Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 117

Search results for: high-density lipoprotein

117 Low Density Lipoprotein: The Culprit in the Development of Obesity

Authors: Ojiegbe Ikenna Nathan

Abstract:

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it leads to reduced life expectancy and or increased health problems. Obesity as a worldwide problem is seen clustered in the families and it moves from generation to generation. It causes some disabilities, mortality and morbidity if left unattended to. The predisposing factors to obesity are either genetic or environment in origin. Nevertheless, the main predisposing factor to obesity is the excessive consumption of food rich in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) such as organ meats, saturated fats etc. This low-density lipoprotein causes an increase in adipose tissue and complicates to obesity. There are varieties of obesity which one needs to take appropriate measures to avoid; such as android, gynoid and morbid obesity. Nonetheless, studies have shown that there is hope for the obese individuals, despite the cause, type and degree of their obesity. This is through the use of the different available treatment measures which increase in physical activities, caloric restrictions, drug therapy and surgical intervention.

Keywords: low-density, lipoprotein, culprit, obesity

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116 Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) Arylesterase Activity and Apolipoprotein B: Predictors of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Pankaj Kumar, Shraddha Vilas More

Abstract:

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as myocardial cell death due to prolonged ischemia as a consequence of atherosclerosis. TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), Apo B, and lipoprotein(a) was found as atherogenic factors while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was anti-atherogenic. Methods and Results: The study group consists of 40, MI subjects and 40 healthy individuals in control group. PON 1 Arylesterase activity (ARE) was measured by using phenylacetate. Phenotyping was done by double substrate method, serum AOPP by using chloramine T and Apo B by Turbidimetric immunoassay. PON 1 ARE activities were significantly lower (p< 0.05) and AOPPs & Apo B were higher in MI subjects (p> 0.05). Trimodal distribution of QQ, QR, and RR phenotypes of study population showed no significant difference among cases and controls (p> 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed independent association of TC, HDL, LDL, AOPP, Apo B, and PON 1 ARE activity with MI and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI. Conclusions: Decrease in PON 1 ARE activity in MI subjects than in controls suggests increased oxidative stress in MI which is reflected by significantly increased AOPP and Apo B. PON1 polymorphism of QQ, QR and RR showed no significant difference in protection against MI. Univariate and multiple binary logistic regression showed PON1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI.

Keywords: advanced oxidation protein product, apolipoprotein B, PON 1 arylesterase activity, myocardial infarction

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115 Monocytic Paraoxonase 2 (PON 2) Lactonase Activity Is Related to Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Pankaj Kumar, Shraddha V. More

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Background: Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), Apo B, and lipoprotein(a) was found as atherogenic factors while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was anti-atherogenic. Methods and Results: The study group consists of 40 MI subjects as cases and 40 healthy as controls. Monocytic PON 2 Lactonase (LACT) activity was measured by using Dihydrocoumarine (DHC) as substrate. Phenotyping was done by method of Mogarekar MR et al, serum AOPP by modified method of Witko-Sarsat V et al and Apo B by Turbidimetric immunoassay. PON 2 LACT activities were significantly lower (p< 0.05) and AOPPs & Apo B were higher in MI subjects (p> 0.05). Trimodal distribution of QQ, QR & RR phenotypes of study population showed no significant difference among cases and controls (p> 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed independent association of TC, HDL, LDL, AOPP, Apo B, and PON 2 LACT activity with MI and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 2 LACT activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI. Conclusions- Decrease in PON 2 LACT activity in MI subjects than in controls suggests increased oxidative stress in MI which is reflected by significantly increased AOPP and Apo B. PON 1 polymorphism of QQ, QR and RR showed no significant difference in protection against MI. Univariate and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 2 LACT activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI.

Keywords: advanced oxidation protein products, apolipoprotein-B, myocardial infarction, paraoxonase 2 lactonase

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114 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef, Antonio Brunetti

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Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, lipids, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

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113 Calcitriol Improves Plasma Lipoprotein Profile by Decreasing Plasma Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride in Hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian Hamsters

Authors: Xiaobo Wang, Zhen-Yu Chen

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Higher plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is protective. Vitamin D is well-known for its regulatory role in calcium homeostasis. Its potential important role in cardiovascular disease has recently attracted much attention. This study was conducted to investigate effects of different dosage of calcitriol on plasma lipoprotein profile and the underlying mechanism. Sixty male Syrian Golden hamsters were randomly divided into 6 groups: no-cholesterol control (NCD), high-cholesterol control (HCD), groups with calcitriol supplementation at 10/20/40/80ng/kg body weight (CA, CB, CC, CD), respectively. Calcitriol in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil was delivered to four experimental groups via oral gavage every other day, while NCD and HCD received MCT oil in the equivalent amount. NCD hamsters were fed with non-cholesterol diet while other five groups were maintained on diet containing 0.2% cholesterol to induce a hypercholesterolemic condition. The treatment lasts for 6 weeks followed by sample collection after hamsters sacrificed. Four experimental groups experienced a reduction in average food intake around 11% compared to HCD with slight decrease in body weight (not exceeding 10%). This reduction reflects on the deceased relative weights of testis, epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma calcitriol levels were measured and was corresponding to oral gavage. At the end of week 6, lipoprotein profiles were improved with calcitriol supplementation with TC, non-HDL-C and plasma triglyceride (TG) decreased in a dose-dependent manner (TC: r=0.373, p=0.009, non-HDL-C: r=0.479, p=0.001, TG: r=0.405, p=0.004). Since HDL-C of four experiment groups showed no significant difference compared to HCD, the ratio of nHDL-C to HDL-C and HDL-C to TC had been restored in a dose-dependent manner. For hamsters receiving the highest level of calcitriol (80ng/kg) showed a reduction of TC by 11.5%, nHDL-C by 24.1% and TG by 31.25%. Little difference was found among six groups on the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation or contraction of thoracic aorta. To summarize, calcitriol supplementation in hamster at maximum 80ng/kg body weight for 6 weeks lead to an overall improvement in plasma lipoprotein profile with decreased TC and TG level. The molecular mechanism of its effects is under investigation.

Keywords: cholesterol, vitamin D, calcitriol, hamster

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112 Plasma Lipid Profiles and Atherogenic Indices of Rats Fed Raw and Processed Jack Fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seeds Diets at Different Concentrations

Authors: O. E. Okafor, L. U. S. Ezeanyika, C. G. Nkwonta, C. J. Okonkwo

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The effect of processing on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed Artocarpus heterophyllus seed diets at different concentrations were investigated. Fifty five rats were used for this study, they were divided into eleven groups of five rats each (one control group and ten test groups), the test groups were fed raw, boiled, roasted, fermented, and soaked diets at 10 % and 40% concentrations. The study lasted for thirty five days. The diets led to significant decrease (p < 0.05) in plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol of rats fed 10% and 40% concentrations of the diets, and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 40% concentrations of the test diets. The diets also produced decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), cardiac risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherogenic coefficient (AC) at 40% concentrations except the soaked group that showed slight elevation of LDL, CRR, AC and AIP at 40% concentration. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds could be beneficial to health because of its ability to increase plasma HDL and reduce plasma LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic indices at higher diet concentration.

Keywords: artocarpus heterophyllus, atherogenic indices, concentrations, lipid profile

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111 Characterization of a Novel Hemin-Binding Protein, HmuX, in Porphyromonas gingivalis W50

Authors: Kah Yan How, Peh Fern Ong, Keang Peng Song

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Porphyromonas gingivalis is a black-pigmented, anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium that is important in the progression of chronic and severe periodontitis. This organism has an essential requirement for iron, which is usually obtained from hemin, using specific membrane receptors, proteases, and lipoproteins. In this study, we report the characterization of a novel 24 kDa hemin-binding protein, HmuX, in P. gingivalis W50. The hmuX gene is 651 bp long which encodes for a 217 amino acid protein. HmuX was found to be identical at the C-terminus to the previously reported HmuY protein, differing by an additional 74 amino acids at the N-terminus. Recombinant HmuX demonstrated hemin-binding ability by LDS- PAGE and TMBZ staining. Sequence analysis of HmuX revealed a putative lipoprotein attachment site, suggesting its possible role as a lipoprotein. HmuX was also localized to the outer cell surface by transmission electron microscopy. Northern analysis showed hmuX to be transcribed as a single gene and that hmuX mRNA was tightly regulated by the availability of extra-cellular hemin. P. gingivalis isogenic mutant deficient in hmuX gene exhibited significant growth retardation under hemin-limited conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that HmuX is a hemin-binding lipoprotein, important in hemin utilization for the growth of P. gingivalis.

Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontal diseases, HmuX, protein characterization

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110 Lipid Profile of Civil Servants in Abeokuta Ogun State Nigeria

Authors: Sunday Sedodo Nupo, Clara Berstien Oguntona, Babatunde Oguntona, Oluseyi Akinloye, P. A. Olunusi Adeboye

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Cardiovascular diseases are now becoming dominant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study investigated the lipid profile of civil servants. A cross-sectional study was carried out among randomly selected 202 male and 298 female civil servants in Abeokuta Ogun state. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on history of non-communicable diseases and physical activity pattern of the respondents. The blood pressures of the subjects were measured and classified using World Health Organization criteria. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Ethical approval was obtained from Ogun State Ministry of Health. Data collected were analysed using Statistical package for social science version 17.1. Results showed that majority (76%) of the subjects were within the age range of 20 - 40 years, 75% earned between N58,500 - N98,000 monthly and 68% were sedentary. The mean energy intake of men and women were 3942±38 kcal and 2791±3 kcal respectively, while the protein intake for men was 65±49 g/day and 54.28±40 g/day for women. Desirable TC level (<200 mg/dl) was found in 80% of the selected subjects while the normal TG (<150 mg/dl) and LDL (<129 mg/dl) was found in 95% and 90% subjects respectively. The mean TC was 78.91±11 mg/dl and 62.69±9 mg/dl in men and women respectively. The study showed that most of the subjects had normal lipid in terms of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

Keywords: high density lipoprotein, morbidity, mortality, triglycerides

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109 The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens

Authors: W. Loongyai, N. Saengsawang, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, C. Bunchasak

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Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens had high growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, whereas LPL gene expression did not differ between breeds.

Keywords: lipoprotein lipase gene, Betong (KU line), broiler, abdominal fat, gene expression

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108 Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipaemic Effects of Aqueous Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Extract on Alloxan Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

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Extracts of various plants material capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models and their effects confirmed. Neem or Margose (Azadirachta Indica) is an indigenous plant believed to have antiviral, antifungal, antidiabetic and many other properties. This paper deals with a comparative study of the effect of aqueous Neem leaves extract alone or in combination with glibenclamide on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Administration of crude aqueous Neem extract (CANE) alone (1.5 ml/kg/day), as well as the combination of CANE (1.5 ml/kg/day) with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg/day) significantly, decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum lipids, blood glucose and lipoprotein VLDL(very low-density lipoproteins) and LDL(low-density lipoproteins) but significantly increased (P<0.05) the concentration of HDL(high-density lipoprotein). The change was observed significantly greater when the treatment was given in combination of CANE and glibenclamid than with CANE alone.

Keywords: neem, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cholesterol

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107 A Computational Approach to Screen Antagonist’s Molecule against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c)

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

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Tuberculosis (TB) caused by bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues to take a disturbing toll on human life and healthcare facility worldwide. The global burden of TB remains enormous. The alarming rise of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis calls for an increase in research efforts towards the development of new target specific therapeutics against diverse strains of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, the discovery of new molecular scaffolds targeting new drug sites should be a priority for a workable plan for fighting resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb non-acylated lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) has a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist actions that depend on its association with triacylated glycolipids binding specifically with the hydrophobic pocket of Mtb LprG lipoprotein. The detection of a glycolipid carrier function has important implications for the role of LprG in Mycobacterial physiology and virulence. Therefore, considering the pivotal role of glycolipids in mycobacterial physiology and host-pathogen interactions, designing competitive antagonist (chemotherapeutics) ligands that competitively bind to glycolipid binding domain in LprG lipoprotein, will lead to inhibition of tuberculosis infection in humans. In this study, a unified approach involving ligand-based virtual screening protocol USRCAT (Ultra Shape Recognition) software and molecular docking studies using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.2 using the X-ray crystal structure of Mtb LprG protein was implemented. The docking results were further confirmed by DSX (DrugScore eXtented), a robust program to evaluate the binding energy of ligands bound to the Ligand binding domain of the Mtb LprG lipoprotein. The ligand, which has the higher hypothetical affinity, also has greater negative value. Based on the USRCAT, Lipinski’s values and molecular docking results, [(2R)-2,3-di(hexadecanoyl oxy)propyl][(2S,3S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-2,6-bis[[(2R,3S,4S,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6 (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxy]cyclohexyl] phosphate (XPX) was confirmed as a promising drug-like lead compound (antagonist) binding specifically to the hydrophobic domain of LprG protein with affinity greater than that of PIM2 (agonist of LprG protein) with a free binding energy of -9.98e+006 Kcal/mol and binding affinity of -132 Kcal/mol, respectively. A further, in vitro assay of this compound is required to establish its potency in inhibiting molecular evasion mechanism of MTB within the infected host macrophages. These results will certainly be helpful in future anti-TB drug discovery efforts against Multidrug-Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Keywords: antagonist, agonist, binding affinity, chemotherapeutics, drug-like, multi drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB), RV1411c protein, toll-like receptor (TLR2)

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106 Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Effect of Leaf Essential Oil of Citrus sinensis in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omolola Soji-Omoniwa, Babasoji Omoniwa

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The hypolipidemic effect of leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis in alloxan–induced diabetic rats was evaluated. Forty albino rats (150–200 g) were randomly selected into 4 groups of 10 rats each, representing Normal Control, Diabetic Control, Diabetic treated with 14.2 mg/kg body weight Metformin and Diabetic treated with 110 mg/kg body weight leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of single dose alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight). The leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis was administered every other day to the Diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. The effects of leaf essential oil on High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Trigylcerides and Cholesterol were evaluated. A significant reduction (p <0.05) in LDL, Triglycerides and cholesterol levels and a significant increase (p<0 .05) in HDL was observed. Leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis possesses hypolipidemic properties.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, Diabetes mellitus, hypolipidemic, leaf essential oil

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105 Cholesterol Modulating Properties of a Proprietary Extract from Phyllanthus spp on Hypercholesteraemic Mice Models

Authors: Anne R. Fernandez, Mohammad Akmal Adnan, Tanes Prasat, Indu Bala Jaganath, Brian Kirby, Kamalan Jeevaratnam

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Introduction: Plants from the Phyllantus genus have been used indigenously for the treatment of a variety of ailments for generations. A cocktail of phytonutrients prepared from a plant of the genus Phyllanthus has demonstrated the potential to alleviate ailments which include cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we investigated the cholesterol modulating properties of a highly purified proprietary extract of a Phyllanthus species in hypercholesteraemic mice. Methods: Hypercholesteraemia was induced in ICR mice by ad-libitum feeding of high fat diet daily for six weeks. The mice were then divided into 3 groups and force fed with 10mg/kg of atorvastatin, 200mg/kg of the proprietary Phyllanthus extract and water respectively. Blood samples were taken at the end of fourth week of treatment by a tail prick. At the end of the eighth week of treatment, mice were sacrificed and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides were measured. Results: The mean cholesterol levels in the mice fed with high fat diet were 44% (p < 0.05) higher than the mice on normal diet thus validating the model developed. The plasma HDL was significantly elevated in mice treated with the formulation (p ˂ 0.05) in comparison to the statin-treated and control mice. The total cholesterol levels in the mice treated with the proprietary extract were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 4 weeks of treatment in comparison to the mice treated with atorvastatin. By the end of 8 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the cholesterol levels of the mice in all groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that this proprietary extract from Phyllanthus species has the beneficial effect of reducing total cholesterol level more rapidly than atorvastatin and increasing HDL levels. Since an increase in the HDL cholesterol can reduce the risk of heart disease, this proprietary extract is a useful and safe therapeutic option compared to atorvastatin.

Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, hypercholesteraemic mice model, ICR mice, Phyllanthus spp.

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104 Effect of Yogurt on Blood and Liver Lipids Lavel in Rats

Authors: Nora Mohammed Al-Kehayez

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This present investigation was performed to study the effect of low fat yogurt on serum and liver lipids profile of male albino rats (weighing 100 g+or- 5 gram) when fed balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets and given yogurt ad libitum compared with control groups. Rats were divided into 4 groups, each group contains 6 rats. The groups of rats were fed as follows: Group(1) was fed balanced diet + water(control). Group(2) was fed balanced diet + low fat yogurt. Group(3) was fed high fat high cholesterol diet + water(Control). Group(4) was fed high fat high cholesterol diet + low fat yogurt. The obtained results could be summarized as follows: When rats were given low fat yogurt and fed balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets a significantly greater weight gains resulted in comparison with the control groups given water instead of yogurt. The data on the weights of liver and heart expressed' as percentage increased the body weight in case of rats which were fed balanced diet with low fat yogurt while in case of rats which were fed high fat high cholesterol diet with low fat yogurt the increment scenes to be less. Results of serum cholesterol levels in serum of rats were given balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets and consuming low fat yogurt was showed a significant reduction values. However the low fat yogurt produced the highest significant decrease values. The values of serum cholesterol go hand in hand with serum lipoprotein fractions in rats given low fat yogurt with both balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets. An increase of high density lipoprotein HDL-C and a decrease of low density lipoprotein LDL-C values were obtained. When rats ingested low fat yogurt a significant decrease in serum and liver triglycerides content was obtained wether with balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets. Rats consuming high fat high cholesterol diets with water showed a significant increase in liver total lipids, total cholesterol and phospholipides levels in comparison with the same liver parameters in rats given balanced diet with water. Supplement with low fat yogurt significantly suppressed these effects.

Keywords: yogurt, lipids profile, albino, rats

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103 Effects of Four Dietary Oils on Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

Authors: A. F. Agboola, B. R. O. Omidiwura, A. Oyeyemi, E. A. Iyayi, A. S. Adelani

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Dietary cholesterol has elicited the most public interest as it relates with coronary heart disease. Thus, humans have been paying more attention to health, thereby reducing consumption of cholesterol enriched food. Egg is considered as one of the major sources of human dietary cholesterol. However, an alternative way to reduce the potential cholesterolemic effect of eggs is to modify the fatty acid composition of the yolk. The effect of palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO), sesame seed oil (SSO) and fish oil (FO) supplementation in the diets of layers on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, egg production and egg quality parameters were evaluated in a 42-day feeding trial. One hundred and five Isa Brown laying hens of 34 weeks of age were randomly distributed into seven groups of five replicates and three birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Seven corn-soybean basal diets (BD) were formulated: BD+No oil (T1), BD+1.5% PO (T2), BD+1.5% SO (T3), BD+1.5% SSO (T4), BD+1.5% FO (T5), BD+0.75% SO+0.75% FO (T6) and BD+0.75% SSO+0.75% FO (T7). Five eggs were randomly sampled at day 42 from each replicate to assay for the cholesterol, fatty acid profile of egg yolk and egg quality assessment. Results showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) differences observed in production performance, egg cholesterol and egg quality parameters except for yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, egg shape index, haugh unit, and yolk colour. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels of egg yolk across the treatments. However, diets had effect (P<0.05) on TAG (triacylglycerol) and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) of the egg yolk. The highest TAG (603.78 mg/dl) and VLDL values (120.76 mg/dl) were recorded in eggs of hens on T4 (1.5% sesame seed oil) and was similar to those on T3 (1.5% soybean oil), T5 (1.5% fish oil) and T6 (0.75% soybean oil + 0.75% fish oil). However, results revealed a significant (P<0.05) variations on eggs’ summation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary oils could be included in layers’ diets to produce designer eggs low in cholesterol and high in PUFA especially omega-3 fatty acids.

Keywords: dietary oils, egg cholesterol, egg fatty acid profile, egg quality parameters

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102 Methylglyoxal Induced Glycoxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein: A Biophysical Perspective and Its Role in Diabetes and Periodontitis

Authors: Minhal Abidi, Moinuddin

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) induced metabolic abnormalities causes oxidative stress which leads to the pathogenesis of complications associated with diabetes like retinopathy, nephropathy periodontitis etc. Combination of glycation and oxidation 'glycoxidation' occurs when oxidative reactions affect the early state of glycation products. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is prone to glycoxidative attack by sugars and methylglyoxal (MGO) being a strong glycating agent may have severe impact on its structure and consequent role in diabetes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL1β and TNFα produced by the action of gram negative bacteria in periodontits (PD) can in turn lead to insulin resistance. This work discusses modifications to LDL as a result of glycoxidation. The changes in the protein molecule have been characterized by various physicochemical techniques and the immunogenicity of the modified molecules was also evaluated as they presented neo-epitopes. Binding of antibodies present in diabetes patients to the native and glycated LDL has been evaluated. Role of modified epitopes in the generation of antibodies in diabetes and periodontitis has been discussed. The structural perturbations induced in LDL were analyzed by UV–Vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy, molecular docking studies, thermal denaturation studies, Thioflavin T assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, comet assay. MALDI-TOF, ketoamine moieties, carbonyl content and HMF content were also quantitated in native and glycated LDL. IL1β and TNFα levels were also measured in the type 2 DM and PD patients. We report increased carbonyl content, ketoamine moieties and HMF content in glycated LDL as compared to native analogue. The results substantiate that in hyperglycemic state MGO modification of LDL causes structural perturbations making the protein antigenic which could obstruct normal physiological functions and might contribute in the development of secondary complications in diabetic patients like periodontitis.

Keywords: advanced glycation end products, diabetes mellitus, glycation, glycoxidation, low density lipoprotein, periodontitis

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101 Comparative Study of Serum Lipid Profile of Obese and Non-Obese Students of Al-Jouf University

Authors: Mohammad Najmuddin Khan, Mohamad Khaleel Albalwi

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The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in past several decades. Hormonal and genetic factors are rarely the cause of childhood obesity. Because obese adult may suffer life-long physical and emotional consequences, it is imperative to discuss prevention with parents during well-child examinations. Purpose of the study was to compare the serum lipid profile of obese and non-obese males. Twenty two male students were selected from Al-Jouf University. Their age ranged from 19 to 29. They were divided into groups. One group (N=15) having more than 20% fat was considered as obese group, another group (N=7) was considered as non-obese group. Fasting blood samples were analysed for blood cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Independent test was applied to compare mean difference. In obese group, significantly higher cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. On the contrary, obese group had significantly lower HDL-C concentration than the non-obese group. The adult obese has relatively larger changes in serum lipids at any given level of obesity. On the average, higher amount of fat makes it more likely for an individual to be dyslipidemic and to express elements of the metabolic syndrome. Increased triglycerides level in obese impaired lipolysis which reduced the HDL-C concentrations.

Keywords: obesity, serum lipid profile, Al-Jouf, HDL, LDL

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100 Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Evaluation of Serum Lipid Profiles in Urban and Rural Population of Sindh

Authors: Mohsin Ali Baloch, Saira Baloch

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of serum lipid profiles in Urban and Rural Population of Sindh, to indicate the existing risk of cardiovascular diseases. Material and Methods: Study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, in the cities of Jamshoro and Hyderabad of Sindh. Blood samples from 300 healthy individuals were collected in fasting condition, out them 100 were from rural population, 100 were urban while 100 were used as control group. The biochemistry of these samples was obtained by the analysis of total Cholesterol, high density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) and Triglycerides using kit method on Analyzer Clinical Chemistry. Results and Conclusion: Serum levels of total cholesterol, Triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were significantly raised in the rural and urban males, whereas HDL cholesterol was decreased as compared to the Healthy controls that indicated significant risk of CVD. Urban population was with more risk of CVD and male gender in both groups was at more risk. The worst lipid profile in gender wise distribution was observed in male gender of urban population with highest Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio while female gender also shown moderate risk of CVD with highest LDL/HDL Ratio.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, lipid profiles, urban and rural population, LDL/HDL Ratio

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99 Development and Validation of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Faiz N. K. Yusufi, Aquil Ahmed, Jamal Ahmad

Abstract:

Diabetes in India is growing at an alarming rate and the complications caused by it need to be controlled. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the complications that will be discussed for prediction in this study. India has the second most number of diabetes patients in the world. To the best of our knowledge, there is no CHD risk score for Indian type 2 diabetes patients. Any form of CHD has been taken as the event of interest. A sample of 750 was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of CHD. Predictive risk scores of CHD events are designed by cox proportional hazard regression. Model calibration and discrimination is assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Overfitting and underfitting of the model is checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Youden’s index is used to choose the optimal cut off point from the scores. Five year probability of CHD is predicted by both survival function and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores for CHD developed can be calculated by doctors and patients for self-control of diabetes. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be implemented as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, cox proportional hazard regression, ROC curve, type 2 diabetes Mellitus

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98 Identifying Diabetic Retinopathy Complication by Predictive Techniques in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Faiz N. K. Yusufi, Aquil Ahmed, Jamal Ahmad

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Predicting the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Indian type 2 diabetes patients is immensely necessary. India, being the second largest country after China in terms of a number of diabetic patients, to the best of our knowledge not a single risk score for complications has ever been investigated. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication and is the topmost reason for visual impairment across countries. Any type or form of DR has been taken as the event of interest, be it mild, back, grade I, II, III, and IV DR. A sample was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of DR. Cox proportional hazard regression is used to design risk scores for the prediction of retinopathy. Model calibration and discrimination are assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Overfitting and underfitting of the model are checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Optimal cut off point is chosen by Youden’s index. Five-year probability of DR is predicted by both survival function, and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores developed can be applied by doctors and patients themselves for self evaluation. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be applied as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients. This provides immense benefit in real application of DR prediction in T2DM.

Keywords: Cox proportional hazard regression, diabetic retinopathy, ROC curve, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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97 Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Pleiogynium timorense Seeds and Identification of Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Ataa A. Said, Elsayed A. Abuotabl, Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Khaled Y. Mohamed

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleiogynium timorense (DC.) Leenh (Anacardiaceae) seeds as well as to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds. Antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated by measuring the effect of two dose levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) of 70% methanol extract of Pleiogynium timorense seeds on blood glucose level when administered 45 minutes before glucose loading. In addition, the effect of the plant extract on the lipid profile was determined by measuring serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.The results showed that the methanolic extract of the seeds significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose,(TL), (TC), (TG) and (LDL-C) but no significant effect on (HDL-C) comparing with control group. Furthermore, four phenolic compound were isolated which were identified as; catechin, gallic acid, para methoxy benzaldehyde and pyrogallol which were isolated for the first time from the plant. In addition sulphur -containing compound (sulpholane) was isolated for the first time from the plant and from the family. To our knowledge, this is the first study about antihyperglycaemicand antihyperlipidemic activities of the seeds of Pleiogyniumtimorense and its bioactive compounds. So, the methanolic extract of the seeds of Pleiogynium timorense could be a step towards the development of new antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic drugs.

Keywords: antihyperglycaemic, bioactive compounds, phenolic, Pleiogynium timorense, seeds

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96 Hepatoprotective Effects of Parsley, Basil, and Chicory Aqueous Extracts against Dexamethasone-Induced in Experimental Rats

Authors: Hanan A. Soliman, Mohamed A. El-Desouky, Walaa G. Hozayen, Rasha R. Ahmed, Amal K . Khaliefa

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats.

Keywords: antioxidants, dexamethasone, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia

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95 Blood Lipid Profile and Liver Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Rat Fed with Different Concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal

Authors: Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, A. Aminah

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the blood lipid profile and liver lipid peroxidation in normal rat fed with different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. Thirty six Sprague Dawley male rats each weighing between 180-200g were randomly divided into two groups. Each group contains eighteen rats and were divided into three groups of 6 rats per group. The rats were fed ad libitum with commercial rat’s feed and tap water containing different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal (3% and 6%) for 4 weeks. The results at 4 weeks showed that there was no significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) between the control group and treated groups while the results for the high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) showed a significant decrease (P≥0.05) at the 3% and 6% of gum arabic treated groups compared to control group. There was a significant increase (P≥0.05) in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) with 3% and 6% of gum Arabic (GA) groups compared to the control group. The study indicated that there was no significant (p≤0.05) effect on TC and TG but there was significant effect (P≥0.05) on HDL-C and LDL-C in blood lipid profile of normal rat. The results showed that after 4 weeks of treatment the malondialdehyde (MDA) value in rat fed with 6% of A. seyal group was significantly higher (P≥0.05) than control or other treated groups of A. seyal and A. senegal studied. Thus, the two species of gum arabic did not have beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Acacia senegal, acacia seyal, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA)

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94 Using Plant Oils in Total Mixed Ration on Voluntary Feed Intake and Blood Metabolize of Crossbred Thai Native X American Brahman Cattle

Authors: Wantanee Polviset, N. Prakobsaeng, N. Wetchakama, C. Yuangklang

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of soybean oil, palm oil and sunflower oil supplementations in total mixed ration on voluntary feed intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility and blood metabolize in crossbred Thai native x American Brahman Cattle. Three Thai native x American Brahman cattle, one-year-old with liveweight of 116±22.59 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 3 x 3 latin square design. Each period of feeding lasted for 21 days to receive three dietary treatments were soybean oil, palm oil and sunflower oil supplementation at 5%. During the experimental periods, all cattle were fed a diet with total mixed ration containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 40:60 and rice straw was used as a roughage source. Based on the present study, the results revealed that voluntary feed intake (kgDM/head/day) and %BW DM intake were not affected (P>0.05), whereas percentage of dry matter digestibility was greater with the soybean oil supplementation (P<0.01). It was also found that blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein in plasma were similar among treatments. Based on this study, supplementing 5% soybean oil in total mixed ration (TMR) diets was suitable in beef cattle without any effect dry matter digestibility and blood metabolites.

Keywords: plant oils, feed intake, blood metabolize, crossbred Thai native x Brahman cattle

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93 Exploration of the Possible Link Between Emotional Problems and Cholesterol Levels Among Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Keith T.S. Tung, H.W. Tsang, Frederick K. Ho, Patrick Ip

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Evidence shows that ADHD and mood problems such as depression and anxiety often co-occur and yet not everyone with ADHD reported elevated emotional problems. Given that cholesterol is essential for healthy brain development including the regions governing emotion regulation, reports found lower cholesterol levels in patients with major depressive disorder and those with suicide attempt behavior compared to healthy subjects. This study explored whether ADHD adolescents experienced more emotional problems and whether emotional problems correlated with cholesterol levels in these adolescents. This study used a portion of data from the longitudinal cohort study which was designed to investigate the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2018/19, parents of 300 adolescents (average age: 12.57+/-0.49 years) were asked to rate their children’s emotional problems and report whether their children had doctor-diagnosed psychiatric diseases. We further collected blood samples from 263 children to study their lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol). Regression analyses were performed to test the relationships between variables of interest. Among 300 children, 27 (9%) had ADHD diagnosis. Analysis based on overall sample found no association between ADHD and emotional problems, but when investigating the relationship by gender, there was a significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on emotional problems (p=0.037), with ADHD males displaying more emotional problems than ADHD females. Further analyses based on 263 children (21 with ADHD diagnosis) found significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on total cholesterol (p=0.038) and low LDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.013) after adjusting for the child’s physical disease history. Specifically, ADHD males had significantly lower total cholesterol and low lipoprotein-cholesterol levels than ADHD females. In ADHD males, more emotional problems were associated with lower LDL-cholesterol levels (B = -4.26, 95%CI (-7.46, -1.07), p=0.013). We found preliminary support for the association between more emotional problems and lower cholesterol levels in ADHD children, especially among males. Although larger prospective studies are needed to substantiate these claims, the evidence highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle to keep cholesterol levels in normal range which can have positive effects on physical and mental health.

Keywords: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cholesterol, emotional problems, adolescents

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92 Effect of Different Levels of Dried Citrus Sinensis Peel on Blood Parameters of Broilers

Authors: Abbas Ebrahimi, Zohreh Pourhossein, Nariman Miraalami

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The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dried citrus sinensis peel (DCSP) on the blood parameters of broilers. Four hundred Ross 308 strain day old broiler in a completely randomized design with five treatments (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 20 chicks) were categorized. Each treatment used either regulatory diet including 1.5% and 3% DCSP in the base diet and in two periods of 1st to 21st day and 1st to 42nd day and base diet without any additive for six weeks. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was conducted by Duncan method. The results determined that using different level of DCSP has significant effects on blood plasma parameters (P<0.05). Cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) at the rearing period was significantly influenced by experimental treatments (P<0.05). However, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was not affected by experimental treatments (P>0.05). The lowest rate of blood cholesterol was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood cholesterol were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood triglyceride was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood triglyceride were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood alkaline phosphatase was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood alkaline phosphatase were concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 21st day.

Keywords: blood parameters, broilers, dried citrus sinensis peel, regulatory diet

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91 Study on the Effect Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extracts on Rat Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

Authors: Asmaa F. Hamouda, Randa M Shrourou

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Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) constitute apportion of regular human diet. The effect of Cabbage(CE) and Ginger extracts(GE) separately on liver nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(T.G), high density lipoprotein(HDL cholesterol), low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) in rats treated and untreated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied. The levels of NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, LDLand TSH showed an elevation and decline in HDL, T3, and T4 in rats treated with CCl4 as compared to control. Treatment of rats with GE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration improved NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, HDL, LDL, TSH, T3, T4 as compared to CCl4, indicates that GE improve thyroid function and reduced oxidative stress as well as injuries induced by CCl4. Treatment of rats with CE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration did not improved in the thyroid hormones and lipid profile levels as compared to CCl4. These findings suggest that ginger treatment exerts a protective effect on metabolic disorders by decreasing oxidative stress.

Keywords: liver injuries, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), ginger (Zingiber officinale), thyroid function

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
90 25-Hydroxy Vit D, Adiponectin Levels and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Sample of Obese Children

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia A. El Banna, Mones M. Abu Shady, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Manal Mouhamed Ali, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar

Abstract:

Association between vitamin D, adiponectin and obesity is a matter of debate, as they play important role in linking obesity with different cardiometabolic risk factors. Objectives: Evaluation of the association between metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D among obese Egyptian children. Subjects and Methods: This case-control cross-sectional study consisted of 65 obese and 30 healthy children, aged 8-11 years. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D) level, serum adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. Results: The mean 25(OH) D levels in the obese and control groups were 29.9± 10.3 and 39.7 ± 12.7 ng/mL respectively (P < 0.001). The mean 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels in the obese were lower than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). 25(OH) D were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), while adiponectin level were inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and positively correlated with HDL-C. However, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels among obese children and total sample. Conclusion: In spite of strong association between vitamin D and adiponectin levels with metabolic risk factors and obesity, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels. In obese children, there are significant negative correlations between 25(OH) D with lipid profile, and between adiponectin levels with blood pressure. At certain adiponectin level, the relation between it and BMI disappears.

Keywords: 25-hydroxy vitamin D, adiponectin, lipid profile, blood pressure, children

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89 The Association among Obesity, Lipid Profiles and Depression Severity in Patients with Depressive Disorder

Authors: In Hee Shim, Dong Sik Bae

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Introduction: Obesity and unfavorable lipid profile may be linked to depressive disorders. This study compared the levels of obesity, lipid profiles and depression severity of patients with depressive disorders. Methods: This study included 156 patients diagnosed with a depressive disorder who were hospitalized between March 2012 and February 2016. The patients were categorized into mild to moderate and severe depressive groups, based on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (Mild to moderate depression 8-23 vs. severe depression ≥ 24). The charts of the patients were reviewed to evaluate body mass index and lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG), confounding factors, such as other general medical disorders (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia), except smoking status (insufficient data). Demographic and clinical characteristics, such as age, sex, comorbidities, family history of mood disorders, psychotic features, and prescription patterns were also assessed. Results: Compared to the mild to the moderate depressive group, patients with severe depression had significantly lower rate of male and comorbidity. The patients with severe depression had a significantly lower TG than patients in the mild to moderate depressive group. After adjustment for the sex and comorbidity, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the obesity and lipid profiles, including TG. Conclusion: These results did not show a significant difference in the association between obesity, lipid profiles and the depression severity. The role of obesity and lipid profiles in the pathophysiology of depression remains to be clarified.

Keywords: depression, HAM-D, lipid profiles, obesity

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88 Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Related Risk Behaviors Among Thai Medical Students of Thammasat University

Authors: Patcharapa Thaweekul, Paskorn Sritipsukho

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Background: During the training period of the 6-year medical curriculum, medical students seem to have many risk behaviors of developing obesity. This study aims to demonstrate the prevalence and risk behavior of obesity and related metabolic disorders among the final-year medical students of Thammasat University as well as the change in nutritional status during studying program. Methods: 123 participants were asked to complete the self-report questionnaires. Weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were obtained. Blood samples were drawn for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and plasma glucose. Body weight and height of the medical students in the first year were obtained from the medical report at the entry. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity at the entry to medical school was 22.0% and increased to 30.1% in the final year. Two obese students (5.4%) was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome. During 6-year curriculum, the BMI gained in male medical students were more significant as compared to female students (1.76±1.74 and 0.43±1.82 kg/m2, respectively; p <.001). The current BMI is significantly correlated with the BMI at entry. Serum LDL-C in the overweight/obese students was significantly higher as compared to the normal weight and underweight group. Sleep deprivation was a significantly frequent behavior in the overweight/obese students. Conclusion: Medical students, as having high-risk behaviors, should be assessed for the nutritional status and metabolic parameters. Medical schools should promote the healthy behaviors to increase the healthy eating and exercise habits and reduced the risk behaviors among them.

Keywords: medical students, metabolic syndrome, obesity, risk behaviors

Procedia PDF Downloads 195