Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2992

Search results for: convolutional neural networks

2992 Comparison of Classical Computer Vision vs. Convolutional Neural Networks Approaches for Weed Mapping in Aerial Images

Authors: Paulo Cesar Pereira Junior, Alexandre Monteiro, Rafael da Luz Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Sobieranski, Aldo von Wangenheim

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparison between convolutional neural networks and classical computer vision approaches, for the specific precision agriculture problem of weed mapping on sugarcane fields aerial images. A systematic literature review was conducted to find which computer vision methods are being used on this specific problem. The most cited methods were implemented, as well as four models of convolutional neural networks. All implemented approaches were tested using the same dataset, and their results were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The obtained results were compared to a human expert made ground truth for validation. The results indicate that the convolutional neural networks present better precision and generalize better than the classical models.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, deep learning, digital image processing, precision agriculture, semantic segmentation, unmanned aerial vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
2991 Classification of Echo Signals Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Aisulu Tileukulova, Zhexebay Dauren

Abstract:

Radar plays an important role because it is widely used in civil and military fields. Target detection is one of the most important radar applications. The accuracy of detecting inconspicuous aerial objects in radar facilities is lower against the background of noise. Convolutional neural networks can be used to improve the recognition of this type of aerial object. The purpose of this work is to develop an algorithm for recognizing aerial objects using convolutional neural networks, as well as training a neural network. In this paper, the structure of a convolutional neural network (CNN) consists of different types of layers: 8 convolutional layers and 3 layers of a fully connected perceptron. ReLU is used as an activation function in convolutional layers, while the last layer uses softmax. It is necessary to form a data set for training a neural network in order to detect a target. We built a Confusion Matrix of the CNN model to measure the effectiveness of our model. The results showed that the accuracy when testing the model was 95.7%. Classification of echo signals using CNN shows high accuracy and significantly speeds up the process of predicting the target.

Keywords: radar, neural network, convolutional neural network, echo signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
2990 Causal Relation Identification Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Features

Authors: Tharini N. de Silva, Xiao Zhibo, Zhao Rui, Mao Kezhi

Abstract:

Causal relation identification is a crucial task in information extraction and knowledge discovery. In this work, we present two approaches to causal relation identification. The first is a classification model trained on a set of knowledge-based features. The second is a deep learning based approach training a model using convolutional neural networks to classify causal relations. We experiment with several different convolutional neural networks (CNN) models based on previous work on relation extraction as well as our own research. Our models are able to identify both explicit and implicit causal relations as well as the direction of the causal relation. The results of our experiments show a higher accuracy than previously achieved for causal relation identification tasks.

Keywords: causal realtion extraction, relation extracton, convolutional neural network, text representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
2989 Tumor Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) Based Neural Network

Authors: Vinai K. Singh

Abstract:

In Neural Network-based Learning techniques, there are several models of Convolutional Networks. Whenever the methods are deployed with large datasets, only then can their applicability and appropriateness be determined. Clinical and pathological pictures of lobular carcinoma are thought to exhibit a large number of random formations and textures. Working with such pictures is a difficult problem in machine learning. Focusing on wet laboratories and following the outcomes, numerous studies have been published with fresh commentaries in the investigation. In this research, we provide a framework that can operate effectively on raw photos of various resolutions while easing the issues caused by the existence of patterns and texturing. The suggested approach produces very good findings that may be used to make decisions in the diagnosis of cancer.

Keywords: lobular carcinoma, convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep learning, histopathological imagery scans

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2988 Taxonomic Classification for Living Organisms Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Saed Khawaldeh, Mohamed Elsharnouby, Alaa Eddin Alchalabi, Usama Pervaiz, Tajwar Aleef, Vu Hoang Minh

Abstract:

Taxonomic classification has a wide-range of applications such as finding out more about the evolutionary history of organisms that can be done by making a comparison between species living now and species that lived in the past. This comparison can be made using different kinds of extracted species’ data which include DNA sequences. Compared to the estimated number of the organisms that nature harbours, humanity does not have a thorough comprehension of which specific species they all belong to, in spite of the significant development of science and scientific knowledge over many years. One of the methods that can be applied to extract information out of the study of organisms in this regard is to use the DNA sequence of a living organism as a marker, thus making it available to classify it into a taxonomy. The classification of living organisms can be done in many machine learning techniques including Neural Networks (NNs). In this study, DNA sequences classification is performed using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) which is a special type of NNs.

Keywords: deep networks, convolutional neural networks, taxonomic classification, DNA sequences classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2987 Image Classification with Localization Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Bhuyain Mobarok Hossain

Abstract:

Image classification and localization research is currently an important strategy in the field of computer vision. The evolution and advancement of deep learning and convolutional neural networks (CNN) have greatly improved the capabilities of object detection and image-based classification. Target detection is important to research in the field of computer vision, especially in video surveillance systems. To solve this problem, we will be applying a convolutional neural network of multiple scales at multiple locations in the image in one sliding window. Most translation networks move away from the bounding box around the area of interest. In contrast to this architecture, we consider the problem to be a classification problem where each pixel of the image is a separate section. Image classification is the method of predicting an individual category or specifying by a shoal of data points. Image classification is a part of the classification problem, including any labels throughout the image. The image can be classified as a day or night shot. Or, likewise, images of cars and motorbikes will be automatically placed in their collection. The deep learning of image classification generally includes convolutional layers; the invention of it is referred to as a convolutional neural network (CNN).

Keywords: image classification, object detection, localization, particle filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2986 Deep Learning Based, End-to-End Metaphor Detection in Greek with Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Konstantinos Perifanos, Eirini Florou, Dionysis Goutsos

Abstract:

This paper presents and benchmarks a number of end-to-end Deep Learning based models for metaphor detection in Greek. We combine Convolutional Neural Networks and Recurrent Neural Networks with representation learning to bear on the metaphor detection problem for the Greek language. The models presented achieve exceptional accuracy scores, significantly improving the previous state-of-the-art results, which had already achieved accuracy 0.82. Furthermore, no special preprocessing, feature engineering or linguistic knowledge is used in this work. The methods presented achieve accuracy of 0.92 and F-score 0.92 with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs). Comparable results of 0.91 accuracy and 0.91 F-score are also achieved with bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Nets (CRNNs). The models are trained and evaluated only on the basis of training tuples, the related sentences and their labels. The outcome is a state-of-the-art collection of metaphor detection models, trained on limited labelled resources, which can be extended to other languages and similar tasks.

Keywords: metaphor detection, deep learning, representation learning, embeddings

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2985 Facial Emotion Recognition with Convolutional Neural Network Based Architecture

Authors: Koray U. Erbas

Abstract:

Neural networks are appealing for many applications since they are able to learn complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. As the number of neurons and layers in a neural network increase, it is possible to represent more complex relationships with automatically extracted features. Nowadays Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are widely used in Computer Vision problems such as; classification, object detection, segmentation image editing etc. In this work, Facial Emotion Recognition task is performed by proposed Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based DNN architecture using FER2013 Dataset. Moreover, the effects of different hyperparameters (activation function, kernel size, initializer, batch size and network size) are investigated and ablation study results for Pooling Layer, Dropout and Batch Normalization are presented.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, deep learning, deep learning based FER, facial emotion recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
2984 Traffic Sign Recognition System Using Convolutional Neural NetworkDevineni

Authors: Devineni Vijay Bhaskar, Yendluri Raja

Abstract:

We recommend a model for traffic sign detection stranded on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). We first renovate the unique image into the gray scale image through with support vector machines, then use convolutional neural networks with fixed and learnable layers for revealing and understanding. The permanent layer can reduction the amount of attention areas to notice and crop the limits very close to the boundaries of traffic signs. The learnable coverings can rise the accuracy of detection significantly. Besides, we use bootstrap procedures to progress the accuracy and avoid overfitting problem. In the German Traffic Sign Detection Benchmark, we obtained modest results, with an area under the precision-recall curve (AUC) of 99.49% in the group “Risk”, and an AUC of 96.62% in the group “Obligatory”.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, support vector machine, detection, traffic signs, bootstrap procedures, precision-recall curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
2983 Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Chaitanya Chawla, Divya Panwar, Gurneesh Singh Anand, M. P. S Bhatia

Abstract:

This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.

Keywords: image forensics, computer graphics, classification, deep learning, convolutional neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2982 Forecasting the Temperature at a Weather Station Using Deep Neural Networks

Authors: Debneil Saha Roy

Abstract:

Weather forecasting is a complex topic and is well suited for analysis by deep learning approaches. With the wide availability of weather observation data nowadays, these approaches can be utilized to identify immediate comparisons between historical weather forecasts and current observations. This work explores the application of deep learning techniques to weather forecasting in order to accurately predict the weather over a given forecast hori­zon. Three deep neural networks are used in this study, namely, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Long Short Tunn Memory Network (LSTM) and a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and LSTM. The predictive performance of these models is compared using two evaluation metrics. The results show that forecasting accuracy increases with an increase in the complexity of deep neural networks.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, deep learning, long short term memory, multi-layer perceptron

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2981 Using Deep Learning Neural Networks and Candlestick Chart Representation to Predict Stock Market

Authors: Rosdyana Mangir Irawan Kusuma, Wei-Chun Kao, Ho-Thi Trang, Yu-Yen Ou, Kai-Lung Hua

Abstract:

Stock market prediction is still a challenging problem because there are many factors that affect the stock market price such as company news and performance, industry performance, investor sentiment, social media sentiment, and economic factors. This work explores the predictability in the stock market using deep convolutional network and candlestick charts. The outcome is utilized to design a decision support framework that can be used by traders to provide suggested indications of future stock price direction. We perform this work using various types of neural networks like convolutional neural network, residual network and visual geometry group network. From stock market historical data, we converted it to candlestick charts. Finally, these candlestick charts will be feed as input for training a convolutional neural network model. This convolutional neural network model will help us to analyze the patterns inside the candlestick chart and predict the future movements of the stock market. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated in stock market prediction with promising results; 92.2% and 92.1 % accuracy for Taiwan and Indonesian stock market dataset respectively.

Keywords: candlestick chart, deep learning, neural network, stock market prediction

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2980 Large Neural Networks Learning From Scratch With Very Few Data and Without Explicit Regularization

Authors: Christoph Linse, Thomas Martinetz

Abstract:

Recent findings have shown that Neural Networks generalize also in over-parametrized regimes with zero training error. This is surprising, since it is completely against traditional machine learning wisdom. In our empirical study we fortify these findings in the domain of fine-grained image classification. We show that very large Convolutional Neural Networks with millions of weights do learn with only a handful of training samples and without image augmentation, explicit regularization or pretraining. We train the architectures ResNet018, ResNet101 and VGG19 on subsets of the difficult benchmark datasets Caltech101, CUB_200_2011, FGVCAircraft, Flowers102 and StanfordCars with 100 classes and more, perform a comprehensive comparative study and draw implications for the practical application of CNNs. Finally, we show that VGG19 with 140 million weights learns to distinguish airplanes and motorbikes with up to 95% accuracy using only 20 training samples per class.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, fine-grained image classification, generalization, image recognition, over-parameterized, small data sets

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2979 Convolutional Neural Networks Architecture Analysis for Image Captioning

Authors: Jun Seung Woo, Shin Dong Ho

Abstract:

The Image Captioning models with Attention technology have developed significantly compared to previous models, but it is still unsatisfactory in recognizing images. We perform an extensive search over seven interesting Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) architectures to analyze the behavior of different models for image captioning. We compared seven different CNN Architectures, according to batch size, using on public benchmarks: MS-COCO datasets. In our experimental results, DenseNet and InceptionV3 got about 14% loss and about 160sec training time per epoch. It was the most satisfactory result among the seven CNN architectures after training 50 epochs on GPU.

Keywords: deep learning, image captioning, CNN architectures, densenet, inceptionV3

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2978 Improvement of Ground Truth Data for Eye Location on Infrared Driver Recordings

Authors: Sorin Valcan, Mihail Gaianu

Abstract:

Labeling is a very costly and time consuming process which aims to generate datasets for training neural networks in several functionalities and projects. For driver monitoring system projects, the need for labeled images has a significant impact on the budget and distribution of effort. This paper presents the modifications done to an algorithm used for the generation of ground truth data for 2D eyes location on infrared images with drivers in order to improve the quality of the data and performance of the trained neural networks. The algorithm restrictions become tougher, which makes it more accurate but also less constant. The resulting dataset becomes smaller and shall not be altered by any kind of manual label adjustment before being used in the neural networks training process. These changes resulted in a much better performance of the trained neural networks.

Keywords: labeling automation, infrared camera, driver monitoring, eye detection, convolutional neural networks

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2977 Clothes Identification Using Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Badal Shrestha, Suni Thapa, Ashutosh Chauhan, Saugat Adhikari

Abstract:

To tackle our problem of clothes identification, we used different architectures of Convolutional Neural Networks. Among different architectures, the outcome from Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2 seemed promising. On comparison of the metrices, we observed that the Inception ResNet V2 slightly outperforms MobileNet V2 for this purpose. So this paper of ours proposes the cloth identifier using Inception ResNet V2 and also contains the comparison between the outcome of ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2. The document here contains the results and findings of the research that we performed on the DeepFashion Dataset. To improve the dataset, we used different image preprocessing techniques like image shearing, image rotation, and denoising. The whole experiment was conducted with the intention of testing the efficiency of convolutional neural networks on cloth identification so that we could develop a reliable system that is good enough in identifying the clothes worn by the users. The whole system can be integrated with some kind of recommendation system.

Keywords: inception ResNet, convolutional neural net, deep learning, confusion matrix, data augmentation, data preprocessing

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
2976 An Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis: CAD System for Diagnosis of Aortic Enlargement by Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani

Abstract:

Aortic enlargement, also known as an aortic aneurysm, can occur when the walls of the aorta become weak. This disease can become deadly if overlooked and undiagnosed. In this paper, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system was introduced to accurately diagnose aortic enlargement from chest x-ray images. An enhanced convolutional neural network (CNN) was employed and then trained by transfer learning by using three different main areas from the original images. The areas included the left lung, heart, and right lung. The accuracy of the system was then evaluated on 1001 samples by using 4-fold cross-validation. A promising accuracy of 90% was achieved in terms of the F-measure indicator. The results showed using different areas from the original image in the training phase of CNN could increase the accuracy of predictions. This encouraged the author to evaluate this method on a larger dataset and even on different CAD systems for further enhancement of this methodology.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, aortic enlargement, chest X-ray, image processing, convolutional neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
2975 Unsupervised Images Generation Based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey with Deep Convolutional Generative Neural Networks

Authors: Guanghua Zhang, Fubao Wang, Weijun Duan

Abstract:

Convolution neural network (CNN) has attracted more and more attention on recent years. Especially in the field of computer vision and image classification. However, unsupervised learning with CNN has received less attention than supervised learning. In this work, we use a new powerful tool which is deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs) to generate images from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Training by various star and galaxy images, it shows that both the generator and the discriminator are good for unsupervised learning. In this paper, we also took several experiments to choose the best value for hyper-parameters and which could help to stabilize the training process and promise a good quality of the output.

Keywords: convolution neural network, discriminator, generator, unsupervised learning

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2974 Prediction of Effective Elastic and Thermal Properties of Heterogeneous Materials Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Hamdi Beji, Toufik Kanit, Tanguy Messager

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a new method to predict the effective elastic and thermal behavior of heterogeneous materials using convolutional neural networks CNN. This work consists first of all in building a large database containing microstructures of two phases of heterogeneous material with different shapes (circular, elliptical, square, rectangular), volume fractions of the inclusion (20%, 25%, 30%), and different contrasts between the two phases in term of Young modulus and also thermal conductivity modulus (10, 100). These microstructures will be used to estimate the elastic and thermal behavior by calculating the effective bulk, shear, and thermal conductivity modulus values using a finite element method. The collected databases will be trained and tested on a deep learning model composed of a first convolutional network capable of extracting features and a second fully connected network that allows, through these parameters, to adjust the error between the found output and the expected one. The model was verified using a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) loss function. The prediction results were excellent, with a prediction score between 92% and 98%, which justifies the good choice of the model parameters.

Keywords: numerical homogenization, convolutional neural network, deep learning, regression model

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2973 Pose Normalization Network for Object Classification

Authors: Bingquan Shen

Abstract:

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have demonstrated their effectiveness in synthesizing 3D views of object instances at various viewpoints. Given the problem where one have limited viewpoints of a particular object for classification, we present a pose normalization architecture to transform the object to existing viewpoints in the training dataset before classification to yield better classification performance. We have demonstrated that this Pose Normalization Network (PNN) can capture the style of the target object and is able to re-render it to a desired viewpoint. Moreover, we have shown that the PNN improves the classification result for the 3D chairs dataset and ShapeNet airplanes dataset when given only images at limited viewpoint, as compared to a CNN baseline.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, object classification, pose normalization, viewpoint invariant

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2972 Monitor Student Concentration Levels on Online Education Sessions

Authors: M. K. Wijayarathna, S. M. Buddika Harshanath

Abstract:

Monitoring student engagement has become a crucial part of the educational process and a reliable indicator of the capacity to retain information. As online learning classrooms are now more common these days, students' attention levels have become increasingly important, making it more difficult to check each student's concentration level in an online classroom setting. To profile student attention to various gradients of engagement, a study is a plan to conduct using machine learning models. Using a convolutional neural network, the findings and confidence score of the high accuracy model are obtained. In this research, convolutional neural networks are using to help discover essential emotions that are critical in defining various levels of participation. Students' attention levels were shown to be influenced by emotions such as calm, enjoyment, surprise, and fear. An improved virtual learning system was created as a result of these data, which allowed teachers to focus their support and advise on those students who needed it. Student participation has formed as a crucial component of the learning technique and a consistent predictor of a student's capacity to retain material in the classroom. Convolutional neural networks have a plan to implement the platform. As a preliminary step, a video of the pupil would be taken. In the end, researchers used a convolutional neural network utilizing the Keras toolkit to take pictures of the recordings. Two convolutional neural network methods are planned to use to determine the pupils' attention level. Finally, those predicted student attention level results plan to display on the graphical user interface of the System.

Keywords: HTML5, JavaScript, Python flask framework, AI, graphical user

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2971 A Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Convolutional Neural Network Accelerators

Authors: Wei Zhang

Abstract:

With the rapid development of deep learning, neural network and deep learning algorithms play a significant role in various practical applications. Due to the high accuracy and good performance, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) especially have become a research hot spot in the past few years. However, the size of the networks becomes increasingly large scale due to the demands of the practical applications, which poses a significant challenge to construct a high-performance implementation of deep learning neural networks. Meanwhile, many of these application scenarios also have strict requirements on the performance and low-power consumption of hardware devices. Therefore, it is particularly critical to choose a moderate computing platform for hardware acceleration of CNNs. This article aimed to survey the recent advance in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based acceleration of CNNs. Various designs and implementations of the accelerator based on FPGA under different devices and network models are overviewed, and the versions of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are compared to present our own critical analysis and comments. Finally, we give a discussion on different perspectives of these acceleration and optimization methods on FPGA platforms to further explore the opportunities and challenges for future research. More helpfully, we give a prospect for future development of the FPGA-based accelerator.

Keywords: deep learning, field programmable gate array, FPGA, hardware accelerator, convolutional neural networks, CNN

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2970 Physics-Informed Convolutional Neural Networks for Reservoir Simulation

Authors: Jiangxia Han, Liang Xue, Keda Chen

Abstract:

Despite the significant progress over the last decades in reservoir simulation using numerical discretization, meshing is complex. Moreover, the high degree of freedom of the space-time flow field makes the solution process very time-consuming. Therefore, we present Physics-Informed Convolutional Neural Networks(PICNN) as a hybrid scientific theory and data method for reservoir modeling. Besides labeled data, the model is driven by the scientific theories of the underlying problem, such as governing equations, boundary conditions, and initial conditions. PICNN integrates governing equations and boundary conditions into the network architecture in the form of a customized convolution kernel. The loss function is composed of data matching, initial conditions, and other measurable prior knowledge. By customizing the convolution kernel and minimizing the loss function, the neural network parameters not only fit the data but also honor the governing equation. The PICNN provides a methodology to model and history-match flow and transport problems in porous media. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed PICNN can provide an accurate physical solution from a limited dataset. We show how this method can be applied in the context of a forward simulation for continuous problems. Furthermore, several complex scenarios are tested, including the existence of data noise, different work schedules, and different good patterns.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, deep learning, flow and transport in porous media, physics-informed neural networks, reservoir simulation

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2969 Cells Detection and Recognition in Bone Marrow Examination with Deep Learning Method

Authors: Shiyin He, Zheng Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, deep learning methods are applied in bio-medical field to detect and count different types of cells in an automatic way instead of manual work in medical practice, specifically in bone marrow examination. The process is mainly composed of two steps, detection and recognition. Mask-Region-Convolutional Neural Networks (Mask-RCNN) was used for detection and image segmentation to extract cells and then Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), as well as Deep Residual Network (ResNet) was used to classify. Result of cell detection network shows high efficiency to meet application requirements. For the cell recognition network, two networks are compared and the final system is fully applicable.

Keywords: cell detection, cell recognition, deep learning, Mask-RCNN, ResNet

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2968 Deep Learning Approach to Trademark Design Code Identification

Authors: Girish J. Showkatramani, Arthi M. Krishna, Sashi Nareddi, Naresh Nula, Aaron Pepe, Glen Brown, Greg Gabel, Chris Doninger

Abstract:

Trademark examination and approval is a complex process that involves analysis and review of the design components of the marks such as the visual representation as well as the textual data associated with marks such as marks' description. Currently, the process of identifying marks with similar visual representation is done manually in United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and takes a considerable amount of time. Moreover, the accuracy of these searches depends heavily on the experts determining the trademark design codes used to catalog the visual design codes in the mark. In this study, we explore several methods to automate trademark design code classification. Based on recent successes of convolutional neural networks in image classification, we have used several different convolutional neural networks such as Google’s Inception v3, Inception-ResNet-v2, and Xception net. The study also looks into other techniques to augment the results from CNNs such as using Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) to pre-process the images. This paper reports the results of the various models trained on year of annotated trademark images.

Keywords: trademark design code, convolutional neural networks, trademark image classification, trademark image search, Inception-ResNet-v2

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
2967 Convolutional Neural Networks versus Radiomic Analysis for Classification of Breast Mammogram

Authors: Mehwish Asghar

Abstract:

Breast Cancer (BC) is a common type of cancer among women. Its screening is usually performed using different imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, mammogram, X-ray, CT, etc. Among these modalities’ mammogram is considered a powerful tool for diagnosis and screening of breast cancer. Sophisticated machine learning approaches have shown promising results in complementing human diagnosis. Generally, machine learning methods can be divided into two major classes: one is Radiomics analysis (RA), where image features are extracted manually; and the other one is the concept of convolutional neural networks (CNN), in which the computer learns to recognize image features on its own. This research aims to improve the incidence of early detection, thus reducing the mortality rate caused by breast cancer through the latest advancements in computer science, in general, and machine learning, in particular. It has also been aimed to ease the burden of doctors by improving and automating the process of breast cancer detection. This research is related to a relative analysis of different techniques for the implementation of different models for detecting and classifying breast cancer. The main goal of this research is to provide a detailed view of results and performances between different techniques. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of a convolutional neural network (CNN) w.r.t feature extractor and as a classifier. Also, in this research, it has been aimed to add the module of Radiomics for comparison of its results with deep learning techniques.

Keywords: breast cancer (BC), machine learning (ML), convolutional neural network (CNN), radionics, magnetic resonance imaging, artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2966 Comparison of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Models for Plant Disease Identification

Authors: Megha Gupta, Nupur Prakash

Abstract:

Identification of plant diseases has been performed using machine learning and deep learning models on the datasets containing images of healthy and diseased plant leaves. The current study carries out an evaluation of some of the deep learning models based on convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures for identification of plant diseases. For this purpose, the publicly available New Plant Diseases Dataset, an augmented version of PlantVillage dataset, available on Kaggle platform, containing 87,900 images has been used. The dataset contained images of 26 diseases of 14 different plants and images of 12 healthy plants. The CNN models selected for the study presented in this paper are AlexNet, ZFNet, VGGNet (four models), GoogLeNet, and ResNet (three models). The selected models are trained using PyTorch, an open-source machine learning library, on Google Colaboratory. A comparative study has been carried out to analyze the high degree of accuracy achieved using these models. The highest test accuracy and F1-score of 99.59% and 0.996, respectively, were achieved by using GoogLeNet with Mini-batch momentum based gradient descent learning algorithm.

Keywords: comparative analysis, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, plant disease identification

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2965 Embedded Visual Perception for Autonomous Agricultural Machines Using Lightweight Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: René A. Sørensen, Søren Skovsen, Peter Christiansen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

Autonomous agricultural machines act in stochastic surroundings and therefore, must be able to perceive the surroundings in real time. This perception can be achieved using image sensors combined with advanced machine learning, in particular Deep Learning. Deep convolutional neural networks excel in labeling and perceiving color images and since the cost of high-quality RGB-cameras is low, the hardware cost of good perception depends heavily on memory and computation power. This paper investigates the possibility of designing lightweight convolutional neural networks for semantic segmentation (pixel wise classification) with reduced hardware requirements, to allow for embedded usage in autonomous agricultural machines. Using compression techniques, a lightweight convolutional neural network is designed to perform real-time semantic segmentation on an embedded platform. The network is trained on two large datasets, ImageNet and Pascal Context, to recognize up to 400 individual classes. The 400 classes are remapped into agricultural superclasses (e.g. human, animal, sky, road, field, shelterbelt and obstacle) and the ability to provide accurate real-time perception of agricultural surroundings is studied. The network is applied to the case of autonomous grass mowing using the NVIDIA Tegra X1 embedded platform. Feeding case-specific images to the network results in a fully segmented map of the superclasses in the image. As the network is still being designed and optimized, only a qualitative analysis of the method is complete at the abstract submission deadline. Proceeding this deadline, the finalized design is quantitatively evaluated on 20 annotated grass mowing images. Lightweight convolutional neural networks for semantic segmentation can be implemented on an embedded platform and show competitive performance with regards to accuracy and speed. It is feasible to provide cost-efficient perceptive capabilities related to semantic segmentation for autonomous agricultural machines.

Keywords: autonomous agricultural machines, deep learning, safety, visual perception

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2964 MITOS-RCNN: Mitotic Figure Detection in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images Using Region Based Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Siddhant Rao

Abstract:

Studies estimate that there will be 266,120 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,920 breast cancer induced deaths in the year of 2018 alone. Despite the pervasiveness of this affliction, the current process to obtain an accurate breast cancer prognosis is tedious and time consuming. It usually requires a trained pathologist to manually examine histopathological images and identify the features that characterize various cancer severity levels. We propose MITOS-RCNN: a region based convolutional neural network (RCNN) geared for small object detection to accurately grade one of the three factors that characterize tumor belligerence described by the Nottingham Grading System: mitotic count. Other computational approaches to mitotic figure counting and detection do not demonstrate ample recall or precision to be clinically viable. Our models outperformed all previous participants in the ICPR 2012 challenge, the AMIDA 2013 challenge and the MITOS-ATYPIA-14 challenge along with recently published works. Our model achieved an F- measure score of 0.955, a 6.11% improvement in accuracy from the most accurate of the previously proposed models.

Keywords: breast cancer, mitotic count, machine learning, convolutional neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2963 Text Localization in Fixed-Layout Documents Using Convolutional Networks in a Coarse-to-Fine Manner

Authors: Beier Zhu, Rui Zhang, Qi Song

Abstract:

Text contained within fixed-layout documents can be of great semantic value and so requires a high localization accuracy, such as ID cards, invoices, cheques, and passports. Recently, algorithms based on deep convolutional networks achieve high performance on text detection tasks. However, for text localization in fixed-layout documents, such algorithms detect word bounding boxes individually, which ignores the layout information. This paper presents a novel architecture built on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). A global text localization network and a regional bounding-box regression network are introduced to tackle the problem in a coarse-to-fine manner. The text localization network simultaneously locates word bounding points, which takes the layout information into account. The bounding-box regression network inputs the features pooled from arbitrarily sized RoIs and refine the localizations. These two networks share their convolutional features and are trained jointly. A typical type of fixed-layout documents: ID cards, is selected to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system. These networks are trained on data cropped from nature scene images, and synthetic data produced by a synthetic text generation engine. Experiments show that our approach locates high accuracy word bounding boxes and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Keywords: bounding box regression, convolutional networks, fixed-layout documents, text localization

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