Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: comorbidities

85 Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Risk Factors in South African Employees

Authors: Jeanne Grace, Shereen Currie


Background: Obesity associated comorbidities increase the risk of morbidity and mortality among employees in the workplace. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia associated with obesity within the workplace in South Africa. Methods: A total of 17359 male (n = 8561) and female (n = 8798) employees, aged between 18-64 years (40.8 ± 11.0), from various corporate and industrial companies in South Africa participated in the study. Subjects were assigned to one of five body mass index (BMI) categories, according to their BMI: normal weight, BMI of 18.5‒24.9 kg/m² (n = 7338); overweight, BMI of 25.0‒29.9 kg/m² (n = 6323); obese class I, BMI of 30.0-34.9 kg/m² (n = 2552); obese class II, BMI of 35.0-39.9 kg/m² (n = 782); and obese class III, BMI of ≥ 40 kg/m² (n = 364). Height, weight, blood pressure, random blood glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Results: The prevalence of normal weight men was 29.2% and women 55.0%; overweight men 46.4% and women 26.7%, obese men 24.4% and women 18.3%. A significant association (p<0.01) of BMI with diabetes, systolic and diastolic hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were noted. Conclusion: Obesity is strongly associated with adverse comorbidities that may impact employees’ quality of life and performance. If unaddressed, it can increase comorbidities, not only affecting the bottom line of companies but causing morbidity and mortality, including sudden death.

Keywords: body mass index, cholesterol, blood glucose, workplace

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84 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetes and Its Association with Com-Morbidities among South Indian Women

Authors: Balasaheb Bansode


Diabetes is a very important component in non-communicable diseases. Diabetes ailment is a route of the multi-morbidities ailments. The South Indian states are almost completing the demographic transition in India. The study objectives present the prevalence of diabetes and its association with co-morbidities among the south Indian women. The study based on National Family Health Survey fourth round (NFHS) 4 conducted in 2015-16. The univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses techniques have been used to find the association of risk factors and comorbidities with diabetics. The result reveals that the prevalence of diabetes is high among South Indian women. The study shows the women with diabetics have more chances to diagnose with hypertension and anemia comorbidities. The factors responsible for co-morbidities are changing the demographic situation, socioeconomic status, overweight and addict with substance use in South India. The awareness about diabetes prevention and management should be increased through health education, disease management programmes, trained peers and community health workers and community-based programmes.

Keywords: diabetes, risk factors, comorbidities, women

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83 Transition of Nutrition Style and Obesity: A Kuwaiti Case Study

Authors: Othman Saleh Al-Razgan


Obesity establishes an epidemic along with an array of comorbidities and this call for careful clinical assessment, to identify causal factors and comprehensive management. In Kuwait, this epidemic reflects the progressive, socio-economic and age-related issues, along with the shift of nutrition from traditional to modern-style. The current research attempts to narrate the obesity and related health issues in Kuwait, with a special emphasis on the magnitude of the issue in Kuwait, nutrition transition over the past three decades, change in life-style, and possible solution for this issue.

Keywords: clinical assessment, comorbidities, obesity, socio-economic

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82 The Proportion of Dysthymia Prevailing in Men and Women With Anxiety as Comorbidity

Authors: Yashvi Italiya


Dysthymia (DD) is a much-overlooked soft mood disorder and mostly confused with other forms of chronic depression. This research paper gives a spotlight to the DD prevailing in men and women. It also focuses on one of the comorbidities of Dysthymia, i.e., Anxiety. The comorbidities, hurdles in diagnosis, the ubiquity of the disorder, and the relation of Anxiety and DD are briefly described. Gender was the main focus here because the researcher of this paper found it as a research gap while doing the literature review. The study was done through secondary data obtained primarily from a questionnaire having Alpha 0.891 reliability. T-test method of data analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The result shows that the researcher failed to accept alternative hypothesis 1 (M1 > M2), while the alternative hypothesis 2 (M1 > M2) was accepted. The ratio of DD in women (M1) is not higher than that of men (M2) (hypothesis 1). But, women are more anxious than men (hypothesis 2). It was found that comorbid Anxiety is more widespread in one gender. It further plays a significant role in mixing up the symptoms. It was concluded that the dividing line between Dysthymia and MDD is still unclear for an accurate diagnosis. There is an essential need for spreading knowledge concerning the differences between the symptoms of DD and MDD so that the actual disorder can be identified, and proper help can be received from/provided by professionals.

Keywords: anxiety, comorbidity, dysthymia, gender, MDD

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81 Long-Term Health and Quality of Life Outcomes Following War-Related Traumatic Lower-Limb Amputation; A Study on Community Re-Integrated Army Veterans in Sri Lanka

Authors: Ashan Wijekoon, Abi Beane, Subashini Jayawardana


Background: Civil war in Sri Lanka ended a decade ago, leaving thousands of army veterans permanently disabled following lower-limb amputations. Quantifying long-term functional health and psychological wellbeing will inform the development of tailored home-based rehabilitation intervention. Objectives: To assess the long-term health and quality of life of Sri Lankan soldiers with traumatic lower-limb amputation.Methods and Materials: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Sri Lanka. Using stratified random sample technique, two groups of 85 participants were selected; group 1, community re-integrated male army veterans with unilateral lower-limb amputation, and group 2, age and sex matched normal healthy individuals. Long-term health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes were assessed and compared between the two groups using self-administered Short-Form Health Survey-36 questionnaire (SF-36) previously validated for use in Sri Lanka. Results: Group 1 were active prosthetic users who had undergone amputation > ten years ago (Mean±SD: 21.7±5.9). The most prevalent comorbidities for group 1 and 2 were hypertension and diabetes (22.4% and 30.6% and 9.4% and 9.8%, respectively). In group 1, injury-associated long-term health outcomes included knee osteoarthritis (18.8%), knee pain (20.0%), and back pain (69.4%). Scores of physical health and psychological wellbeing were 53.1 (IQR 64.4- 43.8) and 63.5 (IQR 73.3- 51.4) for each group, respectively. Scores revealed the highest QoL related to social functioning (75 (IQR 87.5- 62.5)) and the poorest aspects of QoL related to general health (40 (IQR 50- 35)). Prevalence of comorbidities was significantly higher, and QoL outcomes were significantly lower among soldiers compared to normal healthy individuals (p<0.05).Conclusion: Higher prevalence of comorbidities, poor physical health, and lower QoL outcomes were more prevalent in soldiers with lower-limb amputation when compared to healthy counterparts.

Keywords: community-based, disability, health outcomes, quality of life, soldiers

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80 The Cost of Healthcare among Malaysian Community-Dwelling Elderly with Dementia

Authors: Roshanim Koris, Norashidah Mohamed Nor, Sharifah Azizah Haron, Normaz Wana Ismail, Syed Mohamed Aljunid Syed Junid, Amrizal Muhammad Nur, Asrul Akmal Shafie, Suraya Yusuff, Namaitijiang Maimaiti


An ageing population has huge implications for virtually every aspect of Malaysian societies. The elderly consume a greater volume of healthcare facilities not because they are older, but because of they are sick. The chronic comorbidities and deterioration of cognitive ability would lead the elderly’s health to become worst. This study aims to provide a comprehensive estimate of the direct and indirect costs of health care used in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling elderly with dementia and as well as the determinants of healthcare cost. A survey using multi-stage random sampling techniques recruited a final sample of 2274 elderly people (60 years and above) in the state of Johor, Perak, Selangor and Kelantan. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was used to measure the cognitive capability among the elderly. Only the elderly with a score less than 19 marks were selected for further analysis and were classified as dementia. By using a two-part model findings also indicate household income and education level are variables that strongly significantly influence the healthcare cost among elderly with dementia. A number of visits and admission are also significantly affect healthcare expenditure. The comorbidity that highly influences healthcare cost is cancer and seeking the treatment in private facilities is also significantly affected the healthcare cost among the demented elderly. The level of dementia severity is not significant in determining the cost. This study is expected to attract the government's attention and act as a wake-up call for them to be more concerned about the elderly who are at high risk of having chronic comorbidities and cognitive problems by providing more appropriate health and social care facilities. The comorbidities are one of the factor that could cause dementia among elderly. It is hoped that this study will promote the issues of dementia as a priority in public health and social care in Malaysia.

Keywords: ageing population, dementia, elderly, healthcare cost, healthcare utiliztion

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79 Healthcare Utilization and Costs of Specific Obesity Related Health Conditions in Alberta, Canada

Authors: Sonia Butalia, Huong Luu, Alexis Guigue, Karen J. B. Martins, Khanh Vu, Scott W. Klarenbach


Obesity-related health conditions impose a substantial economic burden on payers due to increased healthcare use. Estimates of healthcare resource use and costs associated with obesity-related comorbidities are needed to inform policies and interventions targeting these conditions. Methods: Adults living with obesity were identified (a procedure-related body mass index code for class 2/3 obesity between 2012 and 2019 in Alberta, Canada; excluding those with bariatric surgery), and outcomes were compared over 1-year (2019/2020) between those who had and did not have specific obesity-related comorbidities. The probability of using a healthcare service (based on the odds ratio of a zero [OR-zero] cost) was compared; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Logistic regression and a generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution were used for total healthcare cost comparisons ($CDN); cost ratios and estimated cost differences (95% CI) were reported. Potential socio-demographic and clinical confounders were adjusted for, and incremental cost differences were representative of a referent case. Results: A total of 220,190 adults living with obesity were included; 44% had hypertension, 25% had osteoarthritis, 24% had type-2 diabetes, 17% had cardiovascular disease, 12% had insulin resistance, 9% had chronic back pain, and 4% of females had polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The probability of hospitalization, ED visit, and ambulatory care was higher in those with a following obesity-related comorbidity versus those without: chronic back pain (hospitalization: 1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.57 [0.55/0.59]] / ED visit: 1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.54 [0.53/0.56]] / ambulatory care visit: 2.4-times [OR-zero: 0.41 [0.40/0.43]]), cardiovascular disease (2.7-times [OR-zero: 0.37 [0.36/0.38]] / 1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.52 [0.51/0.53]] / 2.8-times [OR-zero: 0.36 [0.35/0.36]]), osteoarthritis (2.0-times [OR-zero: 0.51 [0.50/0.53]] / 1.4-times [OR-zero: 0.74 [0.73/0.76]] / 2.5-times [OR-zero: 0.40 [0.40/0.41]]), type-2 diabetes (1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.54 [0.52/0.55]] / 1.4-times [OR-zero: 0.72 [0.70/0.73]] / 2.1-times [OR-zero: 0.47 [0.46/0.47]]), hypertension (1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.56 [0.54/0.57]] / 1.3-times [OR-zero: 0.79 [0.77/0.80]] / 2.2-times [OR-zero: 0.46 [0.45/0.47]]), PCOS (not significant / 1.2-times [OR-zero: 0.83 [0.79/0.88]] / not significant), and insulin resistance (1.1-times [OR-zero: 0.88 [0.84/0.91]] / 1.1-times [OR-zero: 0.92 [0.89/0.94]] / 1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.56 [0.54/0.57]]). After fully adjusting for potential confounders, the total healthcare cost ratio was higher in those with a following obesity-related comorbidity versus those without: chronic back pain (1.54-times [1.51/1.56]), cardiovascular disease (1.45-times [1.43/1.47]), osteoarthritis (1.36-times [1.35/1.38]), type-2 diabetes (1.30-times [1.28/1.31]), hypertension (1.27-times [1.26/1.28]), PCOS (1.08-times [1.05/1.11]), and insulin resistance (1.03-times [1.01/1.04]). Conclusions: Adults with obesity who have specific disease-related health conditions have a higher probability of healthcare use and incur greater costs than those without specific comorbidities; incremental costs are larger when other obesity-related health conditions are not adjusted for. In a specific referent case, hypertension was costliest (44% had this condition with an additional annual cost of $715 [$678/$753]). If these findings hold for the Canadian population, hypertension in persons with obesity represents an estimated additional annual healthcare cost of $2.5 billion among adults living with obesity (based on an adult obesity rate of 26%). Results of this study can inform decision making on investment in interventions that are effective in treating obesity and its complications.

Keywords: administrative data, healthcare cost, obesity-related comorbidities, real world evidence

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78 Neighborhood Linking Social Capital as a Predictor of Drug Abuse: A Swedish National Cohort Study

Authors: X. Li, J. Sundquist, C. Sjöstedt, M. Winkleby, K. S. Kendler, K. Sundquist


Aims: This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. Methods: We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance. Results: We found robust associations between linking social capital (scored as a three level variable) and DA in men and women. For men, the OR for DA in the crude model was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-2.21] for those living in areas with the lowest vs. highest level of social capital. After accounting for neighborhood-level deprivation, the OR fell to 1.59 (1.51-1-68), indicating that neighborhood deprivation lies in the pathway between linking social capital and DA. The ORs remained significant after accounting for age, sex, family income, marital status, country of birth, education level, and region of residence, and after further accounting for comorbidities and family history of comorbidities and family history of DA. For women, the OR decreased from 2.15 (2.03-2.27) in the crude model to 1.31 (1.22-1.40) in the final model, adjusted for multiple neighborhood-level and individual-level variables. Conclusions: Our study suggests that low linking social capital may have important independent effects on DA.

Keywords: drug abuse, social linking capital, environment, family

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77 An Investigation of the Relevant Factors of Unplanned Readmission within 14 Days of Discharge in a Regional Teaching Hospital in South Taiwan

Authors: Xuan Hua Huang, Shu Fen Wu, Yi Ting Huang, Pi Yueh Lee


Background: In Taiwan, the Taiwan healthcare care Indicator Series regards the rate of hospital readmission as an important indicator of healthcare quality. Unplanned readmission not only effects patient’s condition but also increase healthcare utilization rate and healthcare costs. Purpose: The purpose of this study was explored the effects of adult unplanned readmission within 14 days of discharge at a regional teaching hospital in South Taiwan. Methods: The retrospectively review design was used. A total 495 participants of unplanned readmissions and 878 of non-readmissions within 14 days recruited from a regional teaching hospital in Southern Taiwan. The instruments used included the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and demographic characteristics, and disease-related variables. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 22.0. The descriptive statistics were used (means, standard deviations, and percentage) and the inferential statistics were used T-test, Chi-square test and Logistic regression. Results: The unplanned readmissions within 14 days rate was 36%. The majorities were 268 males (54.1%), aged >65 were 318 (64.2%), and mean age was 68.8±14.65 years (23-98years). The mean score for the comorbidities was 3.77±2.73. The top three diagnosed of the readmission were digestive diseases (32.7%), respiratory diseases (15.2%), and genitourinary diseases (10.5%). There were significant relationships among the gender, age, marriage, comorbidity status, and discharge planning services (χ2: 3.816-16.474, p: 0.051~0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that old age (OR = 1.012, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.021), had the multi-morbidity (OR = 0.712~4.040, 95% CI: 0.559~8.522), had been consult with discharge planning services (OR = 1.696, 95% CI: 1.105, 2.061) have a higher risk of readmission. Conclusions: This study finds that multi-morbidity was independent risk factor for unplanned readmissions at 14 days, recommended that the interventional treatment of the medical team be provided to provide integrated care for multi-morbidity to improve the patient's self-care ability and reduce the 14-day unplanned readmission rate.

Keywords: unplanned readmission, comorbidities, Charlson comorbidity index, logistic regression

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76 Incidences and Factors Associated with Perioperative Cardiac Arrest in Trauma Patient Receiving Anesthesia

Authors: Visith Siriphuwanun, Yodying Punjasawadwong, Suwinai Saengyo, Kittipan Rerkasem


Objective: To determine incidences and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients who received anesthesia for emergency surgery. Design and setting: Retrospective cohort study in trauma patients during anesthesia for emergency surgery at a university hospital in northern Thailand country. Patients and methods: This study was permitted by the medical ethical committee, Faculty of Medicine at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand. We clarified data of 19,683 trauma patients receiving anesthesia within a decade between January 2007 to March 2016. The data analyzed patient characteristics, traumas surgery procedures, anesthesia information such as ASA physical status classification, anesthesia techniques, anesthetic drugs, location of anesthesia performed, and cardiac arrest outcomes. This study excluded the data of trauma patients who had received local anesthesia by surgeons or monitoring anesthesia care (MAC) and the patient which missing more information. The factor associated with perioperative cardiac arrest was identified with univariate analyses. Multiple regressions model for risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to conduct factors correlated with perioperative cardiac arrest. The multicollinearity of all variables was examined by bivariate correlation matrix. A stepwise algorithm was chosen at a p-value less than 0.02 was selected to further multivariate analysis. A P-value of less than 0.05 was concluded as statistically significant. Measurements and results: The occurrence of perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was 170.04 per 10,000 cases. Factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients were age being more than 65 years (RR=1.41, CI=1.02–1.96, p=0.039), ASA physical status 3 or higher (RR=4.19–21.58, p < 0.001), sites of surgery (intracranial, intrathoracic, upper intra-abdominal, and major vascular, each p < 0.001), cardiopulmonary comorbidities (RR=1.55, CI=1.10–2.17, p < 0.012), hemodynamic instability with shock prior to receiving anesthesia (RR=1.60, CI=1.21–2.11, p < 0.001) , special techniques for surgery such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and hypotensive techniques (RR=5.55, CI=2.01–15.36, p=0.001; RR=6.24, CI=2.21–17.58, p=0.001, respectively), and patients who had a history of being alcoholic (RR=5.27, CI=4.09–6.79, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Incidence of perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was very high and correlated with many factors, especially age of patient and cardiopulmonary comorbidities, patient having a history of alcoholic addiction, increasing ASA physical status, preoperative shock, special techniques for surgery, and sites of surgery including brain, thorax, abdomen, and major vascular region. Anesthesiologists and multidisciplinary teams in pre- and perioperative periods should remain alert for warning signs of pre-cardiac arrest and be quick to manage the high-risk group of surgical trauma patients. Furthermore, a healthcare policy should be promoted for protecting against accidents in high-risk groups of the population as well.

Keywords: perioperative cardiac arrest, trauma patients, emergency surgery, anesthesia, factors risk, incidence

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75 Survival Analysis after a First Ischaemic Stroke Event: A Case-Control Study in the Adult Population of England.

Authors: Padma Chutoo, Elena Kulinskaya, Ilyas Bakbergenuly, Nicholas Steel, Dmitri Pchejetski


Stroke is associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. There is scarcity of research on the long-term survival after first-ever ischaemic stroke (IS) events in England with regards to effects of different medical therapies and comorbidities. The objective of this study was to model the all-cause mortality after an IS diagnosis in the adult population of England. Using a retrospective case-control design, we extracted the electronic medical records of patients born prior to or in year 1960 in England with a first-ever ischaemic stroke diagnosis from January 1986 to January 2017 within the Health and Improvement Network (THIN) database. Participants with a history of ischaemic stroke were matched to 3 controls by sex and age at diagnosis and general practice. The primary outcome was the all-cause mortality. The hazards of the all-cause mortality were estimated using a Weibull-Cox survival model which included both scale and shape effects and a shared random effect of general practice. The model included sex, birth cohort, socio-economic status, comorbidities and medical therapies. 20,250 patients with a history of IS (cases) and 55,519 controls were followed up to 30 years. From 2008 to 2015, the one-year all-cause mortality for the IS patients declined with an absolute change of -0.5%. Preventive treatments to cases increased considerably over time. These included prescriptions of statins and antihypertensives. However, prescriptions for antiplatelet drugs decreased in the routine general practice since 2010. The survival model revealed a survival benefit of antiplatelet treatment to stroke survivors with hazard ratio (HR) of 0.92 (0.90 – 0.94). IS diagnosis had significant interactions with gender and age at entry and hypertension diagnosis. IS diagnosis was associated with high risk of all-cause mortality with HR= 3.39 (3.05-3.72) for cases compared to controls. Hypertension was associated with poor survival with HR = 4.79 (4.49 - 5.09) for hypertensive cases relative to non-hypertensive controls, though the detrimental effect of hypertension has not reached significance for hypertensive controls, HR = 1.19(0.82-1.56). This study of English primary care data showed that between 2008 and 2015, the rates of prescriptions of stroke preventive treatments increased, and a short-term all-cause mortality after IS stroke declined. However, stroke resulted in poor long-term survival. Hypertension, a modifiable risk factor, was found to be associated with poor survival outcomes in IS patients. Antiplatelet drugs were found to be protective to survival. Better efforts are required to reduce the burden of stroke through health service development and primary prevention.

Keywords: general practice, hazard ratio, health improvement network (THIN), ischaemic stroke, multiple imputation, Weibull-Cox model.

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74 Physical Function and Physical Activity Preferences of Elderly Individuals Admitted for Elective Abdominal Surgery: A Pilot Study.

Authors: Rozelle Labuschagne, Ronel Roos


Individuals often experience a reduction in physical function, quality of life and basic activities of daily living after surgery. This is exponentially true for high-risk patients, especially the elderly and frail individuals. Not much is known about the physical function, physical activity preferences and factors associated with the six-minute walk test of elderly individuals who would undergo elective abdominal surgery in South Africa. Such information is important to design effective prehabilitation physiotherapy programs prior to elective surgery. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographic profile and physical function of elderly patients who would undergo elective surgery and to determine factors associated with their six-minute walk test distance findings. A cross-sectional descriptive study in elderly patients older than 60 years of age who would undergo elective abdominal surgery were consecutively sampled at a private hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Participants’ demographics were collected and physical function assessed with the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI), DeMorton Mobility Index (DEMMI), Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL) and six-minute walk test (6MWT). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis with IBM SPSS 25. A p-value ≤ 0.05 were deemed statistically significant. The pilot study consisted of 12 participants (female (n=11, 91.7%), male (n=1, 8.3%) with a mean age of 65.8 (±4.5) years, body mass index of 28 (±4.2) kg.m2 with one (8.3%) participant being a current smoker and four (33.3%) participants having a smoking history. Nine (75%) participants lived independently at home and three (25%) had caregivers. Participants reported walking (n=6, 50%), stretching exercises (n=1, 8.3%), household chores & gardening (n=2, 16.7%), biking/swimming/running (n=1, 8.3%) as physical activity preferences. Physical function findings of the sample were: mean FCI score 3 (±1.1), DEMMI score 81.1 (±14.9), IADL 95 (±17.3), 6MWT 435.50 (IQR 364.75-458.50) with percentage 6MWT distance achieved 81.8% (IQR 64.4%-87.5%). A strong negative correlation was observed between 6MWT distance walked and FCI (r = -0.729, p=0.007). The majority of study participants reported incorporating some form of physical activity into their daily life as form of exercise. Most participants did not achieve their predicted 6MWT distance indicating less than optimal levels of physical function capacity. The number of comorbidities as determined by the FCI was associated with the distance that participants could walk with the 6MWT. The results of this pilot study could be used to indicate which elderly individuals would benefit most from a pre-surgical rehabilitation program. The main goal of such a program would be to improve physical function capacity as measured by the 6MWT. Surgeons could refer patients based on age and number of comorbidities, as determined by the FCI, to potentially improve surgical outcomes.

Keywords: abdominal surgery, elderly, physical function, six-minute walk test

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73 Hospital Malnutrition and its Impact on 30-day Mortality in Hospitalized General Medicine Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in South India

Authors: Vineet Agrawal, Deepanjali S., Medha R., Subitha L.


Background. Hospital malnutrition is a highly prevalent issue and is known to increase the morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay, and cost of care. In India, studies on hospital malnutrition have been restricted to ICU, post-surgical, and cancer patients. We designed this study to assess the impact of hospital malnutrition on 30-day post-discharge and in-hospital mortality in patients admitted in the general medicine department, irrespective of diagnosis. Methodology. All patients aged above 18 years admitted in the medicine wards, excluding medico-legal cases, were enrolled in the study. Nutritional assessment was done within 72 h of admission, using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), which classifies patients into three categories: Severely malnourished, Mildly/moderately malnourished, and Normal/well-nourished. Anthropometric measurements like Body Mass Index (BMI), Triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), and Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were also performed. Patients were followed-up during hospital stay and 30 days after discharge through telephonic interview, and their final diagnosis, comorbidities, and cause of death were noted. Multivariate logistic regression and cox regression model were used to determine if the nutritional status at admission independently impacted mortality at one month. Results. The prevalence of malnourishment by SGA in our study was 67.3% among 395 hospitalized patients, of which 155 patients (39.2%) were moderately malnourished, and 111 (28.1%) were severely malnourished. Of 395 patients, 61 patients (15.4%) expired, of which 30 died in the hospital, and 31 died within 1 month of discharge from hospital. On univariate analysis, malnourished patients had significantly higher morality (24.3% in 111 Cat C patients) than well-nourished patients (10.1% in 129 Cat A patients), with OR 9.17, p-value 0.007. On multivariate logistic regression, age and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were independently associated with mortality. Higher CCI indicates higher burden of comorbidities on admission, and the CCI in the expired patient group (mean=4.38) was significantly higher than that of the alive cohort (mean=2.85). Though malnutrition significantly contributed to higher mortality on univariate analysis, it was not an independent predictor of outcome on multivariate logistic regression. Length of hospitalisation was also longer in the malnourished group (mean= 9.4 d) compared to the well-nourished group (mean= 8.03 d) with a trend towards significance (p=0.061). None of the anthropometric measurements like BMI, MUAC, or TSF showed any association with mortality or length of hospitalisation. Inference. The results of our study highlight the issue of hospital malnutrition in medicine wards and reiterate that malnutrition contributes significantly to patient outcomes. We found that SGA performs better than anthropometric measurements in assessing under-nutrition. We are of the opinion that the heterogeneity of the study population by diagnosis was probably the primary reason why malnutrition by SGA was not found to be an independent risk factor for mortality. Strategies to identify high-risk patients at admission and treat malnutrition in the hospital and post-discharge are needed.

Keywords: hospitalization outcome, length of hospital stay, mortality, malnutrition, subjective global assessment (SGA)

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72 Predictors of Motor and Cognitive Domains of Functional Performance after Rehabilitation of Individuals with Acute Stroke

Authors: A. F. Jaber, E. Dean, M. Liu, J. He, D. Sabata, J. Radel


Background: Stroke is a serious health care concern and a major cause of disability in the United States. This condition impacts the individual’s functional ability to perform daily activities. Predicting functional performance of people with stroke assists health care professionals in optimizing the delivery of health services to the affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to identify significant predictors of Motor FIM and of Cognitive FIM subscores among individuals with stroke after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation (typically 4-6 weeks after stroke onset). A second purpose is to explore the relation among personal characteristics, health status, and functional performance of daily activities within 2 weeks of stroke onset. Methods: This study used a retrospective chart review to conduct a secondary analysis of data obtained from the Healthcare Enterprise Repository for Ontological Narration (HERON) database. The HERON database integrates de-identified clinical data from seven different regional sources including hospital electronic medical record systems of the University of Kansas Health System. The initial HERON data extract encompassed 1192 records and the final sample consisted of 207 participants who were mostly white (74%) males (55%) with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke (77%). The outcome measures collected from HERON included performance scores on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The data analysis plan included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis, and Stepwise regression analysis. Results: significant predictors of discharge Motor FIM subscores included age, baseline Motor FIM subscores, discharge NIHSS scores, and comorbid electrolyte disorder (R2 = 0.57, p <0.026). Significant predictors of discharge Cognitive FIM subscores were age, baseline cognitive FIM subscores, client cooperative behavior, comorbid obesity, and the total number of comorbidities (R2 = 0.67, p <0.020). Functional performance on admission was significantly associated with age (p < 0.01), stroke severity (p < 0.01), and length of hospital stay (p < 0.05). Conclusions: our findings show that younger age, good motor and cognitive abilities on admission, mild stroke severity, fewer comorbidities, and positive client attitude all predict favorable functional outcomes after inpatient stroke rehabilitation. This study provides health care professionals with evidence to evaluate predictors of favorable functional outcomes early at stroke rehabilitation, to tailor individualized interventions based on their client’s anticipated prognosis, and to educate clients about the benefits of making lifestyle changes to improve their anticipated rate of functional recovery.

Keywords: functional performance, predictors, stroke, recovery

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71 Data Analytics of Electronic Medical Records Shows an Age-Related Differences in Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Maryam Panahiazar, Andrew M. Bishara, Yorick Chern, Roohallah Alizadehsani, Dexter Hadleye, Ramin E. Beygui


Early detection plays a crucial role in enhancing the outcome for a patient with coronary artery disease (CAD). We utilized a big data analytics platform on ~23,000 patients with CAD from a total of 960,129 UCSF patients in 8 years. We traced the patients from their first encounter with a physician to diagnose and treat CAD. Characteristics such as demographic information, comorbidities, vital, lab tests, medications, and procedures are included. There are statistically significant gender-based differences in patients younger than 60 years old from the time of the first physician encounter to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a p-value=0.03. There are no significant differences between the patients between 60 and 80 years old (p-value=0.8) and older than 80 (p-value=0.4) with a 95% confidence interval. This recognition would affect significant changes in the guideline for referral of the patients for diagnostic tests expeditiously to improve the outcome by avoiding the delay in treatment.

Keywords: electronic medical records, coronary artery disease, data analytics, young women

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70 Tolerance of Colonoscopy: Questioning Its Utility in the Elderly

Authors: Faizan Rathore, Naveed Sultan, Humphrey O. Connor


This study was carried out from Jan '12-Dec'12 to assess current practice in Kerry General Hospital against the age-related indicators for colonoscopies. A total of 1474 colonoscopies were performed,1177(79.9%) were diagnostic and 297 (20.1%) were therapeutic, patients were divided into 4 age groups under 75, 75-80, 81-85, 86+. The trend analysis revealed an increase in diagnostic colonoscopies and decrease in therapeutic colonoscopies with age. 664(45.04%) of colonoscopies were reported normal which made up the majority of the total diagnoses, 1330 (90.2%) of colonoscopies occurred without any complications. Main complications were patient discomfort being the highest, present in 112(7.6%) of patients, and lowest being urticaria around the IV site present in 1 (0.1%) of the cases. Patient discomfort was higher in younger patients as evidenced by 98 cases aged <75 , followed by 11 cases aged 75-80, 2 cases aged 81-85 and 1 case aged >86. Highest percentage of poor tolerance was found in 14 (1.1%) of total patients <75, 1 (0.8%) of total patients aged 75-80, 1(1.7%) of total patients in age group 81-85 and none (0%) in age group >86. We have established the safety of colonoscopy, low rate of complications and a better tolerance in the elderly from this study, however, its utility, especially in the presence of other comorbidities in elderly is questionable.

Keywords: colonoscopy, elderly patients, utility, tolerance

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69 Clinical Characteristics of Children Presenting with History of Child Sexual Abuse to a Tertiary Care Centre in India

Authors: T. S. Sowmya Bhaskaran, Shekhar Seshadri


This study aims to study the clinical features of with a history of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). A chart review of 40 children (<16 years) with history of CSA evaluated at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of NIMHANS during a two year period was performed. Results:The most common form of abuse was contact penetrative abuse (65%) followed by non-contact penetrative abuse (32.5%). 75% (N=30) had a psychiatric diagnosis at baseline. 50% of these children had one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Anxiety disorder was the most common diagnosis (27.5%) which included PTSD (11%) followed by Depressive disorder (25.2%). Children abused by multiple perpetrators were found to be more likely to have depression, to having a comorbid psychiatric disorder and more prone to exhibit sexualized behaviour. Children who also experienced physical violence at home were more likely to develop psychiatric illness following child sexual abuse. Psychiatric morbidity is high in clinic population of children with history of CSA. It is important to increase the awareness regarding the consequences of CSA in order to increase help seeking.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, India, tertiary care centre, clinical characteristics

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68 Rising Prevalence of Diabetes among Elderly People in Kerala: Evidence from NSS Data

Authors: Narendra Kumar


In developing countries, the majority of people with diabetes are in the age range of 45-64 years and more women than men. As in many areas of the India, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has become major problems. Now it is spreading among the middle class and poor at an alarming stage in India and Kerala is turning to be the world capital of diabetes. This study uses two round NSS data from the ‘National Sample Survey Organization, India’ to investigate the predictors of diabetes in Kerala. The overall estimates for diabetes prevalence among elderly show that higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics, further respondent working status, caste/tribe have substantial impact on diabetes in Kerala. The disease is more common for people who are mostly physically inactive. This whole picture is very much prominent in the urban areas compared with the rural ones. Not working elderly have significantly higher with diabetes than for those working in elderly. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with diabetes prevalence. For men and women, the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption was more prevalent in the rural population. High alcohol intake increases diabetes risk among elderly. Finally these findings specified that an increase improve health care services and changing life style of elderly which should in turn raise diabetes patient survival and should decrease comorbidities due to diabetes in Kerala.

Keywords: elderly, diabetes, prevalence, Kerala

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67 Translating the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Obesity Guidelines into Practice into a Rural/Regional Setting in Tasmania, Australia

Authors: Giuliana Murfet, Heidi Behrens


Chronic disease is Australia’s biggest health concern and obesity the leading risk factor for many. Obesity and chronic disease have a higher representation in rural Tasmania, where levels of socio-disadvantage are also higher. People living outside major cities have less access to health services and poorer health outcomes. To help primary healthcare professionals manage obesity, the Australian NHMRC evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for management of overweight and obesity in adults were developed. They include recommendations for practice and models for obesity management. To our knowledge there has been no research conducted that investigates translation of these guidelines into practice in rural-regional areas; where implementation can be complicated by limited financial and staffing resources. Also, the systematic review that informed the guidelines revealed a lack of evidence for chronic disease models of obesity care. The aim was to establish and evaluate a multidisciplinary model for obesity management in a group of adult people with type 2 diabetes in a dispersed rural population in Australia. Extensive stakeholder engagement was undertaken to both garner support for an obesity clinic and develop a sustainable model of care. A comprehensive nurse practitioner-led outpatient model for obesity care was designed. Multidisciplinary obesity clinics for adults with type 2 diabetes including a dietitian, psychologist, physiotherapist and nurse practitioner were set up in the north-west of Tasmania at two geographically-rural towns. Implementation was underpinned by the NHMRC guidelines and recommendations focused on: assessment approaches; promotion of health benefits of weight loss; identification of relevant programs for individualising care; medication and bariatric surgery options for obesity management; and, the importance of long-term weight management. A clinical pathway for adult weight management is delivered by the multidisciplinary team with recognition of the impact of and adjustments needed for other comorbidities. The model allowed for intensification of intervention such as bariatric surgery according to recommendations, patient desires and suitability. A randomised controlled trial is ongoing, with the aim to evaluate standard care (diabetes-focused management) compared with an obesity-related approach with additional dietetic, physiotherapy, psychology and lifestyle advice. Key barriers and enablers to guideline implementation were identified that fall under the following themes: 1) health care delivery changes and the project framework development; 2) capacity and team-building; 3) stakeholder engagement; and, 4) the research project and partnerships. Engagement of not only local hospital but also state-wide health executives and surgical services committee were paramount to the success of the project. Staff training and collective development of the framework allowed for shared understanding. Staff capacity was increased with most taking on other activities (e.g., surgery coordination). Barriers were often related to differences of opinions in focus of the project; a desire to remain evidenced based (e.g., exercise prescription) without adjusting the model to allow for consideration of comorbidities. While barriers did exist and challenges overcome; the development of critical partnerships did enable the capacity for a potential model of obesity care for rural regional areas. Importantly, the findings contribute to the evidence base for models of diabetes and obesity care that coordinate limited resources.

Keywords: diabetes, interdisciplinary, model of care, obesity, rural regional

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66 Evaluation of Symptoms, Laboratory Findings, and Natural History of IgE Mediated Wheat Allergy

Authors: Soudeh Tabashi, Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy, Masood Movahedi, Nasrin Behniafard


Introduction: Food allergy has increased in three last decades. Since wheat is one of the major constituents of daily meal in many regions throughout the world, wheat allergy is one of the most important allergies ranking among the 8 most common types of food allergies. Our information about epidemiology and etiology of food allergies are limited. Therefore, in this study we sought to evaluate the symptoms and laboratory findings in children with wheat allergy. Materials and methods: There were 23 patients aged up to 18 with the diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy that were included enrolled in this study. Using a questionnaire .we collected their information and organized them into 4 groups categories of: demographic data identification, signs and symptoms, comorbidities, and laboratory data. Then patients were followed up for 6 month and their lab data were compared together. Results: Most of the patients (82%) presented the symptoms of wheat allergy in the first year of their life. The skin and the respiratory system were the most commonly involved organs with an incidence of 86% and 78% respectively. Most of the patients with wheat allergy were also sensitive to the other type of foods and their sensitivity to egg were most common type (47%). in 57% of patients, IgE levels were decreased during the 6 month follow-up period. Conclusion: We do not have enough information about data on epidemiology and response to therapy of wheat allergy and to best of our knowledge no study has addressed this issue in Iran so far. This study is the first source of information about IgE mediated wheat allergy in Iran and It can provide an opening for future studies about wheat allergy and its treatments.

Keywords: wheat allergy, food allergy, IgE, food allergy

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65 Retrospective Study for Elective Medical Patients Evacuation of Different Diagnoses Requiring Different Approach in Oxygen Usage

Authors: Branimir Skoric


Over the past two decades, number of international travels rose significantly in the United Kingdom and Worldwide in the shape of business travels and holiday travels as well. The fact that elderly people travel a lot, more than ever before increased the needs for medical evacuations (repatriations) back home if they fell ill abroad or had any kind of accident. This paper concerns medical evacuations of patients on the way back home to the United Kingdom (United Kingdom Residents) and their specific medical needs during short-haul or long-haul commercial scheduled flight and ground transportation to the final destination regardless whether it was hospital or usual place of residence. Particular medical need during medical evacuations is oxygen supply and it can be supplied via portable oxygen concentrator, pulse flow oxygenator or continuous free flow oxygenator depending on the main diagnosis and patient’s comorbidities. In this retrospective study, patients were divided into two groups. One group was consisted of patients suffering from cardio-respiratory diagnoses as primary illness. Another Group consisted of patients suffering from noncardiac illnesses who have other problems including any kind of physical injury. Needs for oxygen and type of supply were carefully considered in regards of duration of the flight, standard airline cabin pressure and results described in this retrospective study.

Keywords: commercial flight, elderly travellers, medical evacuations, oxygen

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64 Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Its Impact on Other Eating Disorders

Authors: I. Caldas, T. Duarte


Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) was included for the first time in DSM-5, replacing the old diagnosis of DSM-4 'Early Childhood Eating Disorder'. An ARFID is characterized by a restrictive/avoidant eating pattern that can lead to severe nutritional deficiency, weight loss, nutritional supplementation dependence, and poor psychosocial functioning. This eating pattern is associated with decreased interest in food, worries about food characteristics or the act of ingestion, and lack of concern with weight or body image. This paper aims to understand the impact of this new diagnosis in other Eating Disorders (ED) prevalence, as well as to compare their therapeutic approaches. Methodology: Literature reviewed by PubMed with the following keywords: 'ARFID', 'Prevalence', and 'Eating Disorders'. We selected articles related to this theme, written since 2016. Results: In a population of children hospitalized with ED, 5% to 14% was diagnosed with ARFID, and, as outpatient treatment, the prevalence was 22%. People diagnosed with ARFID have more prevalence of other comorbidities, especially autism spectrum, are younger, and are more often male. Regarding the treatment of ARFID, it most often required nasogastric feeding, and with less suffering associated with this procedure, compared to AN. Despite these differences, 12% of patients diagnosed with ARFID transited to AN during treatment, suggesting that the first pathology may be a risk factor for the development of AN. Conclusions: The differences identified between ARFID and the other EDs are important when analyzed as differential diagnostic hypotheses and therapeutic approaches. Further study is necessary regarding its prevalence, risk factors, and treatment.

Keywords: avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID, differential diagnoses, eating disorders, prevalence

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63 The Use of a Rabbit Model to Evaluate the Influence of Age on Excision Wound Healing

Authors: S. Bilal, S. A. Bhat, I. Hussain, J. D. Parrah, S. P. Ahmad, M. R. Mir


Background: The wound healing involves a highly coordinated cascade of cellular and immunological response over a period including coagulation, inflammation, granulation tissue formation, epithelialization, collagen synthesis and tissue remodeling. Wounds in aged heal more slowly than those in younger, mainly because of comorbidities that occur as one age. The present study is about the influence of age on wound healing. 1x1cm^2 (100 mm) wounds were created on the back of the animal. The animals were divided into two groups; one group had animals in the age group of 3-9 months while another group had animals in the age group of 15-21 months. Materials and Methods: 24 clinically healthy rabbits in the age group of 3-21 months were used as experimental animals and divided into two groups viz A and B. All experimental parameters, i.e., Excision wound model, Measurement of wound area, Protein extraction and estimation, Protein extraction and estimation and DNA extraction and estimation were done by standard methods. Results: The parameters studied were wound contraction, hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein, and DNA. A significant increase (p<0.005) in the hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA and a significant decrease in wound area (p<0.005) was observed in the age group of 3-9 months when compared to animals of an age group of 15-21 months. Wound contraction together with hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA estimations suggest that advanced age results in retarded wound healing. Conclusion: The decrease wound contraction and accumulation of hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA in group B animals may be associated with the reduction or delay in growth factors because of the advancing age.

Keywords: age, wound healing, excision wound, hydroxyproline, glucosamine

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62 Management of Diabetics on Hemodialysis

Authors: Souheila Zemmouchi


Introduction: Diabetes is currently the leading cause of end-stage chronic kidney disease and dialysis, so it adds additional complexity to the management of chronic hemodialysis patients. These patients are extremely fragile because of their multiple cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Clear and complete description of the experience: the management of a diabetic on hemodialysis is particularly difficult due to frequent hypoglycaemia and significant inter and perdialyticglycemic variability that is difficult to predict. The aim of our study is to describe the clinical-biological profile and to assess the cardiovascular risk of diabetics undergoing chronic hemodialysis, and compare them with non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried out between January 01 and December 31, 2018, involving 309 hemodialysis patients spread over 4 centersThe data were collected prospectively then compiled and analyzed by the SPSS Version 10 software The FRAMINGHAM RISK SCORE has been used to assess cardiovascular risk in all hemodialysis patients Results: The survey involved 309 hemodialysis patients, including 83 diabetics, for a prevalence of 27% The average age 53 ± 10.2 years. The sex ratio is 1.5. 50% of diabetic hemodialysis patients retained residual diuresis against 32% in non-diabetics. In the group of diabetics, we noted more hypertension (70% versus 38% non-diabetics P 0.004), more intradialytichypoglycemia (15% versus 3% non-diabetics P 0.007), initially, vascular exhaustion was found in 4 diabetics versus 2 non-diabetics. 70% of diabetics with anuria had postdialytichyperglycemia. The study found a statistically significant difference between the different levels of cardiovascular risk according to the diabetic status. Conclusion: There are many challenges in the management of diabetics on hemodialysis, both to optimize glycemic control according to an individualized target and to coordinate comprehensive and effective care.

Keywords: hemodialysis, diabetes, chronic renal failure, glycemic control

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61 Association of Alcohol Consumption with Active Tuberculosis in Taiwanese Adults: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Yung-Feng Yen, Yun-Ju Lai


Background: Animal studies have shown that alcohol exposure may cause immunosuppression and increase the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the temporality of alcohol consumption with subsequent TB development remains unclear. This nationwide population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on TB development in Taiwanese adults. Methods: We included 46 196 adult participants from three rounds (2001, 2005, 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption was classified into heavy, regular, social, or never alcohol use. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as intoxication at least once/week. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates. Results: A total of 279 new cases of active TB occurred during the study follow-up period. Heavy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.21; 95% confident interval [CI], 2.41-11.26) and regular alcohol use (AOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.26-2.38) were associated with higher risks of incident TB after adjusting for the subject demographics and comorbidities. Moreover, a strong dose-response effect was observed between increasing alcohol consumption and incident TB (AOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.59-3.21; P <.001). Conclusion: Heavy and regular alcohol consumption were associated with higher risks of active TB. Future TB control programs should consider strategies to lower the overall level of alcohol consumption to reduce the TB disease burden.

Keywords: alcohol consumption, tuberculosis, risk factor, cohort study

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60 Incidence of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies and Their Risk of Cancer in Leeds, UK: An 11-year Epidemiological Study

Authors: Benoit Jauniaux, Azzam Ismail


Objectives: The aims were to identify all incident adult cases of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) in the City of Leeds, UK, and to estimate the risk of cancer in IIMs as compared with the general population. Methods: Cases of IIMs were ascertained by review of all muscle biopsy reports from the Neuropathology Laboratory. A review of medical records was undertaken for each case to review the clinical diagnosis and collect epidemiological data such as age, ethnicity, sex, and comorbidities, including cancer. Leeds denominator population numbers were publicly obtainable. Results: Two hundred and six biopsy reports were identified, and after review, 50 incident cases were included in the study between June 2010 and January 2021. Out of the 50 cases, 27 were male, and 23 were female. The mean incidence rate of IIMs in Leeds throughout the study period was 7.42/1 000 000 person years. The proportion of IIMs cases with a confirmed malignancy was 22%. Compared to the general population, the relative risk of cancer was significantly greater in the IIMs population(31.56, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The incidence rate of IIMs in Leeds was consistent with data from previous literature, however, disagreement exists between different methods of IIMs case inclusion due to varying clinical criteria and definitions. IIMs are associated with increased risk of cancer however, the pathogenesis of this relationship still requires investigating. This study supports the practice of malignancy screening and long-term surveillance in patients with IIMs.

Keywords: idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, myositis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, malignancy, epidemiology, incidence rate, relative risk

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59 Association between Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the USA

Authors: Xin Qi Dong, Melissa Simon


Aims: Elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation are important public health concerns among aging populations. This study will examine the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults in the USA. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, in this study we conducted in-person interviews with Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011 to 2013. Elder mistreatment was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) and the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS). Suicidal ideation was assessed by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Geriatric Mental State Examination-Version A (GMS-A). Results: Overall, 3,159 Chinese older adults participated in this study, and their mean age was 72.8 years. After controlling for age, gender, education, income, medical comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and social support, elder mistreatment was significantly associated with 2-week suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.52--4.01) and 12-month suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.62--3.73). With respect to gender differences, the study found that the association remained significant for older women but not for older men after adjusting for all confounding factors. Conclusion: As the largest epidemiology study conducted among Chinese older adults in the USA, this study suggests that elder mistreatment is significantly associated with 2-week and 12-month suicidal ideation in older women but not in older men. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which elder mistreatment links with suicidal ideation.

Keywords: suicidal ideation, elder abuse, family violence, Asian health equity

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58 Gastrointestinal Manifestations and Outcomes in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Jaylo Abalos, Sophia Zamora


BACKGROUND: Various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain, have been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this context, the presence of GI symptoms is variably associated with poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19. We aim to determine the outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective cohort study that used medical records of admitted COVID-19 patients from March 2020- March 2021 in a tertiary hospital in Pangasinan. Data records were evaluated for the presence of gastrointestinal manifestations, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain at the time of admission. Comparison between cases or COVID-19 patients presenting with GI manifestations to controls or COVID-19 patients without GI manifestation was made. RESULTS: Four hundred three patients were included in the study. Of these, 22.3% presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, while 77.7% comprised the study controls. Diarrhea was the most common GI symptom (10.4%). No statistically significant difference was observed in comorbidities and laboratory findings. Mortality was the primary outcome of the study that did not reach statistical significance between cases and controls (13.33% vs. 16.30%, p =0.621). There were also no significant differences observed in the secondary outcomes, mean length of stay, (14 [12-18 days] in cases vs 14 [12- 17.5 days] in controls, p = 0.716) and need for mechanical ventilation (12.22% vs 16.93%, p = 0.329). CONCLUSION: The results of the study revealed no association of the GI symptoms to poor outcomes, including a high rate of mortality, prolonged length of stay and increased need for mechanical ventilation.

Keywords: gastrointestinal symptoms, COVID-19, outcomes, mortality, length of stay

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57 Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis

Authors: Inkyong Yi


Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, lactate, transfusion, trauma

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56 The Association among Obesity, Lipid Profiles and Depression Severity in Patients with Depressive Disorder

Authors: In Hee Shim, Dong Sik Bae


Introduction: Obesity and unfavorable lipid profile may be linked to depressive disorders. This study compared the levels of obesity, lipid profiles and depression severity of patients with depressive disorders. Methods: This study included 156 patients diagnosed with a depressive disorder who were hospitalized between March 2012 and February 2016. The patients were categorized into mild to moderate and severe depressive groups, based on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (Mild to moderate depression 8-23 vs. severe depression ≥ 24). The charts of the patients were reviewed to evaluate body mass index and lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG), confounding factors, such as other general medical disorders (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia), except smoking status (insufficient data). Demographic and clinical characteristics, such as age, sex, comorbidities, family history of mood disorders, psychotic features, and prescription patterns were also assessed. Results: Compared to the mild to the moderate depressive group, patients with severe depression had significantly lower rate of male and comorbidity. The patients with severe depression had a significantly lower TG than patients in the mild to moderate depressive group. After adjustment for the sex and comorbidity, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the obesity and lipid profiles, including TG. Conclusion: These results did not show a significant difference in the association between obesity, lipid profiles and the depression severity. The role of obesity and lipid profiles in the pathophysiology of depression remains to be clarified.

Keywords: depression, HAM-D, lipid profiles, obesity

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