Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2592

Search results for: noise pollution

2592 Effect of On-Road Vehicular Traffic on Noise Pollution in Bhubaneswar City, Eastern India

Authors: Dudam Bharath Kumar, Harsh Kumar, Naveed Ahmed


Vehicular traffic on the road-side plays a significant role in affecting the noise pollution in most of the cities over the world. To assess the correlation of the road-traffic on noise pollution in the city environment, continuous measurements were carried out in an entire daytime starting from 8:00 AM IST to 6:00 PM IST at a single point for each 5 minutes (8:00-8:05, 9:00-9:05, 10:00-10:05 AM, ...) near the KIIT University campus road. Noise levels were observed using a mobile operated app of android cell phone and a handheld noise meter. Calibration analysis shows high correlation about 0.89 for the study location for the day time period. Results show diurnal variability of atmospheric noise pollution levels go hand-in and with the vehicular number which pass through a point of observation. The range of noise pollution levels in the daytime period is observed as 55 to 75 dB(A). As a day starts, sudden upsurge of noise levels is observed from 65 to 71 dB(A) in the early morning, 64 dB(A) in late morning, regains the same quantity 68-71 dB(A) in the afternoon, and rises 70 dB(A) in the early evening. Vehicular number of the corresponding noise levels exhibits 115-120, 150-160, and 140-160, respectively. However, this preliminary study suggests the importance of vehicular traffic on noise pollution levels in the urban environment and further to study population exposed to noise levels. Innovative approaches help curb the noise pollution through modelling the traffic noise pollution spatially and temporally over the city environments.

Keywords: noise pollution, vehicular traffic, urban environment, noise meter

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2591 Noise Measurement and Awareness at Construction Site: A Case Study

Authors: Feiruz Ab'lah, Zarini Ismail, Mohamad Zaki Hassan, Siti Nadia Mohd Bakhori, Mohamad Azlan Suhot, Mohd Yusof Md. Daud, Shamsul Sarip


The construction industry is one of the major sectors in Malaysia. Apart from providing facilities, services, and goods it also offers employment opportunities to local and foreign workers. In fact, the construction workers are exposed to a hazardous level of noises that generated from various sources including excavators, bulldozers, concrete mixer, and piling machines. Previous studies indicated that the piling and concrete work was recorded as the main source that contributed to the highest level of noise among the others. Therefore, the aim of this study is to obtain the noise exposure during piling process and to determine the awareness of workers against noise pollution at the construction site. Initially, the reading of noise was obtained at construction site by using a digital sound level meter (SLM), and noise exposure to the workers was mapped. Readings were taken from four different distances; 5, 10, 15 and 20 meters from the piling machine. Furthermore, a set of questionnaire was also distributed to assess the knowledge regarding noise pollution at the construction site. The result showed that the mean noise level at 5m distance was more than 90 dB which exceeded the recommended level. Although the level of awareness regarding the effect of noise pollution is satisfactory, majority of workers (90%) still did not wear ear protecting device during work period. Therefore, the safety module guidelines related to noise pollution controls should be implemented to provide a safe working environment and prevent initial occupational hearing loss.

Keywords: construction, noise awareness, noise pollution, piling machine

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2590 Noise Pollution: An Emerging Threat to Urban Health

Authors: M. Sirajul Islam Molla


Noise pollution has been a continuous and an increasing threat to human health in urban population all over the world. The situation in Bangladesh particularly in major cities has been dangerously aggravating. Despite the government of Bangladesh have laws in its hand to curb the noise pollution the authority’s reluctance in enforcing it, is making the situation worse. We do not see any difference in some other major cities of the South Asian Regional Countries like Delhi and Kathmandu, both of the cities are facing the same situation like Dhaka. With the expansion of technology-based township all over the world, the noise pollution has been an emerging threat to urban health. The information for this review has been derived from websites of GOs, NGOs, peer-reviewed papers, seminars and symposia. The worse situation of noise pollution results in people’s irritation and protest, but in many cases, the protesters are facing the wrath of the polluters. Two such consequences in Bangladesh have resulted in killing the protesters by the polluters – one happened in Dhaka city and the other in a rural town. The law-enforcing agencies proactively do not attempt to impose the law. Noise pollution has been increasing so rapidly that it has become a burden on human health in urban populations. Prolonged exposure to higher noise causes mental stress, sleeplessness, high blood pressure, cardiac failure, respiratory disorder, miscarriage and breaks attention of students to their studies and also irritates their behavior. The noise pollution-caused mortality has also been increasing all over the world. Recommendations from the international conferences such as ICUH should be forwarded to the United Nations. The UN then should pass it on to the concerned countries. The UN should also keenly monitor if the countries have appropriate plan to curb noise pollution to meet the sustainable development goals.

Keywords: decibel, environment, noise, pollution

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2589 The Materiality of Noise Barriers: Sustainability Approach

Authors: Mostafa Gabr, Rania Abdul Galil, Nihal Salim


Various interventions are applied in cities with the aim to improve living and acoustic environmental conditions. Noise is one of the most influential and critical factors in the environment that has an effect on the QOL (quality of life) and urban environment. It ranks second among environmental pollution issues according to EEAA. Traffic noise is a major source of noise. Noise barriers are one of the physical techniques in landscape design used to reduce the impact of noise pollution in urban areas. Roadways noise pollution can be best controlled by a noise barrier. The aim of this paper is to consider all facets of sustainability when designing a comfortable acoustic environment in roadways, through different strategies related to planning and the design process. The study focuses on the relation between the design of noise barriers as a landscape noise mitigation installation and their materiality in so far as it influences the sustainability of the open space and the acceptability of users. According to previous studies, design of noise barrier mainly depends on cost as a decisive factor. This study asserts that environmental and socioeconomic costs associated are equally important. Hence, the paper presents a strategy for sustainable soundscape design. It builds a framework focusing on materiality considering the environmental and socioeconomic impact of noise barriers shaping urban open space around the road ways, and the different academic and market positions on noise barrier types and materials. Finally, it concludes with a matrix of the relation between the noise barrier design consideration and the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental).

Keywords: traffic noise level, acoustic sustainability, noise barrier, noise reduction, noise control, acoustical level

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2588 A Study of Sources and Control of Environmental Noise Pollution on Selected Areas of Osogbo, Capital of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq Adepoju


Climate change and its negative environmental challenges to humanity has for decades, taken the centre stage globally receiving attention on ways to take care of the menace and keep the damaging effects to manageable and tolerable level. However, noise pollution, another major environmental hazard militating against human habitation particularly in the developing countries of the world, is not receiving enough attention by the concerned authorities at all tiers of governance. A good knowledge of the major sources of environmental noise pollution will go a long way in assisting relevant stakeholders in planning, designing, and management of problems associated with noise pollution. This paper seeks to identify the major sources of noise in the built environment on selected areas of Osogbo, Nigeria. The paper adopted a survey research method of collecting data from surveys carried out on buildings around old Garage-Okefia axis, Old garage-Oja Oba axis, and Okefia-Olaiya junction axis, all within Osogbo metropolis using sound surveying metre. It was discovered that noise from vehicular and pedestrian traffic, commercial activities such as advertising vendors and religious buildings (churches and mosques) constitute major causes of noise in the study area. The paper recommends some measures to the affected stakeholders particularly government agencies on means of reducing noise pollution to a tolerable level in the study areas and places of the same industrial layout.

Keywords: built environment, climate change, environmental pollution, noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2587 Assessment of Urban Environmental Noise in Urban Habitat: A Spatial Temporal Study

Authors: Neha Pranav Kolhe, Harithapriya Vijaye, Arushi Kamle


The economic growth engines are urban regions. As the economy expands, so does the need for peace and quiet, and noise pollution is one of the important social and environmental issue. Health and wellbeing are at risk from environmental noise pollution. Because of urbanisation, population growth, and the consequent rise in the usage of increasingly potent, diverse, and highly mobile sources of noise, it is now more severe and pervasive than ever before, and it will only become worse. Additionally, it will expand as long as there is an increase in air, train, and highway traffic, which continue to be the main contributors of noise pollution. The current study will be conducted in two zones of class I city of central India (population range: 1 million–4 million). Total 56 measuring points were chosen to assess noise pollution. The first objective evaluates the noise pollution in various urban habitats determined as formal and informal settlement. It identifies the comparison of noise pollution within the settlements using T- Test analysis. The second objective assess the noise pollution in silent zones (as stated in Central Pollution Control Board) in a hierarchical way. It also assesses the noise pollution in the settlements and compares with prescribed permissible limits using class I sound level equipment. As appropriate indices, equivalent noise level on the (A) frequency weighting network, minimum sound pressure level and maximum sound pressure level were computed. The survey is conducted for a period of 1 week. Arc GIS is used to plot and map the temporal and spatial variability in urban settings. It is discovered that noise levels at most stations, particularly at heavily trafficked crossroads and subway stations, were significantly different and higher than acceptable limits and squares. The study highlights the vulnerable areas that should be considered while city planning. The study demands area level planning while preparing a development plan. It also demands attention to noise pollution from the perspective of residential and silent zones. The city planning in urban areas neglects the noise pollution assessment at city level. This contributes to that, irrespective of noise pollution guidelines, the ground reality is far away from its applicability. The result produces incompatible land use on a neighbourhood scale with respect to noise pollution. The study's final results will be useful to policymakers, architects and administrators in developing countries. This will be useful for noise pollution in urban habitat governance by efficient decision making and policy formulation to increase the profitability of these systems.

Keywords: noise pollution, formal settlements, informal settlements, built environment, silent zone, residential area

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2586 Mapping of Traffic Noise in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda


The present work aims at development of traffic noise maps for Riyadh City using the software Lima. Road traffic data were estimated or measured as accurate as possible in order to obtain consistent noise maps. The predicted noise levels at some selected sites are validated by actual field measurements, which are obtained by a system that consists of a sound level meter, a GPS receiver and a database to manage the measured data. The maps show that noise levels remain over 50 dBA and can exceed 70 dBA at the nearside of major roads and highways.

Keywords: noise pollution, road traffic noise, LimA predictor, GPS

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2585 Urban Noise and Air Quality: Correlation between Air and Noise Pollution; Sensors, Data Collection, Analysis and Mapping in Urban Planning

Authors: Massimiliano Condotta, Paolo Ruggeri, Chiara Scanagatta, Giovanni Borga


Architects and urban planners, when designing and renewing cities, have to face a complex set of problems, including the issues of noise and air pollution which are considered as hot topics (i.e., the Clean Air Act of London and the Soundscape definition). It is usually taken for granted that these problems go by together because the noise pollution present in cities is often linked to traffic and industries, and these produce air pollutants as well. Traffic congestion can create both noise pollution and air pollution, because NO₂ is mostly created from the oxidation of NO, and these two are notoriously produced by processes of combustion at high temperatures (i.e., car engines or thermal power stations). We can see the same process for industrial plants as well. What have to be investigated – and is the topic of this paper – is whether or not there really is a correlation between noise pollution and air pollution (taking into account NO₂) in urban areas. To evaluate if there is a correlation, some low-cost methodologies will be used. For noise measurements, the OpeNoise App will be installed on an Android phone. The smartphone will be positioned inside a waterproof box, to stay outdoor, with an external battery to allow it to collect data continuously. The box will have a small hole to install an external microphone, connected to the smartphone, which will be calibrated to collect the most accurate data. For air, pollution measurements will be used the AirMonitor device, an Arduino board to which the sensors, and all the other components, are plugged. After assembling the sensors, they will be coupled (one noise and one air sensor) and placed in different critical locations in the area of Mestre (Venice) to map the existing situation. The sensors will collect data for a fixed period of time to have an input for both week and weekend days, in this way it will be possible to see the changes of the situation during the week. The novelty is that data will be compared to check if there is a correlation between the two pollutants using graphs that should show the percentage of pollution instead of the values obtained with the sensors. To do so, the data will be converted to fit on a scale that goes up to 100% and will be shown thru a mapping of the measurement using GIS methods. Another relevant aspect is that this comparison can help to choose which are the right mitigation solutions to be applied in the area of the analysis because it will make it possible to solve both the noise and the air pollution problem making only one intervention. The mitigation solutions must consider not only the health aspect but also how to create a more livable space for citizens. The paper will describe in detail the methodology and the technical solution adopted for the realization of the sensors, the data collection, noise and pollution mapping and analysis.

Keywords: air quality, data analysis, data collection, NO₂, noise mapping, noise pollution, particulate matter

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2584 Noise Pollution in Nigerian Cities: Case Study of Bida, Nigeria

Authors: Funke Morenike Jiyah, Joshua Jiyah


The occurrence of various health issues have been linked to excessive noise pollution in all works of life as evident in many research efforts. This study provides empirical analysis of the effects of noise pollution on the well-being of the residents of Bida Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. The study adopted a case study research design, involving cross-sectional procedure. Field observations and medical reports were obtained to support the respondents’ perception on the state of their well-being. The sample size for the study was selected using the housing stock in the various wards. One major street in each ward was selected. A total of 1,833 buildings were counted along the sampled streets and 10% of this was selected for the administration of structured questionnaire.The environmental quality of the wards was determined by measuring the noise level using Testo 815 noise meters. The result revealed that Bariki ward which houses the GRA has the lowest noise level of 37.8 dB(A)while the noise pollution levels recorded in the other thirteen wards were all above the recommended levels. The average ambient noise level in sawmills, commercial centres, road junctions and industrial areas were above 90 dB(A). The temporal record from the Federal Medical Centre, Bida revealed that, apart from malaria, hypertension (5,614 outpatients) was the most prevalent health issue in 2013 alone. The paper emphasised the need for compatibility consideration in the choice of residential location, the use of ear muffler and effective enforcement of zoning regulations.

Keywords: bida, decibels, environmental quality, noise, well-being

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2583 Road Traffic Noise Mapping for Riyadh City Using GIS and Lima

Authors: Khalid A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda


The primary objective of this study is to develop the first round of road traffic noise maps for Riyadh City using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and software LimA 7810 predictor. The road traffic data were measured or estimated as accurate as possible in order to obtain reliable noise maps. Meanwhile, the attributes of the roads and buildings are automatically exported from GIS. The simulation results at some chosen locations are validated by actual field measurements, which are obtained by a system that consists of a sound level meter, a GPS receiver and a database to manage the measured data. The results show that the average error between the predicted and measured noise levels is below 3.0 dB.

Keywords: noise pollution, road traffic noise, LimA predictor, GIS

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2582 Design of an Acoustic System for Small-Scale Power Plants

Authors: Mohammadreza Judaki, Hosein Mohammadnezhad Shourkaei


Usually, noise generated by industrial units, is a pollution and disturbs people and causes problems for human health and sometimes these units will be closed because they cannot eliminate this pollution. Small-scale power plants usually are built close to residential areas, and noise generated by these power plants is an important factor in choosing their location and their design. Materials used to reduce noise are studied by measuring their absorption and reflection index numerically and experimentally. We can use MIKI model (Yasushi Miki, 1990) to simulate absorption index by using software like Ansys or Soundflow and compare calculation results with experimental simulation data. We consider high frequency sounds of power plant engines octave band diagram because dB value of high frequency noise is more noticeable for human ears. To prove this, in this study we first will study calculating octave band of engines exhausts and then we will study acoustic behavior of materials that we will use in high frequencies and this will give us our optimum noise reduction plan.

Keywords: acoustic materials, eliminating engine noise, octave level diagram, power plant noise

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2581 Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Tallal Abdel Karim Bouzir, Nourdinne Zemmouri, Djihed Berkouk


In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.

Keywords: road traffic, noise pollution, sound intensity, public health

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2580 Design of Aesthetic Acoustic Metamaterials Window Panel Based on Sierpiński Fractal Triangle for Sound-Silencing with Free Airflow

Authors: Sanjeet Kumar Singh, Shantanu Bhatacharya


Design of high-efficiency low, frequency (<1000Hz) soundproof window or wall absorber which is transparent to airflow is presented. Due to the massive rise in human population and modernization, environmental noise has significantly risen globally. Prolonged noise exposure can cause severe physiological and psychological symptoms like nausea, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. There has been continuous growth in building construction and infrastructure like offices, bus stops, and airports due to the urban population. Generally, a ventilated window is used for getting fresh air into the room, but at the same time, unwanted noise comes along. Researchers used traditional approaches like noise barrier mats in front of the window or designed the entire window using sound-absorbing materials. However, this solution is not aesthetically pleasing, and at the same time, it's heavy and not adequate for low-frequency noise shielding. To address this challenge, we design a transparent hexagonal panel based on the Sierpiński fractal triangle, which is aesthetically pleasing and demonstrates a normal incident sound absorption coefficient of more than 0.96 around 700 Hz and transmission loss of around 23 dB while maintaining e air circulation through the triangular cutout. Next, we present a concept of fabrication of large acoustic panels for large-scale applications, which leads to suppressing urban noise pollution.

Keywords: acoustic metamaterials, ventilation, urban noise pollution, noise control

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2579 Estimation of Noise Barriers for Arterial Roads of Delhi

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Parul Madan


Traffic noise pollution has become a challenging problem for all metro cities of India due to rapid urbanization, growing population and rising number of vehicles and transport development. In Delhi the prime source of noise pollution is vehicular traffic. In Delhi it is found that the ambient noise level (Leq) is exceeding the standard permissible value at all the locations. Noise barriers or enclosures are definitely useful in obtaining effective deduction of traffic noise disturbances in urbanized areas. US’s Federal Highway Administration Model (FHWA) and Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) of UK are used to develop spread sheets for noise prediction. Spread sheets are also developed for evaluating effectiveness of existing boundary walls abutting houses in mitigating noise, redesigning them as noise barriers. Study was also carried out to examine the changes in noise level due to designed noise barrier by using both models FHWA and CORTN respectively. During the collection of various data it is found that receivers are located far away from road at Rithala and Moolchand sites and hence extra barrier height needed to meet prescribed limits was less as seen from calculations and most of the noise diminishes by propagation effect.On the basis of overall study and data analysis, it is concluded that FHWA and CORTN models under estimate noise levels. FHWA model predicted noise levels with an average percentage error of -7.33 and CORTN predicted with an average percentage error of -8.5. It was observed that at all sites noise levels at receivers were exceeding the standard limit of 55 dB. It was seen from calculations that existing walls are reducing noise levels. Average noise reduction due to walls at Rithala was 7.41 dB and at Panchsheel was 7.20 dB and lower amount of noise reduction was observed at Friend colony which was only 5.88. It was observed from analysis that Friends colony sites need much greater height of barrier. This was because of residential buildings abutting the road. At friends colony great amount of traffic was observed since it is national highway. At this site diminishing of noise due to propagation effect was very less.As FHWA and CORTN models were developed in excel programme, it eliminates laborious calculations of noise. There was no reflection correction in FHWA models as like in CORTN model.

Keywords: IFHWA, CORTN, Noise Sources, Noise Barriers

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2578 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra


This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics

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2577 Noise Barrier Technique as a Way to Improve the Sonic Urban Environment along Existing Roadways Assessment: El-Gish Road Street, Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Nihal Atif Salim


To improve the quality of life in cities, a variety of interventions are used. Noise is a substantial and important sort of pollution that has a negative impact on the urban environment and human health. According to the complaint survey, it ranks second among environmental contamination complaints (conducted by EEAA in 2019). The most significant source of noise in the city is traffic noise. In order to improve the sound urban environment, many physical techniques are applied. In the local area, noise barriers are considered as one of the most appropriate physical techniques along existing traffic routes. Alexandria is Egypt's second-largest city after Cairo. It is located along the Mediterranean Sea, and El- Gish Road is one of the city's main arteries. It impacts the waterfront promenade that extends along with the city by a high level of traffic noise. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the design considerations for the most appropriate noise barrier type along with the promenade, with the goal of improving the Quality of Life (QOL) and the sonic urban environment specifically. The proposed methodology focuses on how noise affects human perception and the environment. Then it delves into the various physical noise control approaches. After that, the paper discusses sustainable design decisions making. Finally, look into the importance of incorporating sustainability into design decisions making. Three stages will be followed in the case study. The first stage involves doing a site inspection and using specific sound measurement equipment (a noise level meter) to measure the noise level along the promenade at many sites, and the findings will be shown on a noise map. The second step is to inquire about the site's user experience. The third step is to investigate the various types of noise barriers and their effects on QOL along existing routes in order to select the most appropriate type. The goal of this research is to evaluate the suitable design of noise barriers that fulfill environmental and social perceptions while maintaining a balanced approach to the noise issue in order to improve QOL along existing roadways in the local area.

Keywords: noise pollution, sonic urban environment, traffic noise, noise barrier, acoustic sustainability, noise reduction techniques

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2576 Hearing Conservation Aspects of Soldier’s Exposure to Harmfull Noise within Military Armored Vehicles

Authors: Fink Nir


Soldiers within armored vehicles are exposed to continuous noise reaching levels as high as 120 dB. The use of hearing protection devices (HPD) may attenuate noise by as 25 dB, but attenuated noise reaching the ear is still harmful and may result in hearing loss. Hearing conservation programs in the military suggest methods to manage the harmful effects of noise. These include noise absorption within vehicles, evaluating HPD's performance, limiting time exposure, and providing guidance.

Keywords: armored vehicle noise, hearing loss, hearing protection devices, military noise, noise attenuation

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2575 Selection of Landscape Plant Species: A Experiment of Noise Reduction by Vibration of Plant Leaves

Authors: Li Mengmeng, Kang Jian


With the rapid development of the city, the noise pollution becomes more and more serious. Noise has seriously affected people's normal life, study and work. In addition, noise has seriously affected the city's ecological environment and the migration of birds. Therefore, it is urgent to control the noise. As one of natural noise-reducing materials, plants have been paid more and more attention. In urban landscape design, it is very important to choose plant species with good noise reduction effect to the sustainable development of urban ecology. The aim of this paper is to find out the characteristics of the plant with good noise reduction effect and apply it in urban landscape design. This study investigated the vibration of leaves of six plant species in a sound field using a Keyence (IG-1000/CCD) Laser Micrometer. The results of the experiments showed that the vibration speed of plant leaves increased obviously after being stimulated by sound source, about 5-10 times. In addition, when driven by the same sound, the speed of all leaves varied with the difference of leaf thickness, leaf size and leaf mass. The speed of all leaves would increase with the increase of leaf size and leaf mass, while those would decrease with the increase of leaf thickness.

Keywords: landscape design, leaf vibration , noise attenuation, plants configuration

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2574 Digital Forgery Detection by Signal Noise Inconsistency

Authors: Bo Liu, Chi-Man Pun


A novel technique for digital forgery detection by signal noise inconsistency is proposed in this paper. The forged area spliced from the other picture contains some features which may be inconsistent with the rest part of the image. Noise pattern and the level is a possible factor to reveal such inconsistency. To detect such noise discrepancies, the test picture is initially segmented into small pieces. The noise pattern and level of each segment are then estimated by using various filters. The noise features constructed in this step are utilized in energy-based graph cut to expose forged area in the final step. Experimental results show that our method provides a good illustration of regions with noise inconsistency in various scenarios.

Keywords: forgery detection, splicing forgery, noise estimation, noise

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2573 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota


In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler

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2572 Evaluation of Traffic Noise Around Different Facilities Located in Silent Zones

Authors: Khaled Shaaban


Schools and hospitals are supposed to be located in silent zones. In these areas, it is expected to maintain low noise levels in order to promote a peaceful environment for studying or recovering. However, many of these facilities are located in urban areas and are subject to high levels of noise. In this study, an evaluation of traffic noise around schools and hospitals was conducted during different periods of the day. The results indicated that the noise is positively correlated with the traffic volume around these facilities. Locations with higher traffic volumes tend to have higher noise levels. The results also showed that the noise levels exceed the recommended values by the World Health Organization. Several solutions were suggested as potential courses of action to decrease the excessive level of noise around these facilities.

Keywords: traffic noise, road traffic, noise levels, traffic volume

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2571 The Influence of Noise on Aerial Image Semantic Segmentation

Authors: Pengchao Wei, Xiangzhong Fang


Noise is ubiquitous in this world. Denoising is an essential technology, especially in image semantic segmentation, where noises are generally categorized into two main types i.e. feature noise and label noise. The main focus of this paper is aiming at modeling label noise, investigating the behaviors of different types of label noise on image semantic segmentation tasks using K-Nearest-Neighbor and Convolutional Neural Network classifier. The performance without label noise and with is evaluated and illustrated in this paper. In addition to that, the influence of feature noise on the image semantic segmentation task is researched as well and a feature noise reduction method is applied to mitigate its influence in the learning procedure.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, denoising, feature noise, image semantic segmentation, k-nearest-neighbor, label noise

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2570 Cavity Noise Reduction With Sweeping Actuators

Authors: Belkallouch Abderahmane, Laurent Dala


Cavity noise is a significant problem in the aviation industry, particularly in the design and operation of aircraft. Cavity noise occurs when airflow separates from a surface and creates vortices within a cavity, which then generate noise. In the case of airplanes, the cavity noise is typically generated in areas such as the landing gear bays, engine nacelles, and wing flaps. This noise can be not only annoying and uncomfortable for passengers and crew, but it can also affect the structural integrity of the aircraft. Furthermore, noise pollution is a major concern for communities surrounding airports, and the reduction of cavity noise is an important factor in mitigating this issue. Therefore, the need for effective cavity noise control solutions is crucial for the aviation industry. Sweeping jet actuators (SJAs) have shown great potential as a solution to reducing cavity noise in the aviation industry. SJAs are devices that emit high-speed jets of air that sweeps back and forth across the surface at a high frequency, to control and manipulate the airflow around an object. In the context of cavity noise reduction, SJAs can be used to prevent the formation of vortices within a cavity by controlling the airflow and reducing turbulence. The trailing edge of the cavity is a particularly important location for SJA application as it is where the flow separation occurs and generates most of the noise. By applying SJAs at the trailing edge, the turbulent flow can be controlled, and the noise generated by the cavity can be reduced. Sweeping jet actuators have shown great potential as a solution to cavity noise reduction, particularly in the trailing edge of the cavity. Their ability to control turbulence and reduce noise across a range of Mach numbers makes them a versatile and effective solution to this challenging problem. With further research and development, SJAs may become a standard feature in the design of aircraft and other vehicles, providing a quieter and more comfortable environment for passengers and crew.

Keywords: flow control, sweeping jet, cavity noise, aeroacoustics

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2569 Prediction of Conducted EMI Noise in a Converter

Authors: Jon Cobb, Nasir


Due to higher switching frequencies, the conducted Electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise is generated in a converter. It degrades the performance of a switching converter. Therefore, it is an essential requirement to mitigate EMI noise of high performance converter. Moreover, it includes two types of emission such as common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) noise. CM noise is due to parasitic capacitance present in a converter and DM noise is caused by switching current. However, there is dire need to understand the main cause of EMI noise. Hence, we propose a novel method to predict conducted EMI noise of different converter topologies during early stage. This paper also presents the comparison of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise due to different SMPS topologies. We also make an attempt to develop an EMI noise model for a converter which allows detailed performance analysis. The proposed method is applied to different converter, as an example, and experimental results are verified the novel prediction technique.

Keywords: EMI, electromagnetic interference, SMPS, switch-mode power supply, common mode, CM, differential mode, DM, noise

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2568 Pollution-Sources, Controls, and Impact Analysis

Authors: Aditi Acharya


Environmental pollution is threatening the environmental and human health in the most drastic way. This paper provides insight about the affects of environmental pollution in the perspective of water pollution. Sewage in drinking water, the increasing contamination of water bodies and water resources and the human beings are the major contributors, increasing the harsh activities of pollution. The research presents information about the sources of pollution, its impacts and control activities to be undertaken to make our environment free from water pollution.

Keywords: environmental pollution, water pollution, nanotechnology, nanomaterials

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2567 The Learning Loops in the Public Realm Project in South Verona: Air Quality and Noise Pollution Participatory Data Collection towards Co-Design, Planning and Construction of Mitigation Measures in Urban Areas

Authors: Massimiliano Condotta, Giovanni Borga, Chiara Scanagatta


Urban systems are places where the various actors involved interact and enter in conflict, in particular with reference to topics such as traffic congestion and security. But topics of discussion, and often clash because of their strong complexity, are air and noise pollution. For air pollution, the complexity stems from the fact that atmospheric pollution is due to many factors, but above all, the observation and measurement of the amount of pollution of a transparent, mobile and ethereal element like air is very difficult. Often the perceived condition of the inhabitants does not coincide with the real conditions, because it is conditioned - sometimes in positive ways other in negative ways - from many other factors such as the presence, or absence, of natural elements such as trees or rivers. These problems are seen with noise pollution as well, which is also less considered as an issue even if it’s problematic just as much as air quality. Starting from these opposite positions, it is difficult to identify and implement valid, and at the same time shared, mitigation solutions for the problem of urban pollution (air and noise pollution). The LOOPER (Learning Loops in the Public Realm) project –described in this paper – wants to build and test a methodology and a platform for participatory co-design, planning, and construction process inside a learning loop process. Novelties in this approach are various; the most relevant are three. The first is that citizens participation starts since from the research of problems and air quality analysis through a participatory data collection, and that continues in all process steps (design and construction). The second is that the methodology is characterized by a learning loop process. It means that after the first cycle of (1) problems identification, (2) planning and definition of design solution and (3) construction and implementation of mitigation measures, the effectiveness of implemented solutions is measured and verified through a new participatory data collection campaign. In this way, it is possible to understand if the policies and design solution had a positive impact on the territory. As a result of the learning process produced by the first loop, it will be possible to improve the design of the mitigation measures and start the second loop with new and more effective measures. The third relevant aspect is that the citizens' participation is carried out via Urban Living Labs that involve all stakeholder of the city (citizens, public administrators, associations of all urban stakeholders,…) and that the Urban Living Labs last for all the cycling of the design, planning and construction process. The paper will describe in detail the LOOPER methodology and the technical solution adopted for the participatory data collection and design and construction phases.

Keywords: air quality, co-design, learning loops, noise pollution, urban living labs

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2566 An Algorithm for Removal of Noise from X-Ray Images

Authors: Sajidullah Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Wang Yin Chai, Chai Soo See


In this paper, we propose an approach to remove impulse and Poisson noise from X-ray images. Many filters have been used for impulse noise removal from color and gray scale images with their own strengths and weaknesses but X-ray images contain Poisson noise and unfortunately there is no intelligent filter which can detect impulse and Poisson noise from X-ray images. Our proposed filter uses the upgraded layer discrimination approach to detect both Impulse and Poisson noise corrupted pixels in X-ray images and then restores only those detected pixels with a simple efficient and reliable one line equation. Our Proposed algorithms are very effective and much more efficient than all existing filters used only for Impulse noise removal. The proposed method uses a new powerful and efficient noise detection method to determine whether the pixel under observation is corrupted or noise free. Results from computer simulations are used to demonstrate pleasing performance of our proposed method.

Keywords: X-ray image de-noising, impulse noise, poisson noise, PRWF

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2565 Development of Low Noise Savonius Wind Turbines

Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Cheolung Cheong


Savonius wind turbines are a drag-type of vertical-axis wind turbine that has been used most commonly as a small-scale wind generator. However, noise is a main hindrance to wide spreading of Savonius wind turbines, just like other wind turbines. Although noise levels radiating from Savonius wind turbines may be relatively low because of their small size, they induce relatively high annoyance due to their prolonged noise exposure to the near community. Therefore, aerodynamic noise of small vertical-axis wind turbines is one of most important design parameters. In this paper, aerodynamic noise characteristics of Savonius wind turbines are investigated using the hybrid CAA techniques, and their low noise designs are proposed based on understanding of noise generation mechanism. First, flow field around the turbine are analyzed by solving 3-D unsteady incompressible RANS equations. Then, noise radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Two distinct harmonic noise components, the well-know BPF components and the harmonics whose fundamental frequency is much higher than the BPF are identified. On a basis of this finding, S-shaped blades are proposed as low noise designs and it can reduce the noise levels of Savonius wind turbines by up to 2.7 dB.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, Savonius wind turbine, vertical-axis wind turbine

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2564 Assessment and Evaluation of Traffic Noise in Selected Government Healthcare Facilities at Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State-Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Naziru Yahaya, Buhari Samaila, Nasiru Abubakar


Noise pollution caused by vehicular movement in urban cities has reached alarming proportions due to continuous increases in vehicles and industrialization. Traffic noise causes deafness, annoyance, and other health challenges. According to World Health Organization recommends 60Db daytime sound levels and 40db night time sound levels in hospitals, schools, and other residential areas. Measurements of traffic noise were taken at six different locations of selected healthcare facilities at Birnin Kebbi (Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital and Federal Medical Centre Birnin Kebbi). The data was collected in the vicinity of hospitals using the slow setting of the device and pointed at noise sources. An integrated multifunctional sound level GM1352, KK2821163 model, was used for measuring the emitted noise and temperatures. The data was measured and recorded at three different periods of the day 8 am – 12 pm, 3 pm – 6 pm, and 6 pm – 8:30 pm, respectively. The results show that a fair traffic flow producing an average sound level in the order of 38db – 64db was recorded at GOPDF, amenityF, and ante-natalF. Similarly, high traffic noise was observed at GOPDS, amenityS, and Fati-LamiS in the order of 52db – 78db unsatisfactory threshold for human hearing.

Keywords: amenities, healthcare, noise, hospital, traffic

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2563 Evaluation of Musical Conductor Exposure to Noise

Authors: Ahmed Saleh Summan


This article presents the results of a technical report on the evaluation of occupational noise exposures among a musical conductor in a musical rehearsal hall (party–center). A calibrated noise dosimeter was used to measure the personal exposure of a music teacher/conductor for 8 hours in two days of rehearsal involving 90 players. Results showed that noise exposure levels were much higher than the permissible levels regulated 85dBA/8hr by NIOSH. In fact, the first day of measurements recorded the highest exposure levels (91 dBA). A number of factors contributed to these results, such as players number, types of instruments used, and activities. Noise control measures were recommended to solve this situation.

Keywords: noise exposure, music conductors, occupational noise, noise in rooms

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