Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13724

Search results for: hypercholesteraemic mice model

13724 Cholesterol Modulating Properties of a Proprietary Extract from Phyllanthus spp on Hypercholesteraemic Mice Models

Authors: Anne R. Fernandez, Mohammad Akmal Adnan, Tanes Prasat, Indu Bala Jaganath, Brian Kirby, Kamalan Jeevaratnam

Abstract:

Introduction: Plants from the Phyllantus genus have been used indigenously for the treatment of a variety of ailments for generations. A cocktail of phytonutrients prepared from a plant of the genus Phyllanthus has demonstrated the potential to alleviate ailments which include cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we investigated the cholesterol modulating properties of a highly purified proprietary extract of a Phyllanthus species in hypercholesteraemic mice. Methods: Hypercholesteraemia was induced in ICR mice by ad-libitum feeding of high fat diet daily for six weeks. The mice were then divided into 3 groups and force fed with 10mg/kg of atorvastatin, 200mg/kg of the proprietary Phyllanthus extract and water respectively. Blood samples were taken at the end of fourth week of treatment by a tail prick. At the end of the eighth week of treatment, mice were sacrificed and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides were measured. Results: The mean cholesterol levels in the mice fed with high fat diet were 44% (p < 0.05) higher than the mice on normal diet thus validating the model developed. The plasma HDL was significantly elevated in mice treated with the formulation (p ˂ 0.05) in comparison to the statin-treated and control mice. The total cholesterol levels in the mice treated with the proprietary extract were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 4 weeks of treatment in comparison to the mice treated with atorvastatin. By the end of 8 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the cholesterol levels of the mice in all groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that this proprietary extract from Phyllanthus species has the beneficial effect of reducing total cholesterol level more rapidly than atorvastatin and increasing HDL levels. Since an increase in the HDL cholesterol can reduce the risk of heart disease, this proprietary extract is a useful and safe therapeutic option compared to atorvastatin.

Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, hypercholesteraemic mice model, ICR mice, Phyllanthus spp.

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13723 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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13722 Characterization and Correlation of Neurodegeneration and Biological Markers of Model Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: J. DeBoard, R. Dietrich, J. Hughes, K. Yurko, G. Harms

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a predominant type of dementia and is likely a major cause of neural network impairment. The pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder has yet to be fully elucidated. There are currently no known cures for the disease, and the best hope is to be able to detect it early enough to impede its progress. Beyond age and genetics, another prevalent risk factor for AD might be traumatic brain injury (TBI), which has similar neurodegenerative hallmarks. Our research focuses on obtaining information and methods to be able to predict when neurodegenerative effects might occur at a clinical level by observation of events at a cellular and molecular level in model mice. First, we wish to introduce our evidence that brain damage can be observed via brain imaging prior to the noticeable loss of neuromuscular control in model mice of AD. We then show our evidence that some blood biomarkers might be able to be early predictors of AD in the same model mice. Thus, we were interested to see if we might be able to predict which mice might show long-term neurodegenerative effects due to differing degrees of TBI and what level of TBI causes further damage and earlier death to the AD model mice. Upon application of TBIs via an apparatus to effectively induce extremely mild to mild TBIs, wild-type (WT) mice and AD mouse models were tested for cognition, neuromuscular control, olfactory ability, blood biomarkers, and brain imaging. Experiments are currently still in process, and more results are therefore forthcoming. Preliminary data suggest that neuromotor control diminishes as well as olfactory function for both AD and WT mice after the administration of five consecutive mild TBIs. Also, seizure activity increases significantly for both AD and WT after the administration of the five TBI treatment. If future data supports these findings, important implications about the effect of TBI on those at risk for AD might be possible.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, blood biomarker, neurodegeneration, neuromuscular control, olfaction, traumatic brain injury

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13721 In vivo Anticandida Activity of Three Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in East Africa

Authors: Daniel P. Kisangau, Ken M. Hosea, Herbert V. M. Lyaruu, Cosam C. Josep, Zakaria H. Mbwambo, Pax J. Masimba

Abstract:

Crude extracts of Dracaena steudneri bark (DSB), Sapium ellipticum bark (SEB) and Capparis erythrocarpos root (CER) were investigated for their antifungal activity in immunocompromised mice infected with Candida albicans in an in vivo mice infection model. The results revealed a substantial dose dependency in all treatments given, with mice survival to the end of the experiment correlating well to the dose levels. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, C. erythrocarpos was the most effective with mice survival of 60% and organ burden clearance ranging from 64.0%-99.9% (P<0.0001) in all treatments. At the same dose, the least effective plant was S. ellipticum which had a mice survival of 20% and organ burden clearance ranging from 78.0%-96.6 (P>0.05). Mice survival for D. steudneri was 30% with organ burden clearance ranging from 89.0%-99.9% (P<0.05). All mice receiving no active treatment died before ten days post infection. In all treatment groups, there was a steady decline in mean weights of mice immediately after immunosuppression followed by gradual recovery in some cases which appeared to be dose dependent a few days post infection. Thus, extracts of D. steudneri and C. erythrocarpos portrayed the most significant potential as sources of antifungal drugs.

Keywords: antifungal activity, medicinal plants, candida albicans, East Africa

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13720 Hepatic Regenerative Capacity after Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mouse Model

Authors: N. F. Hamid, A. Kipar, J. Stewart, D. J. Antoine, B. K. Park, D. P. Williams

Abstract:

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic that is safe at therapeutic doses. The mouse model of APAP has been extensively used for studies on pathogenesis and intervention of drug induced liver injury based on the CytP450 mediated formation of N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinoneimine and, more recently, as model for mechanism based biomarkers. Delay of the fasted CD1 mice to rebound to the basal level of hepatic GSH compare to fed mice is reported in this study. Histologically, 15 hours fasted mice prior to APAP treatment leading to overall more intense cell loss with no evidence of apoptosis as compared to non-fasted mice, where the apoptotic cells were clearly seen on cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining. After 15 hours post APAP administration, hepatocytes underwent stage of recovery with evidence of mitotic figures in fed mice and return to completely no histological difference to control at 24 hours. On the contrary, the evidence of ongoing cells damage and inflammatory cells infiltration are still present on fasted mice until the end of the study. To further measure the regenerative capacity of the hepatocytes, the inflammatory mediators of cytokines that involved in the progression or regression of the toxicity like TNF-α and IL-6 in liver and spleen using RT-qPCR were also included. Yet, quantification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has demonstrated the time for hepatic regenerative in fasted is longer than that to fed mice. Together, these data would probably confirm that fasting prior to APAP treatment does not only modulate liver injury, but could have further effects to delay subsequent regeneration of the hepatocytes.

Keywords: acetaminophen, liver, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, regeneration, apoptosis

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13719 Effect of Experience on Evacuation of Mice in Emergency Conditions

Authors: Teng Zhang, Shenshi Huang, Gang Xu, Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu

Abstract:

With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing of the population in the city, the evacuation of pedestrians suffering from disaster environments such as fire in a room or other limited space becomes a vital issue in modern society. Mice have been used in experimental crowd evacuation in recent years for its good similarities to human in physical structure and stress reaction. In this study, the effect of experience or memory on the collective behavior of mice was explored. To help mice familiarize themselves with the design of the space and the stimulus caused by smoke, we trained them repeatedly for 2 days so that they can escape from the emergency conditions as soon as possible. The escape pattern, trajectories, walking speed, turning angle and mean individual escape time of mice in each training trail were analyzed. We found that mice can build memory quickly after the first trial on the first day. On the second day, the evacuation of mice was maintained in a stable and efficient state. Meanwhile, the group with size of 30 (G30) had a shorter mean individual escape time compared with G12. Furthermore, we tested the experience of evacuation skill of mice after several days. The results showed that the mice can hold the experience or memory over 3 weeks. We proposed the importance of experience of evacuation skill and the research of training methods in experimental evacuation of mice. The results can deepen our understanding of collective behavior of mice and conduce to the establishment of animal models in the study of pedestrian crowd dynamics in emergency conditions.

Keywords: experience, evacuation, mice, group size, behavior

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13718 Nanoparticles Activated Inflammasome Lead to Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma

Authors: Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Sun-Hye Lee, An-Soo Jang

Abstract:

Background: Nanoparticles may pose adverse health effects due to particulate matter inhalation. Nanoparticle exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of pro-caspase-1, which cleaves pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form and may signal acute and chronic immune responses to nanoparticles. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify whether nanoparticles exaggerates inflammasome pathway leading to airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in an allergic mice model of asthma. Methods: Mice were treated with saline (sham), OVA-sensitized and challenged (OVA), or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Lung interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 levels were assessed with Western Blot. Caspase-1 was checked by immunohistochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species were measured for the marker 8-isoprostane and carbonyl by ELISA. Results: Airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. TiO2 nanoparticles treatment increased IL-1β and IL-18 protein expression in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. TiO2 nanoparticles augmented the expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 leading to the formation of an active caspase-1 in the lung. Lung caspase-1 expression was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. Reactive oxygen species was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and in OVA-sensitized/challenged plus TiO2 exposed mice. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that inflammasome pathway activates in asthmatic lungs following nanoparticles exposure, suggesting that targeting the inflammasome may help control nanoparticles-induced airway inflammation and responsiveness.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, inflammation, inflammasome, nanoparticles

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13717 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

Abstract:

One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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13716 Cimifugin Inhibited Th2-Type Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Authors: Xiaoyan Jiang, Huizhu Wang, Lili Gui, Dandan Shen, Xiao Wei, Xi Yu, Hailiang Liu, Min Hong

Abstract:

Objective: Applicate FITC to establish Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis model, and study the effect and mechanism of Cimifugin on Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: The Balb/c mice were sensitized with painting 80 ul of 1.5% FITC onto the shaved abdomen skin at DAY1 and DAY2. The animals were challenged on their right ears with 20 ul of 0.6% FITC, and the left ears were painted with solvent alone at day 6, mice were administered cimifugin for 7 days. 24h later, ear swelling was noted, and the infiltration of eosinophils was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. while part of the ear tissue homogenates prepared for detecting interleukin-4 levels by ELISA .Mice were administered cimifugin In the initial stage of the above model for 5 days(-1DAY—DAY3), ear tissue were homogenized to detect IL-33 levels by ELISA. Results: Cimifugin 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg inhibited mouse ear swelling, ear histopathology showed that mice given Cimifugin has significantly reduced levels of local tissue fluid exudation, congestion, infiltration of lymphocytes, and other inflammatory conditions compared with the model group. At the same time, it has significantly reduce of Th2 cytokines IL-4 in the mouse ear tissue homogenate. Data of the initial stage shows that 12.5mg/kg, 50mg/kg Cimifugin significantly inhibited IL-33 levels. Conclusion: Cimifugin inhibit FITC-induced Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis, and its mechanism may be related to inhibition of IL-33.

Keywords: cimifugin, allergic contact dermatitis, Th1/Th2, IL-33

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13715 Therapeutic Effect of Indane 1,3-Dione Derivatives in the Restoration of Insulin Resistance in Human Liver Cells and in Db/Db Mice Model: Biochemical, Physiological and Molecular Insights of Investigation

Authors: Gulnaz Khan, Meha F. Aftab, Munazza Murtaza, Rizwana S. Waraich

Abstract:

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) precursor and its abnormal accumulation cause damage to various tissues and organs. AGEs have pathogenic implication in several diseases including diabetes. Existing AGEs inhibitors are not in clinical use, and there is a need for development of novel inhibitors. The present investigation aimed at identifying the novel AGEs inhibitors and assessing their mechanism of action for treating insulin resistance in mice model of diabetes. Novel derivatives of benzylidene of indan-1,3-dione were synthesized. The compounds were selected to study their action mechanism in improving insulin resistance, in vitro, in human hepatocytes and murine adipocytes and then, in vivo, in mice genetic model of diabetes (db/db). Mice were treated with novel derivatives of benzylidene of indane 1,3-dione. AGEs mediated ROS production was measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence assay. AGEs level in the serum of treated mice was observed by ELISA. Gene expression of receptor for AGEs (RAGE), PPAR-gamma, TNF-alpha and GLUT-4 was evaluated by RT-PCR. Glucose uptake was measured by fluorescent method. Microscopy was used to analyze glycogen synthesis in muscle. Among several derivatives of benzylidene of indan-1,3-dione, IDD-24, demonstrated highest inhibition of AGESs. IDD-24 significantly reduced AGEs formation and expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in fat, liver of db/db mice. Suppression of AGEs mediated ROS production was also observed in hepatocytes and fat cell, after treatment with IDD-24. Glycogen synthesis was increased in muscle tissue of mice treated with IDD-24. In adipocytes, IDD-24 prevented AGEs induced reduced glucose uptake. Mice treated with IDD-24 exhibited increased glucose tolerance, serum adiponectin levels and decreased insulin resistance. The result of present study suggested that IDD-24 can be a possible treatment target to address glycotoxins induced insulin resistance.

Keywords: advance glycation end product, hyperglycemia, indan-1, 3-dione, insulin resistance

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13714 Effects of a Bioactive Subfraction of Strobilanthes Crispus on the Tumour Growth, Body Weight and Haematological Parameters in 4T1-Induced Breast Cancer Model

Authors: Yusha'u Shu'aibu Baraya, Kah Keng Wong, Nik Soriani Yaacob

Abstract:

Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus), is a Malaysian herb locally known as ‘Pecah kaca’ or ‘Jin batu’ which have demonstrated potent anticancer effects in both in vitro and in vivo models. In particular, S. crispus subfraction (SCS) significantly reduced tumor growth in N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea-induced breast cancer rat model. However, there is paucity of information on the effects of SCS in breast cancer metastasis. Thus, in this study, the antimetastatic effects of SCS (100 mg/kg) was investigated following 30 days of treatment in 4T1-induced mammary tumor (n = 5) model. The response to treatment was assessed based on the outcome of the tumour growth, body weight and hematological parameters. The results demonstrated that tumor bearing mice treated with SCS (TM-S) had significant (p<0.05) reduction in the mean tumor number and tumor volume as well as tumor weight compared to the tumor bearing mice (TM), i.e. tumor untreated group. Also, there was no secondary tumor formation or tumor-associated lesions in the major organs of TM-S compared to the TM group. Similarly, comparable body weights were observed among the TM-S, normal (uninduced) mice treated with SCS and normal (untreated/control) mice (NM) groups compared to the TM group (p<0.05). Furthermore, SCS administration does not cause significant changes in the hematological parameters as compared to the NM group, which indicates no sign of anemia and toxicity related effects. In conclusion, SCS significantly inhibited the overall tumor growth and metastasis in 4T1-induced breast cancer mouse model suggesting its promising potentials as therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: 4T1-cells, breast cancer, metastasis, Strobilanthes crispus

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13713 Pomegranates Attenuates Cognitive and Behavioural Deficts and reduces inflammation in a Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: M. M. Essa, S. Subash, M. Akbar, S. Al-Adawi, A. Al-Asmi, G. J. Guillemein

Abstract:

Objective: Transgenic (tg) mice which contain an amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene mutation, develop extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in the brain, and severe memory and behavioural deficits with age. These mice serve as an important animal model for testing the efficacy of novel drug candidates for the treatment and management of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports have suggested that oxidative stress is the underlying cause of Aβ neurotoxicity in AD. Pomegranates contain very high levels of antioxidants and several medicinal properties that may be useful for improving the quality of life in AD patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Omani pomegranate extract on the memory, anxiety and learning skills along with inflammation in an AD mouse model containing the double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576). Methods: The experimental groups of APP-transgenic mice from the age of 4 months were fed custom-mix diets (pellets) containing 4% pomegranate. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4-5 months and 18-19 months using the Morris water maze test, rota rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open field test. Further, inflammatory parameters also analysed. Results: APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a standard chow diet without pomegranates showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability and motor coordination along with increased inflammation compared to the wild type mice on the same diet, at the age of 18-19 months In contrast, APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a diet containing 4% pomegranates showed a significant improvements in memory, learning, locomotor function, and anxiety with reduced inflammatory markers compared to APPsw/Tg2576 mice fed the standard chow diet. Conclusion: Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with pomegranates may slow the progression of cognitive and behavioural impairments in AD. The exact mechanism is still unclear and further extensive research needed.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, pomegranates, oman, cognitive decline, memory loss, anxiety, inflammation

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13712 Effects of Gamma-Tocotrienol Supplementation on T-Regulatory Cells in Syngeneic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

Authors: S. Subramaniam, J. S. A. Rao, P. Ramdas, K. R. Selvaduray, N. M. Han, M. K. Kutty, A. K. Radhakrishnan

Abstract:

Immune system is a complex system where the immune cells have the capability to respond against a wide range of immune challenges including cancer progression. However, in the event of cancer development, tumour cells trigger immunosuppressive environment via activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells. The Treg cells are subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, known to have crucial roles in regulating immune homeostasis and promoting the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Dysregulation of these mechanisms could lead to cancer progression and immune suppression. Recently, there are many studies reporting on the effects of natural bioactive compounds on immune responses against cancer. It was known that tocotrienol-rich-fraction consisting 70% tocotrienols and 30% α-tocopherol is able to exhibit immunomodulatory as well as anti-cancer properties. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) supplementation on T-reg cells in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. In this study, female BALB/c mice were divided into two groups and fed with either soy oil (vehicle) or gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) for two weeks followed by inoculation with tumour cells. All the mice continued to receive the same supplementation until day 49. The results showed a significant reduction in tumour volume and weight in G-T3 fed mice compared to vehicle-fed mice. Lung and liver histology showed reduced evidence of metastasis in tumour-bearing G-T3 fed mice. Besides that, flow cytometry analysis revealed T-helper cell population was increased, and T-regulatory cell population was suppressed following G-T3 supplementation. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that there was a marked decrease in the expression of FOXP3 in the G-T3 fed tumour bearing mice. In conclusion, the G-T3 supplementation showed good prognosis towards breast cancer by enhancing the immune response in tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, gamma-T3 can be used as immunotherapy agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, gamma tocotrienol, immune suppression, supplement

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13711 In vivo Protective Effects of Ginger Extract on Cyclophosphamide Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Mice

Authors: K. Yadamma, K. Rudrama Devi

Abstract:

The protective effect of Ginger Extract against cyclophosphamide induced cytotoxicity was evaluated in in vivo animal model using analysis of chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells of mice. Three doses of Ginger Extract (150mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 250mg/kg body weight) were selected for modulation and given to animals after priming. The animals were sacrificed 24, 48, 72 hrs after the treatment and slides were prepared for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice. When animals were treated with cyclophosphamide 50mg/kg, showed cytogenetic damage in somatic cells. However, a significant decrease was observed in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations when animals were primed with various doses of Ginger Extract. The present results clearly indicate the protective nature of Ginger Extract against cyclophosphamide induced genetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells.

Keywords: ginger extract, protection, bone marrow cells, swiss albino mice

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13710 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro-computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and Tb.pf than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: laser, partial vibration, osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, mice

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13709 Date Palm Fruits from Oman Attenuates Cognitive and Behavioral Defects and Reduces Inflammation in a Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: M. M. Essa, S. Subash, M. Akbar, S. Al-Adawi, A. Al-Asmi, G. J. Guillemein

Abstract:

Transgenic (tg) mice which contain an amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene mutation, develop extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in the brain, and severe memory and behavioral deficits with age. These mice serve as an important animal model for testing the efficacy of novel drug candidates for the treatment and management of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports have suggested that oxidative stress is the underlying cause of Aβ neurotoxicity in AD. Date palm fruits contain very high levels of antioxidants and several medicinal properties that may be useful for improving the quality of life in AD patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Omani date palm fruits on the memory, anxiety and learning skills along with inflammation in an AD mouse model containing the double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576). The experimental groups of APP-transgenic mice from the age of 4 months were fed custom-mix diets (pellets) containing 2% and 4% Date palm fruits. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4-5 months and 18-19 months using the Morris water maze test, rota rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open field test. Further, inflammatory parameters also analyzed. APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a standard chow diet without dates showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability and motor coordination along with increased inflammation compared to the wild type mice on the same diet, at the age of 18-19 months In contrast, PPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a diet containing 2% and 4% dates showed a significant improvements in memory, learning, locomotor function, and anxiety with reduced inflammatory markers compared to APPsw/Tg2576 mice fed the standard chow diet. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with dates may slow the progression of cognitive and behavioral impairments in AD. The exact mechanism is still unclear and further extensive research needed.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, date palm fruits, Oman, cognitive decline, memory loss, anxiety, inflammation

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13708 BSYJ Promoting Homing and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells at the Retina of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Model Mice Induced by Sodium Iodate

Authors: Lina Liang, Kai Xu, Jing Zhang

Abstract:

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major leading cause of visual impairment and blindness with no cure currently established. Cell replacement is discussed as a potential therapy for AMD. Besides intravitreal injection and subretinal injection, intravenous administration has been explored as an alternative route. This study is to observe the effect of BSYJ, a traditional Chinese medicine on the homing and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via tail vein injection in an age-related macular degeneration mouse model. Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were injected with 40 mg/kg NaIO₃ to induce age-related macular degeneration model. At the second day after NaIO₃ injection, 1×10⁷ GFP labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GFP-MSCs) were transplanted via tali vein injection into the experimental mice. Then the mice were randomly divided into two groups, gavaged with either BSYJ solution (BSYJ group, n=12) or distilled water (DW group, n=12). 12 age-matched healthy C57BL/6J mice were fed regularly as normal control. At day 7, day 14, and day 28 after treatment, retina flat mounting was used to detect the homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina. Double-labeling immunofluorescence was used to determine the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Results: At 7, 14, 28 days after treatment, the numbers of GFP-MSCs detected by retina flatmount were 10.2 ± 2.5, 14.5 ± 3.4 and 18.7 ± 5.8, respectively in the distilled water group, while 15.7 ± 3.8, 32.3 ± 3.5 and 77.3 ± 6.4 in BSYJ group, the differences between the two groups were significant (p < 0.05). At 28 days after treatment, it was shown by double staining immunofluorescence that there were more GFP positive cells in the retina of BSYJ group than that of the DW group, but none of the cells expressed RPE specific genes such as RPE65 and CRALBP, or photoreceptor genes such as recoverin and rhodopsin either in BSYJ group or DW group. However, GFAP positive cells were found among the cells labeled with GFP, and the double labeling cells were much more in the BSYJ group than the distilled water group. Conclusion: BSYJ could promote homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina of age-related macular degeneration model mice induced by NaIO₃, and the differentiation towards to glial cells. Acknowledgement: National Natural Foundation of China (No: 81473736, 81674033,81973912).

Keywords: BSYJ, differentiation, homing, mesenchymal stem cells

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13707 AGEs-Aggravating Renal Lesions in C57BL/6J Mice, STZ-Induced Diabetes Nephropathy Model

Authors: Xing Lv, Hui-Qin Xu

Abstract:

The present study aimed to reveal the mechanism in aggravating STZ induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) by AGEs (advanced glycation end products). At the eighth day, 20 diabetic mice were randomly divided into STZ group and combination (combine AGEs with STZ) group. Simultaneously, AGEs group and normal group were set. Only mice in AGEs group, combination group were fed with high-AGEs diets. Mice diabetic conventional indicators, biochemical analysis were measured. Among the indictors, food consumptions, water intake, urine output, blood glucose, urine protein, urine creatinine, serum urea nitrogen were increased significantly in STZ, combination groups. The AGEs levels in combination group increased significantly when compared with STZ group. Weights and insulin levels in the STZ, combination groups were decreased significantly when compared with normal group, and the difference was significantly between AGEs group and STZ group. As a conclusion, AGEs play an important role in the DN development, inducing kidney damages.

Keywords: AGEs, diabetic nephropathy, serum urea nitrogen, urine protein

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13706 Maresin Like 1 Treatment: Curbing the Pathogenesis of Behavioral Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

Authors: Yan Lu, Song Hong, Janakiraman Udaiyappan, Aarti Nagayach, Quoc-Viet A. Duong, Masao Morita, Shun Saito, Yuichi Kobayashi, Yuhai, Zhao, Hongying Peng, Nicholas B. Pham, Walter J Lukiw, Christopher A. Vuong, Nicolas G. Bazan

Abstract:

Aims: Neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction occurs in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and as the disease progresses many patients develop cognitive impairment. 5XFAD mouse model of AD is widely used to study AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maresin like 1 (MaR-L1) treatment in AD pathology using 5XFAD mice. Methods: We tested 12-month-old male 5XFAD mice and wild type control mice treated with MaR-L1 in a battery of behavioral tasks. We performed open field test, beam walking test, clasping test, inverted grid test, acetone test, marble burring test, elevated plus maze test, cross maze test and novel object recognition test. We also studied neuronal loss, amyloid β burden, and inflammation in the brains of 5XFAD mice using immunohistology and Western blotting. Results: MaR-L1 treatment to the 5XFAD mice showed improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. MaR-L1 showed decreased anxiety behavior in open field test and marble burring test, increased muscular strength in the beam walking test, clasping test and inverted grid test. Cognitive function was improved in MaR-L1 treated 5XFAD mice in the novel object recognition test. MaR-L1 prevented neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that behavioral abnormalities were normalized by the administration of MaR-L1 and the neuroprotective role of MaR-L1 in the AD. It also indicates that MaR-L1 treatment is able to prevent and or ameliorate neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Further experiments to validate the results are warranted using other AD models in the future.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, motor and cognitive behavior, 5XFAD mice, Maresin Like 1, microglial cell, astrocyte, neurodegeneration, inflammation, resolution of inflammation

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13705 Effects of Exercise on Klotho Expression and Klotho DNA Methylation in Obese Mice

Authors: Yao Huang, Hongjie Yu, Fangrong Xu, Longbiao Cai, Qiqiang He

Abstract:

The Klotho gene has been found to be involved in cardiovascular health, and epigenetic mechanism has risen as good candidates to understand the role of lifestyle factors in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intervention on the expression and DNA methylation of Klotho gene in high-fat diet induced obese mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. HFD induced obese mice were divided into secondary group (SED) and exercise group (EX) randomly. The treadmill exercise was performed in EX group for 8 weeks. The expression and DNA methylation of Klotho were evaluated by Western blot, RT-PCR, and Methylation-specific PCR. Results indicated that Klotho protein and mRNA expression were significantly lower in the SED group than those in the ND and EX groups (P<0.01), whereas no significant difference, was found between ND group and EX group (P>0.05). Furthermore, mice in the ND group and SED group showed significantly lower levels of completely methylated Klotho DNA in ND group (0%) and SED group (50%) compared with the EX group (90%), and unmethylated Klotho DNA level in ND group (80%) was significantly higher than those in the SED (0%) and EX (0%) groups. These results suggested that exercise leads to increased Klotho expression and reduced Klotho DNA methylation level in HFD induced obese mice.

Keywords: DNA methylation, exercise intervention, klotho, obese mice

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13704 Pomegranate Attenuated Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia and Dopaminergic Degeneration in MPTP Mice Models of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Mahsa Hadipour Jahromy, Sara Rezaii

Abstract:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Soon after the discovery of levodopa and its beneficial effects in chronic administration, debilitating involuntary movements observed, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) with poorly understood pathogenesis. Polyphenol-rich compounds, like pomegranate, provided neuroprotection in several animal models of brain diseases. In the present work, we investigated whether pomegranate has preventive effects following 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic degenerations and the potential to diminish LID in mice. Mice model of PD was induced by MPTP (30 mg/kg daily for five consecutive days). To induce a mice model of LID, valid PD mice were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg, i.p) for 15 days. Then the effects of chronic co-administration of pomegranate juice (20 ml/kg) with levodopa and continuing for 10 days, evaluated. Behavioural tests were performed in all groups, every other day including: Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMS), forelimb adjusting steps, cylinder, and catatonia tests. Finally, brain tissue sections were prepared to study substantia nigra changes and dopamine neuron density after treatments. With this MPTP regimen, significant movement disorders revealed in AIMS tests and there was a reduction in dopamine striatal density. Levodopa attenuates their loss caused by MPTP, however, in chronic administration, dyskinesia observed in forelimb adjusting step and cylinder tests. Besides, catatonia observed in some cases. Chronic pomegranate co-administration significantly improved LID in both tests and reduced dopaminergic loss in substantia nigra. These data indicate that pomegranate might be a good adjunct for preserving dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reducing LID in mice.

Keywords: levodopa-induced dyskinesia, MPTP, Parkinson’s disease, pomegranate

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13703 Transgenerational Impact of Intrauterine Hyperglycaemia to F2 Offspring without Pre-Diabetic Exposure on F1 Male Offspring

Authors: Jun Ren, Zhen-Hua Ming, He-Feng Huang, Jian-Zhong Sheng

Abstract:

Adverse intrauterine stimulus during critical or sensitive periods in early life, may lead to health risk not only in later life span, but also further generations. Intrauterine hyperglycaemia, as a major feature of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is a typical adverse environment for both F1 fetus and F1 gamete cells development. However, there is scare information of phenotypic difference of metabolic memory between somatic cells and germ cells exposed by intrauterine hyperglycaemia. The direct transmission effect of intrauterine hyperglycaemia per se has not been assessed either. In this study, we built a GDM mice model and selected male GDM offspring without pre-diabetic phenotype as our founders, to exclude postnatal diabetic influence on gametes, thereby investigate the direct transmission effect of intrauterine hyperglycaemia exposure on F2 offspring, and we further compared the metabolic difference of affected F1-GDM male offspring and F2 offspring. A GDM mouse model of intrauterine hyperglycemia was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin after pregnancy. Pups of GDM mother were fostered by normal control mothers. All the mice were fed with standard food. Male GDM offspring without metabolic dysfunction phenotype were crossed with normal female mice to obtain F2 offspring. Body weight, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were measured in both generations at 8 week of age. Some of F1-GDM male mice showed impaired glucose tolerance (p < 0.001), none of F1-GDM male mice showed impaired insulin sensitivity. Body weight of F1-GDM mice showed no significance with control mice. Some of F2-GDM offspring exhibited impaired glucose tolerance (p < 0.001), all the F2-GDM offspring exhibited higher HOMA-IR index (p < 0.01 of normal glucose tolerance individuals vs. control, p < 0.05 of glucose intolerance individuals vs. control). All the F2-GDM offspring exhibited higher ITT curve than control (p < 0.001 of normal glucose tolerance individuals, p < 0.05 of glucose intolerance individuals, vs. control). F2-GDM offspring had higher body weight than control mice (p < 0.001 of normal glucose tolerance individuals, p < 0.001 of glucose intolerance individuals, vs. control). While glucose intolerance is the only phenotype that F1-GDM male mice may exhibit, F2 male generation of healthy F1-GDM father showed insulin resistance, increased body weight and/or impaired glucose tolerance. These findings imply that intrauterine hyperglycaemia exposure affects germ cells and somatic cells differently, thus F1 and F2 offspring demonstrated distinct metabolic dysfunction phenotypes. And intrauterine hyperglycaemia exposure per se has a strong influence on F2 generation, independent of postnatal metabolic dysfunction exposure.

Keywords: inheritance, insulin resistance, intrauterine hyperglycaemia, offspring

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13702 Dietary Gluten and the Balance of Gut Microbiota in the Dextran Sulphate Sodium Induced Colitis Model

Authors: Austin Belfiori, Kevin Rinek, Zach Barcroft, Jennifer Berglind

Abstract:

Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health. Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To study the role of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation, the microbiome of control mice (C57BL6) given a gluten-containing standard diet versus C57BL6 mice given the gluten-free (GF) feed (n=10 in each group) was examined. All mice received the 3% DSS for 5 days. Throughout the study, feces were collected and processed for DNA extraction and MiSeq Illumina sequencing of V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Alpha and beta diversities and compositional differences at phylum and genus levels were determined in intestinal microbiota. The mice receiving the GF diet showed a significantly increased abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus at phylum level. Therefore, the gluten free diet led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations. These findings indicate a role of wheat gluten in dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota.

Keywords: gluten, colitis, microbiota, DSS, dextran sulphate sodium

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13701 Methylprednisolone Injection Did Not Inhibit Anti-Hbs Response Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Mice

Authors: P. O. Ughachukwu, P. O. Okonkwo, P. C. Unekwe, J. O. Ogamba

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Cases of poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination abound. Immunosuppression, especially from glucocorticoids, is often cited as a cause of poor antibody response and there are documented evidences of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. The study was, therefore, designed to find out if administration of glucocorticoids affects immune response to vaccination against hepatitis B in mice. Methods: Mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. Daily intramuscular methylprednisolone injections, (15 mg kg-1), were given to the test group while sterile deionized water (0.1ml) was given to control mice for 30 days. On day 6 all mice were given 2 μg (0.1ml) hepatitis B vaccine and a booster dose on day 27. On day 34, blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-HBs titres using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and the results taken as statistically significant at p value < 0.05. Results: There were positive serum anti-HBs responses in all mice groups but the differences in titres were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At the dosages and length of exposure used in this study, methylprednisolone injection did not significantly inhibit anti-HBs response in mice following immunization against hepatitis B virus. By extrapolation, methylprednisolone, when used in the usual clinical doses and duration of therapy, is not likely to inhibit immune response to hepatitis B vaccinations in man.

Keywords: anti-HBs, hepatitis B vaccine, immune response, methylprednisolone, mice

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13700 Tactile Cues and Spatial Navigation in Mice

Authors: Rubaiyea Uddin

Abstract:

The hippocampus, located in the limbic system, is most commonly known for its role in memory and spatial navigation (as cited in Brain Reward and Pathways). It maintains an especially important role in specifically episodic and declarative memory. The hippocampus has also recently been linked to dopamine, the reward pathway’s primary neurotransmitter. Since research has found that dopamine also contributes to memory consolidation and hippocampal plasticity, this neurotransmitter is potentially responsible for contributing to the hippocampus’s role in memory formation. In this experiment we tested to see the effect of tactile cues on spatial navigation for eight different mice. We used a radial arm that had one designated 'reward' arm containing sucrose. The presence or absence of bedding was our tactile cue. We attempted to see if the memory of that cue would enhance the mice’s memory of having received the reward in that arm. The results from our study showed there was no significant response from the use of tactile cues on spatial navigation on our 129 mice. Tactile cues therefore do not influence spatial navigation.

Keywords: mice, radial arm maze, memory, spatial navigation, tactile cues, hippocampus, reward, sensory skills, Alzheimer’s, neurodegnerative disease

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13699 Dual-functional Peptide With Defective Interfering Genes Protecting Mice From Avian and Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection

Authors: Hanjun Zhao

Abstract:

Limited efficacy of current antivirals and antiviral-resistant mutations impair anti-influenza treatment. Here, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antiviral effect of three defective interfering genes (DIG-3) of influenza virus. Virus replication was significantly reduced in 293T and A549 cells transfected with DIG-3. Mice transfected with DIG-3 encoded by jetPEI-vector, as prophylaxis and therapeutics against A(H7N7) virus respectively, had significantly better survivals (80% and 50%) than control mice (0%). We further developed a dual-functional peptide TAT-P1, which delivers DIG-3 with high transfection efficiency and concomitantly exerts antiviral activity by preventing endosomal acidification. TAT-P1/DIG-3 was more effective than jetPEI/DIG-3 in treating A(H7N7) or A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice and showed potent prophylactic protection on A(H7N7) or A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice. The addition of P1 peptide, preventing endosomal acidification, could enhance the protection of TAT-P1/DIG-3 on A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice. Dual-functional TAT-P1 with DIG-3 can effectively protect or treat mice infected by avian and seasonal influenza virus infection.

Keywords: antiviral peptide, dual-functional peptide, defective interfering genes, influenza virus

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13698 Neutralizing Antibody Response against Inactivated FMDV Type O/IRN/2010 Vaccine by Electron Beam in BALB/C Mice

Authors: F. Motamedi Sedeh, Sh. Chahardoli, H. Mahravani, N. Harzandi, M. Sotoodeh, S. K. Shafaei

Abstract:

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most economically important disease of livestock. The aim of the study is inactivation of FMD virus type O/IRN/2010 by electron beam without antigenic changes as electron radio vaccine. The BALB/C mice were divided into three groups, each group containing five mice. Three groups of mice were inoculated with conventional vaccine and electron beam irradiated vaccine FMDV type O/IRN/2010 subcutaneously three weeks interval, the final group as negative control. The sera were separated from the blood samples of mice 14 days after last vaccination and tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV type O/IRN/2010 by serum neutralization test. The Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) was carried out and antibody titration was calculated according to the Kraber protocol. The results of the SNT in three groups of mice showed the titration of neutralizing antibody in the vaccinated mice groups; electron radio vaccine and conventional vaccine were significantly higher than negative control group (P<0.05). Therefore, the radio vaccine is a good candidate to immunize animals against FMDV type O/IRN/2010.

Keywords: FMDV type O/IRN/2010, neutralizing antibody response, electron beam, radio vaccine

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13697 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Specific Bacteriophage Isolation from Sewage Treatment Plant and in vivo Analysis of Phage Efficiency in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Pratibha Goyal, Nupur Mathur, Anuradha Singh

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance is the worldwide threat to human health in this century. Excessive use of antibiotic after their discovery in 1940 makes certain bacteria to become resistant against antibiotics. Most common antibiotic-resistant bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Among all Staphylococcus resistant strain called Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several lives threatening infection in human commonly found in the hospital environment. Our study aimed to isolate bacteriophage against MRSA from the hospital sewage treatment plant and to analyze its efficiency In Vivo in Swiss albino mice model. Sewage sample for the isolation of bacteriophages was collected from SDMH hospital sewage treatment plant in Jaipur. Bacteriophages isolated by the use of enrichment technique and after characterization, isolated phages used to determine phage treatment efficiency in mice. Mice model used to check the safety and suitability of phage application in human need which in turn directly support the use of natural bacteriophage rather than synthetic chemical to kill pathogens. Results show the plaque formation in-vitro and recovery of MRSA infected mice during the experiment. Favorable lytic efficiency determination of MRSA and Salmonella presents a natural way to treat lethal infections caused by Multidrug-resistant bacteria by using their natural host-pathogen relationship.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, pathogens, phage therapy, Salmonella typhi

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13696 Investigating the Dose Effect of Electroacupuncture on Mice Inflammatory Pain Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Shen, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported effective for many kinds of pain and is a common treatment for acute or chronic pain. However, to date, there are limited studies examining the effect of acupuncture dosage. In our experiment, after injecting mice with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to induce inflammatory pain, two groups of mice were administered two different 15 min EA treatments at 2Hz. The first group received EA at a single acupuncture point (ST36, Zusanli) in both legs (two points), whereas the second group received two acupuncture points in both legs (four points) and the analgesic effect was compared. It was found that double points (ST36, Zusanli and SP6, Sanyinjiao) were significantly superior to single points (ST36, Zusanli) when evaluated using the electronic von Frey Test (mechanic) and Hargreaves’ Test (thermal). Through this study, it is expected more novel physiological mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia will be discovered.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, dose effect, electroacupuncture, pain control

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13695 Antiasthmatic Effect of Kankasava in OVA-Induced Asthma Mouse Model

Authors: Bharti Ahirwar

Abstract:

The main object of this study was to evaluate the effect of kankasava on OVA-induced asthma in mouse model. Present study has demonstrated that kankasava exhibited an antiasthmatic effect by attenuated AHR and reducing level of IgE, IL-5, and IL-13, in both serum and BALF in OVA induced asthmatic mice. Effect of kankasav on airway responsiveness was obtained by monitoring the enhanced pen value . Kankasava significantly reduced AHR can be explained, in part, by reduction in both IgE overexoression and cytokine levels. Kankasava significantly decreased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF indicate that it may suppress the excess activity of T-cells and Th2 cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and consequently restore the Th1/Th2 imbalance of the immune system. In summary, we hypothesize that kankasava effectively suppressed elevations in IgE and cytokines levels, AHR, and mucus overproduction in mice with OVA-induced asthma suggested kankasava could be effective in immunological and pharmacological modulation of allergic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, ayurveda, kankasava, cytokine

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