Analyzer. Effect of certain additives, such as freeze-dried amla fruit powder (Phyllanthus emblica L.), guar gum, and xanthan gum on the dough rheological properties were also studied. Results: Freeze-dried amla fruit powder was found to be very rich in ascorbic acid and other phenolics having higher antioxidant activity. A decreased farinograph water absorption, increased dough development time, higher mixing tolerance index (i.e., weakening of dough), decreased resistance to extension, lower ratio numbers were obtained when the replacement with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. The BF gave lower peak viscosity, lower paste breakdown, and lower setback values when compared with WF. The falling number values were significantly lower in WWF (meaning higher α-amylase activity) than both the WF and BF. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF showed significant variations in hardness and compressibility values, dough becoming less hard and less compressible when the replacement of WF and WWF with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. Conclusions: To overcome the deleterious effects of adding BF to WF and WWF on the rheological properties will be an interesting challenge when good quality pan bread and Arabic flatbread have to be commercially produced in a bakery. Use of freeze-dried amla fruit powder, guar gum, and xanthan gum did show some promise to improve the mixing characteristics of WF, WWF, and their blends with BF, and these additives are expected to be useful in producing an acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread on a commercial scale.

Keywords: wheat flour, chickpea flour, amla fruit, rheology

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1 Anti-Infective Potential of Selected Philippine Medicinal Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Demetrio L. Valle Jr., Juliana Janet M. Puzon, Windell L. Rivera


From the various medicinal plants available in the Philippines, crude ethanol extracts of twelve (12) Philippine medicinal plants, namely: Senna alata L. Roxb. (akapulko), Psidium guajava L. (bayabas), Piper betle L. (ikmo), Vitex negundo L. (lagundi), Mitrephora lanotan (Blanco) Merr. (Lanotan), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (luya), Curcuma longa L. (Luyang dilaw), Tinospora rumphii Boerl (Makabuhay), Moringga oleifera Lam. (malunggay), Phyllanthus niruri L. (sampa-sampalukan), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (takip kuhol), and Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam (tsaang gubat) were studied. In vitro methods of evaluation against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR), bacteria were performed on the plant extracts. Although five of the plants showed varying antagonistic activities against the test organisms, only Piper betle L. exhibited significant activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria, exhibiting wide zones of growth inhibition in the disk diffusion assay, and with the lowest concentrations of the extract required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, as supported by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Further antibacterial studies of the Piper betle L. leaf, obtained by three extraction methods (ethanol, methanol, supercritical CO2), revealed similar inhibitory activities against a multitude of Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay of the leaf extract revealed a maximum of eight compounds with Rf values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV-366 nm. TLC- agar overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds showed the compounds with Rf values of 0.86 and 0.13 having inhibitory activities against Gram-positive MDR bacteria (MRSA and VRE). The compound with an Rf value of 0.86 also possesses inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria (CRE Klebsiella pneumoniae and MBL Acinetobacter baumannii). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was able to identify six volatile compounds, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include 4-(2-propenyl)phenol and eugenol; and the new four compounds were ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, and 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite. Phytochemical screening and investigation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, possible hemolytic activities, and mechanisms of antibacterial activity were also done. The results showed that the local variant of Piper betle leaf extract possesses significant antioxidant, anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties, attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds, particularly of flavonoids (condensed tannin, leucoanthocyanin, gamma benzopyrone), anthraquinones, steroids/triterpenes and 2-deoxysugars. Piper betle L. is also traditionally known to enhance wound healing, which could be primarily due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. In vivo studies on mice using 2.5% and 5% of the ethanol leaf extract cream formulations in the excised wound models significantly increased the process of wound healing in the mice subjects, the results and values of which are at par with the current antibacterial cream (Mupirocin). From the results of the series of studies, we have definitely proven the value of Piper betle L. as a source of bioactive compounds that could be developed into therapeutic agents against MDR bacteria.

Keywords: Philippine herbal medicine, multidrug-resistant bacteria, Piper betle, TLC-bioautography

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