Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 175

Search results for: Madhya Pradesh

175 Traditional Medicines Used for the Enhancement of Male Sexual Performance among the Indigenous Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: A. N. Sharma


A traditional medicine comprises a knowledge system, practices related to the cure of various ailments that developed over generations by indigenous people or populations. The indigenous populations developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-though hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of traditional medicines for the enhancement of male sexual performance among the indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh, India. Madhya Pradesh state is situated more or less in the central part of India. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, traditional health service providers of Sagar district, and other indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh. It may be concluded that sizable traditional medicines exist in Madhya Pradesh, India, for the enhancement of male sexual performance, which still awaits for scientific exploration and intensive pharmaceutical investigations.

Keywords: Bharias, indigenous, Madhya Pradesh, sexual performance, traditional medicine

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174 Herbal Medicines Used for the Cure of Jaundice among the Some Tribal Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Awdhesh Narayan Sharma


The use of herbal medicines for the cure of various ailments among the tribal population is as old as human origin itself. Most of the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh inhabit in remote and inaccessible ecological setup. From long back, tribals and forests are interrelated to each other. They use an enormous range of wild plants for their basic needs and medicines. The tribal developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-through hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. They have passed this knowledge through traditions, taboos, totems, folklore by words of mouth from generation to generation. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of herbal medicine for the cure of Jaundice among the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh, India, through primary data as well as available secondary data. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and included available secondary source of data by various investigators. It may be concluded that a sizable herbal medicinal plants' wealth exists in Madhya Pradesh, India, which still awaits for scientific exploration. The existing herbal medicines used for the cure of jaundice need an extensive investigation from the pharmaceutical point of view.

Keywords: Bharias, herbal medicine, tribal, Madhya Pradesh

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173 Paratransit as Tool for Peri-Urban Connectivity: A Comparative Case Study of Indore and Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Sumit Rahangdale


This research paper is a comparative study of two BRTS cities of Madhya Pradesh (INDIA), Bhopal and Indore. Indore is the largest and most populous city of Madhya Pradesh, with heavy traffic, while Bhopal though being the capital of Madhya Pradesh is comparatively less developed and shows less traffic The cities show similarity in case of peri-urban nature, but variation is observed in transportation fare, where Indore has been able to reduce it but Bhopal couldn’t, one of the reason for it is the para-transit services. Indore can be considered as a successful model due to the low fares and can be implemented in other parts of the city. The research paper tries to identify relation of para-transit services with the peri-urban connectivity and provide a solution for the Bhopal case study.

Keywords: demand-supply-fare relationship, mobility and accessibility, paratransit, peri-urban connectivity

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172 Traditional Herbal Medicine Used to Treat Infertility in Women by Traditional Practitioner of Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Shweta Shriwas, Sumeet Dwivedi


Knowledge of use of traditional medicine is as old as human civilization in almost every system of medicine. Traditional practitioner viz., vaidhayas, ojha, hakim have their own herbal therapy in the treatment of infertility among women’s. Infertility is very common in developed and developing countries due to busy life style of women’s. The present study was initiated with an aim to identify medicinal plants resources from traditional practitioners of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh to treat infertility. An ethnomedicinal study of Malwa region viz., Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Ujjain, Dhar, Mandsour and Neemuch of Madhya Pradesh, India comprising fifty-seven study site was conducted during Jan-217 to June-2017. During the course of present investigation, the traditional use of medicinal plants for infertility in women was revealed by traditional practitioner. The botanical name, family, local name, part used, habit along with mode of their administration and dose duration were enumerated.

Keywords: herbal medicine, infertility, traditional, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh

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171 Traditional Phytotherapy among Tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India Used in the Treatment of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders

Authors: Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas, Raghvendra Dubey


Madhya Pradesh, a Central State of India is rich in natural heritage due to tribal impact. Herbal harmony present either cultivated or by naturally being used by the tribes of the state in the treatment of several human and animal disorders. Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. Traditional phytotherapy have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. The present paper enumerates the uses of ten herbs viz., garlic, eucalyptus, marigold, tulsi, euphorbia, lemon grass, haldi, bhringraj, ginger and ajwain. An attempt has also been made to reveal the method of preparation, dose, duration possible MOA of these herbs used for ENT disorders.

Keywords: ENT, traditional phytotherapy, herbs, Madhya Pradesh

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170 Health and Wellbeing: Measuring and Mapping Diversity in India

Authors: Swati Rajput


Wellbeing is a multifaceted concept. Its definition has evolved to become more holistic over the years. The paper attempts to build up the understanding of the concept of wellbeing and marks the trajectory of its conceptual evolution. The paper will also elaborate and analyse various indicators of socio-economic wellbeing in India at state level. Ranking method has been applied to assess the situation of each state in context to the variable selected and wellbeing as a whole. Maps have been used to depict and illustrate the same. The data shows that the socio-economic wellbeing level is higher in states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, and Lakshadweep. The level of wellbeing is very lower in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Telengana, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Environment plays an important role in maintaining health. Environment and health are important indicators of wellbeing. The paper would further analyse some indicators of environment and health and find the change in the result of wellbeing levels of different states.

Keywords: socio economic factors, wellbeing index, health, mapping

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169 Evaluation of Bagh Printing Motifs and Processes of Madhya Pradesh: From Past to Contemporary

Authors: Kaveri Dutta, Ratna Sharma


Indian traditional textile is a synthesis of various cultures. Art and crafts of a country showcases the rich cultural and artistic history of that nation. Prehistorically Indian handicrafts were basically made for day to day use; the yearning for aesthetic application soon saw the development of flooding designs and motifs. Similarly, Bagh print a traditional hand block Print with natural colours an Indian handicraft practiced in Bagh, Madhya Pradesh(India). Bagh print has its roots in Sindh, which is now a part of Pakistan. The present form of Bagh printing actually started in 1962 when the craftsmen migrated from Manavar to the neighboring town of Bagh situated in Madhya Pradesh and hence Bagh has always been associated with this printing style. Bagh printing basically involved blocks that are carved onto motifs that represent flora such as Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya and so on. There are some prints that were inspired by the jaali work that embellished the Taj Mahal and various other forts. Inspiration is also drawn from the landscapes and geometrical figures. The motifs evoke various moods in the serenity of the prints and that is the catchy element of Bagh prints. The development in this traditional textile is as essential as in another field. Nowadays fashion trends are fragile and innovative changes over existing fashion field in the short span is the demand of times. We must make efforts to preserve this cultural heritage of arts and crafts and this is done either by documenting the various ancient traditions or by making a blend of it. Since this craft is well known over the world, but the need is to document the original motif, fabric, technology and colors used in contemporary fashion. Hence keeping above points in mind this study on bagh print textiles of Madhya Pradesh work has been formulated. The information incorporated in the paper was based on secondary data taken from relevant books, journals, museum visit and articles. Besides for the demographic details and working profile of the artisans dealt with printing, an interview schedule was carried out in three regions of Madhya Pradesh. This work of art was expressed in Cotton fabric. For this study selected traditional motifs for Bang printing was used. Some of the popular traditional Bagh motifs are Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya, geometrical figures and jaali work. The Bagh printed cotton fabrics were developed into a range of men’s ethic wear in combination with embroideries from Rajasthan. Products developed were bandhgala jackets, kurtas, serwani and dupattas. From the present study, it can be observed that the embellished traditional Bang printed range of ethnic men’s wear resulted in the fresh and colourful pattern. The embroidered Bagh printed cotton fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among artisans of the three regions.

Keywords: art and craft of Madhya Pradesh, evolution of printing in India, history of Bagh printing, sources of inspiration

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168 Perception of Customers towards Service Quality: A Comparative Analysis of Organized and Unorganised Retail Stores (with Special Reference to Bhopal City)

Authors: Abdul Rashid, Varsha Rokade


Service Quality within retail units is pivotal for satisfying customers and retaining them. This study on customer perception towards Service Quality variables in Retail aims to identify the dimensions and their impact on customers. An analytical study of the different retail service quality variables was done to understand the relationship between them. The study tries exploring the factors that attract the customers towards the organised and unorganised retail stores in the capital city of Madhya Pradesh, India. As organised retailers are seen as offering similar products in the outlets, improving service quality is seen as critical to ensuring competitive advantage over unorganised retailers. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale from existing walk-in customers of selected organised and unorganised retail stores in Bhopal City of Madhya Pradesh, India. The data was then analysed by factor analysis using (SPSS) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences especially Percentage analysis, ANOVA and Chi-Square. This study tries to find interrelationship between various Retail Service Quality dimensions, which will help the retailers to identify the steps needed to improve the overall quality of service. Thus, the findings of the study prove to be helpful in understanding the service quality variables which should be considered by organised and unorganised retail stores in Capital city of Madhya Pradesh, India.Also, findings of this empirical research reiterate the point of view that dimensions of Service Quality in Retail play an important role in enhancing customer satisfaction – a sector with high growth potential and tremendous opportunities in rapidly growing economies like India’s. With the introduction of FDI in multi-brand retailing, a large number of international retail players are expected to enter the Indian market, this intern will bring more competition in the retail sector. For benchmarking themselves with global standards, the Indian retailers will have to improve their service quality.

Keywords: organized retail, unorganised retail, retail service quality, service quality dimension

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167 An Experiment with Science Popularization in Rural Schools of Sehore District in Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Peeyush Verma, Anil Kumar, Anju Rawlley, Chanchal Mehra


India's school-going population is largely served by an educational system that is, in most rural parts, stuck with methods that emphasize rote learning, endless examinations, and monotonous classroom activities. Rural government schools are generally seen as having poor infrastructure, poor support system and low motivation for teaching as well as learning. It was experienced during the survey of this project that there is lesser motivation of rural boys and girls to attend their schools and still less likely chances to study science, tabooed as “difficult”. An experiment was conducted with the help of Rural Knowledge Network Project through Department of Science and Technology, Govt of India in five remote villages of Sehore District in Madhya Pradesh (India) during 2012-2015. These schools are located about 50-70 Km away from Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh and can distinctively qualify as average rural schools. Three tier methodology was adapted to unfold the experiment. In first tier randomly selected boys and girls from these schools were taken to a daylong visit to the Regional Science Centre located in Bhopal. In second tier, randomly selected half of those who visited earlier were again taken to the Science Centre to make models of Science. And in third tier, all the boys and girls studying science were exposed to video lectures and study material through web. The results have shown an interesting face towards learning science among youths in rural schools through peer learning or incremental learning. The students who had little or no interest in learning science became good learners and queries started pouring in from the neighbourhood village as well as a few parents requested to take their wards in the project to learn science. The paper presented is a case study of the experiment conducted in five rural schools of Sehore District. It reflects upon the methodology of developing awareness and interest among students and finally engaging them in popularising science through peer-to-peer learning using incremental learning elements. The students, who had a poor perception about science initially, had changed their attitude towards learning science during the project period. The results of this case, however, cannot be generalised unless replicated in the same setting elsewhere.

Keywords: popularisation of science, science temper, incremental learning, peer-to-peer learning

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166 Linking Remittances and Household Level Development in India: An Analysis of NSSO 64th Round Data

Authors: Rakesh Mishra, Mukunda Upadhyay, Rajni Singh


This paper attempts to link remittances sent by internal as well as international out-migrants and its domestic preferences of usage in three different dimension of Household level development in India and its states. Investment of remittances in these sectors reveals for mixed choices of preferential among the states from where people have out-migrated. The multivariate analysis implies that among all three indicators of human development, health (Investment in Food and Health) is the one that attracts the major investment followed by capital formation and least on Education. Usage of the remittances has been found to be varying across all the states in India as far as usage in health, capital formation and education are concerned. Orissa, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, D & H Haweli are some of the states and union territory that contributes highest of its international remittances on health, while most of the usage of the internal remittances has second or third preferences of investment on the health except for Uttar Pradesh, D & H Haweli, Arunachal Pradesh and A & N Is. This paper tries to access usage of international remittances as well as internal remittances on the flow of remittances at the micro level and its implications across three basic determinants of Human Development that is Health, Capital formation and Education coupled with the preferences of usage in presence of Several Socio economic and Demographic variable.

Keywords: multivariate analysis, household development, remittances, internal and international migration

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165 Seismicity and Ground Response Analysis for MP Tourism Office in Indore, India

Authors: Deepshikha Shukla, C. H. Solanki, Mayank Desai


In the last few years, it has been observed that earthquake is proving a threat to the scientist across the world. With a large number of earthquakes occurring in day to day life, the threat to life and property has increased manifolds which call for an urgent attention of all the researchers globally to carry out the research in the field of Earthquake Engineering. Any hazard related to the earthquake and seismicity is considered to be seismic hazards. The common forms of seismic hazards are Ground Shaking, Structure Damage, Structural Hazards, Liquefaction, Landslides, Tsunami to name a few. Among all the natural hazards, the most devastating and damaging is the earthquake as all other hazards are triggered only after the occurrence of an earthquake. In order to quantify and estimate the seismicity and seismic hazards, many methods and approaches have been proposed in the past few years. Such approaches are Mathematical, Conventional and Computational. Convex Set Theory, Empirical Green’s Function are some of the Mathematical Approaches whereas the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches are the Conventional Approach for the estimation of the seismic Hazards. Ground response and Ground Shaking of a particular area or region plays an important role in the damage caused due to the earthquake. In this paper, seismic study using Deterministic Approach and 1 D Ground Response Analysis has been carried out for Madhya Pradesh Tourism Office in Indore Region in Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Indore lies in the seismic zone III (IS: 1893, 2002) in the Seismic Zoning map of India. There are various faults and lineament in this area and Narmada Some Fault and Gavilgadh fault are the active sources of earthquake in the study area. Deepsoil v6.1.7 has been used to perform the 1 D Linear Ground Response Analysis for the study area. The Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of the city ranges from 0.1g to 0.56g.

Keywords: seismicity, seismic hazards, deterministic, probabilistic methods, ground response analysis

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164 The Reality of Food Scarcity in Madhya Pradesh: Is It a Glimpse or Not?

Authors: Kalyan Sundar Som, Ghanshyam Prasad Jhariya


Population growth is an important pervasive phenomenon in the world. Its survival depends upon many daily needs and food is one of them. Population factors play a decisive role in the human endeavor to attain food. Nutrition and health status compose integral part of human development and progress of a society. Therefore, the neglect any one of these components may leads to the deterioration of the quality of life. Food is also intimately related with economic growth and social progress as well as with political stability and peace. It refers to the availability of food and its access to it. It can be observed from global to local level. Food scarcity has emerged as a matter of great concern all over the world due to uncontrolled and unregulated growth of population .For this purpose this study try to find out the deficit or surplus production of food availability in terms of their total population in the study area. It also ascertains the population pressure, demand and supply of food stuff and demarcation of insecure areas.The data base of the study under discussion includes government published data regarding agriculture production, yield and cropped area in 2005-06 to 2011-12 available at commissioner land record Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior. It also includes the census of India for population data. For measuring food security or insecurity regions is based on the consumption of net food available in terms caloric value minus the consumption by the weighted total population. This approach has been adopted because the direct estimate of production and consumption is the only reliable way to ascertain food security in a unit area and to compare one area with another (Noor Mohammad, dec. 2002). The scenario in 2005-06 is 57.78 percent district has food insufficient in terms of their population. On the other hand after 5 years, there are only 22 % districts are deficit in term of food availability where Burhanpur is the most deficit (56 percent) district. While 20% district are highly surplus district in the state where Harda and Hoshangabad districts are very high surplus district (5 times and 3.95 times) in term of food availability(2011). The drastic change (agriculture transformation) is happen due government good intervention in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: agriculture transformation, caloric value method, deficit or surplus region, population pressure

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163 Strategic Analysis of Loss of Urban Heritage in Bhopal City Due to Infrastructure Development

Authors: Aishwarya K. V., Shreya Sudesh


Built along the edges of a 11th century CE man-made lake, the city of Bhopal has stood witness to historic layers dating back to Palaeolithic times; early and medieval kingdoms ranging from the Parmaras, Pratiharas to tribal Gonds; the Begum-Nawabs and finally became the Capital of Madhya Pradesh, post-Independence. The lake more popularly called the Upper Lake was created by the King Raja Bhoj from the Parmara dynasty in 1010 AD when he constructed a bund wall across the Kolans river. Atop this bund wall lies the Kamlapati Mahal - which was part of the royal enclosure built in 1702 belonging to the Gond Kingdom. The Mahal is the epicentre of development in the city because it lies in the centre of the axis joining the Old core and New City. Rapid urbanisation descended upon the city once it became the administrative capital of Madhya Pradesh, a newly-formed state of an Independent India. Industrial pockets began being set up and refugees from the Indo-Pakistan separation settled in various regions of the city. To cater to these sudden growth, there was a boom in infrastructure development in the late twentieth century which included precarious decisions made in terms of handling heritage sites causing the destruction of significant parts of the historic fabric. And this practice continues to this day as buffer/ protected zones are breached through exemptions and the absence of robust regulations allow further deterioration of urban heritage. The aim of the research is to systematically study in detail the effect of the urban infrastructure development of the city and its adverse effect on the existing heritage fabric. Through the paper, an attempt to study the parameters involved in preparing the Masterplan of the city and other development projects is done. The research would follow a values-led approach to study the heritage fabric where the significance of the place is assessed based on the values attributed by stakeholders. This approach will involve collection and analysis of site data, assessment of the significance of the site and listing of potential. The study would also attempt to arrive at a solution to deal with urban development along with the protection of the heritage fabric.

Keywords: heritage management, infrastructure development, urban conservation, urban heritage

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162 Study of Land Use Land Cover Change of Bhimbetka with Temporal Satellite Data and Information Systems

Authors: Pranita Shivankar, Devashree Hardas, Prabodhachandra Deshmukh, Arun Suryavanshi


Bhimbetka Rock Shelters is the UNESCO World Heritage Site located about 45 kilometers south of Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Rapid changes in land use land cover (LULC) adversely affect the environment. In recent past, significant changes are found in the cultural landscape over a period of time. The objective of the paper was to study the changes in land use land cover (LULC) of Bhimbetka and its peripheral region. For this purpose, the supervised classification was carried out by using satellite images of Landsat and IRS LISS III for the year 2000 and 2013. Use of remote sensing in combination with geographic information system is one of the effective information technology tools to generate land use land cover (LULC) change information.

Keywords: IRS LISS III, Landsat, LULC, UNESCO, World Heritage Site

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161 A Study of Impact of Changing Fuel Practices on Organic Carbon and Elemental Carbon Levels in Indoor Air in Two States of India

Authors: Kopal Verma, Umesh C. Kulshrestha


India is a rural major country and majority of rural population is dependent on burning of biomass as fuel for domestic cooking on traditional stoves (Chullahs) and heating purposes. This results into indoor air pollution and ultimately affects health of the residents. Still, a very small fraction of rural population has been benefitted by the facilities of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cylinders. Different regions of country follow different methods and use different type of biomass for cooking. So in order to study the differences in cooking practices and resulting indoor air pollution, this study was carried out in two rural areas of India viz. Budhwada, Madhya Pradesh and Baggi, Himachal Pradesh. Both the regions have significant differences in terms of topography, culture and daily practices. Budhwada lies in plain area and Baggi belongs to hilly terrain. The study of carbonaceous aerosols was carried out in four different houses of each village. The residents were asked to bring slight change in their practices by cooking only with biomass (BB) then with a mix of biomass and LPG (BL) and then finally only with LPG (LP). It was found that in BB, average values of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 28% and 44% lower in Budhwada than in Baggi whereas a reverse trend was found where OC and EC was respectively more by 56% and 26% with BL and by 54% and 29% with LP in Budhwada than in Baggi. Although, a significant reduction was found both in Budhwada (OC by 49% and EC by 34%) as well as in Baggi (OC by 84% and EC by 73%) when cooking was shifted from BB to LP. The OC/EC ratio was much higher for Budhwada (BB=9.9; BL=2.5; LP=6.1) than for Baggi (BB=1.7; BL=1.6; LP=1.3). The correlation in OC and EC was found to be excellent in Baggi (r²=0.93) and relatively poor in Budhwada (r²=0.65). A questionnaire filled by the residents suggested that they agree to the health benefits of using LPG over biomass burning but the challenges of supply of LPG and changing the prevailing tradition of cooking on Chullah are making it difficult for them to make this shift.

Keywords: biomass burning, elemental carbon, liquefied petroluem gas, organic carbon

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160 Dynamics of Soil Fertility Management in India: An Empirical Analysis

Authors: B. Suresh Reddy


The over dependence on chemical fertilizers for nutrient management in crop production for the last few decades has led to several problems affecting soil health, environment and farmers themselves. Based on the field work done in 2012-13 with 1080 farmers of different size-classes in semi-arid regions of Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh states of India, this paper reveals that the farmers in semi-arid regions of India are actively managing soil fertility and other soil properties through a wide range of practices that are based on local resources and knowledge. It also highlights the socio-economic web woven around these soil fertility management practices. This study highlights the contribution of organic matter by traditional soil fertility management practices in maintaining the soil health. Livestock has profound influence on the soil fertility enhancement through supply of organic manure. Empirical data of this study has clearly revealed how farmers’ soil fertility management options are being undermined by government policies that give more priority to chemical fertiliser-based strategies. Based on the findings it is argued that there should be a 'level playing field' for both organic and inorganic soil fertility management methods by promoting and supporting farmers in using organic methods. There is a need to provide credit to farmers for adopting his choice of soil fertility management methods which suits his socio-economic conditions and that best suits the long term productivity of soils. The study suggests that the government policies related to soil fertility management must be enabling, creating the conditions for development based more on locally available resources and local skills and knowledge. This will not only keep Indian soils in healthy condition but also support the livelihoods of millions of people, especially the small and marginal farmers.

Keywords: livestock, organic matter, small farmers, soil fertility

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159 Elementary Education Outcome Efficiency in Indian States

Authors: Jyotsna Rosario, K. R. Shanmugam


Since elementary education is a merit good, considerable public resources are allocated to universalise it. However, elementary education outcomes vary across the Indian States. Evidences indicate that while some states are lagging in elementary education outcome primarily due to lack of resources and poor schooling infrastructure, others are lagging despite resource abundance and well-developed schooling infrastructure. Addressing the issue of efficiency, the study employs Stochastic Frontier Analysis for panel data of 27 Indian states from 2012-13 to 2017-18 to estimate the technical efficiency of State governments in generating enrolment. The mean efficiency of states was estimated to be 58%. Punjab, Meghalaya, and West Bengal were found to be the most efficient states. Whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are one of the most inefficient states. This study emphasizes the efficient utilisation of public resources and helps in the identification of best practices.

Keywords: technical efficiency, public expenditure, elementary education outcome, stochastic frontier analysis

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158 Tracing Ethnic Identity through Prehistoric Paintings and Tribal Art in Central India

Authors: Indrani Chattopadhyaya


This paper seeks to examine how identity – a cultural self-image of a group of people develops – how they live, they think, they celebrate and express their world view through language, gesture, symbols, and rituals. 'Culture' is a way of life and 'identity' is assertion of that cultural self-image practiced by the group. The way in which peoples live varies from time to time and from place to place. This variation is important for their identity. Archaeologists have classified these patterns of spacial variations as 'archaeological culture.' These cultures are identified 'self-consciously' with a particular social group indicating ethnicity. The ethnic identity as archaeological cultures also legitimizes the claims of modern groups to territory. In prehistoric research problems of ethnicity and multiculturalism, stylistic attributes significantly reflect both group membership and individuality. In India, anthropologists feel that though tribes have suffered relative isolation through history, they have remained an integral part of Indian civilization. The term 'tribe' calls for substitution with a more meaningful name with an indigenous flavour 'Adivasi' (original inhabitants of the land).While studying prehistoric rock paintings from central India - Sonbhadra (Uttar Pradesh) and Bhimbetka (Madhya Pradesh), one is struck by the similarity between stylistic attributes of painted motifs in the prehistoric rock shelters and the present day indigenous art of Kol and Bhil tribes in the area, who have not seen these prehistoric rock paintings, yet are carrying on with the tradition of painting and decorating their houses in the same way. They worship concretionary sandstone blocks with triangular laminae as Goddess, Devi, Shakti. This practice is going on since Upper Palaeolithic period confirmed by archaeological excavation. The past is legitimizing the role of the present groups by allowing them to trace their roots from earlier times.

Keywords: ethnic identity, hermeneutics, semiotics, Adivasi

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157 Understanding the Linkages of Human Development and Fertility Change in Districts of Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Mamta Rajbhar, Sanjay K. Mohanty


India's progress in achieving replacement level of fertility is largely contingent on fertility reduction in the state of Uttar Pradesh as it accounts 17% of India's population with a low level of development. Though the TFR in the state has declined from 5.1 in 1991 to 3.4 by 2011, it conceals large differences in fertility level across districts. Using data from multiple sources this paper tests the hypothesis that the improvement in human development significantly reduces the fertility levels in districts of Uttar Pradesh. The unit of analyses is district, and fertility estimates are derived using the reverse survival method(RSM) while human development indices(HDI) are are estimated using uniform methodology adopted by UNDP for three period. The correlation and linear regression models are used to examine the relationship of fertility change and human development indices across districts. Result show the large variation and significant change in fertility level among the districts of Uttar Pradesh. During 1991-2011, eight districts had experienced a decline of TFR by 10-20%, 30 districts by 20-30% and 32 districts had experienced decline of more than 30%. On human development aspect, 17 districts recorded increase of more than 0.170 in HDI, 18 districts in the range of 0.150-0.170, 29 districts between 0.125-0.150 and six districts in the range of 0.1-0.125 during 1991-2011. Study shows significant negative relationship between HDI and TFR. HDI alone explains 70% variation in TFR. Also, the regression coefficient of TFR and HDI has become stronger over time; from -0.524 in 1991, -0.7477 by 2001 and -0.7181 by 2010. The regression analyses indicate that 0.1 point increase in HDI value will lead to 0.78 point decline in TFR. The HDI alone explains 70% variation in TFR. Improving the HDI will certainly reduce the fertility level in the districts.

Keywords: Fertility, HDI, Uttar Pradesh

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156 Study of Sustainability Practices Ingrained in Indian Culture

Authors: Shraddha Mahore Manjrekar


Culture has been an integral part of the civilizations in the world. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Author has observed and thought about the relation of Indian traditional cultural beliefs and their relation to the sustainable environment. There are some unwritten norms regarding the use of resources and the environment in Indian continent, that have been commonly accepted by the people for building houses and settlements since the Vedic period . The research has been done on the chanting and prayers done in a number of houses and temples in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. After doing some research, it was also found that resource assessment had also been done for the entire country, and an idea of conservation of these resources was imbibed in the common people by means of some traditions, customs and beliefs. The sensitization and gratefulness about natural resources have been observed in the major beliefs and customs. This paper describes few of such beliefs and customs that are directly linked with the built environment and landscape.

Keywords: Indian culture, sacred groves, sustainability in built environment, sustainability practices

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155 An Amphibious House for Flood Prone Areas in Godavari River Basin

Authors: Gangadhara Rao K.


In Andhra Pradesh traditionally, the flood problem had been confined to the flooding of smaller rivers. But the drainage problem in the coastal delta zones has worsened, multiplying the destructive potential of cyclones and increasing flood hazards. As a result of floods, the people living around these areas are forced to move out of their traditions in search of higher altitude places. This paper will be discussing about suitability of techniques used in Bangladesh in context of Godavari river basin in Andhra Pradesh. The study considers social, physical and environmental conditions of the region. The methods for achieving this objective includes the study of both cases from Bangladesh and Andhra Pradesh. Comparison with the existing techniques and suit to our requirements and context. If successful, we can adopt those techniques and this might help the people living in riverfront areas to stay safe during the floods without losing their traditional lands.

Keywords: amphibious, bouyancy, floating, architecture, flood resistent

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154 Deprivation of Adivasi People's Rights to Forest Resources: A Case Study from United Andhra Pradesh India

Authors: Anil Kumar Kursenge


In the State of united Andhra Pradesh, many Adivasi People live in areas rich in living and non-living resources, including forests that contain abundant biodiversity, water and minerals. Of united Andhra Pradesh 76.2m population, over five million are Adivasi population of forest landscape. They depend on forests for a substantial part of their livelihoods and close cultural affinity with forests. However, they are the most impoverished population of the State, and the high levels of poverty in Andhra Pradesh forest landscapes are largely an outcome of historically-rooted institutionalised marginalisation. As the State appropriated forests and forest land for itself, it deprived local people of their customary rights in the forest. The local realities of the forest rights deprivations are extremely complex, reflecting a century and a half of compounded processes. With growing population pressure and ever-increasing demands for natural and mineral resources, Adivasi Peoples' lands, which are often relatively rich in resources, become more and more attractive to 'developers.' The development projects and institutionalised marginalisation have been deprived Adivasi people's rights over natural resources has resulted in serious negative effects on Adivasi people and on their lands. Historically, the desire for development for such resources has resulted in the removal, decimation, or extermination of many tribal communities. These deprivations have led to highly conflictual relations between the State and the Adivasi people and forest areas in Andhra Pradesh. Today, the survival of the Adivasi Peoples requires recognition of their rights to the forest resources found in their lands and territories on which they depend for their economic, cultural, survival, spiritual and physical well-being. In this context, this paper attempts to discuss the issues of deprivation with regard to access to forest resources and development projects where many Adivasis in State uprooted from their homes and lands.

Keywords: tribal people, forest rights, livelihoods, deprivation, marginalisation, Andhra Pradesh

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153 A Board of Comparative Study of Central Secondary Education (CBSE) and Board of Secondry Education Madhya Pradesh BHOPAL (BSEMPB) Hindi Text Books of Class-VI

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra, Badri Yadav


Proficient persons should be involved in formulation of the structure of the textbooks so that the topics selected in the Hindi textbooks for Class VII should contribute towards linguistic and literary development of the child and the language of the textbook matches the comprehension level of the student.The topics of tile textbooks should provide good illustrations and suitable exercises. Topics of variety of taste can be included in the textbook to satisfy the inquisitive children. There could be abstracts/hints at the beginning of each lesson. Meanings for difficult words must be given at the end of each topic for convenience of the parents and children as most of them find it difficult and time consuming to use Hindi dictionary. Exercises should be relevant covering the whole topic and the difficulty level should match the maturity level of the students in respect of CBSE Board. The stitching and binding of CBSE prescribed books may be improved to increase durability.

Keywords: comparative study of CBSE and BSEMPB, Central Secondary Education, Board of Secondry Education, BHOPAL

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152 Reduction in Population Growth under Various Contraceptive Strategies in Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Prashant Verma, K. K. Singh, Anjali Singh, Ujjaval Srivastava


Contraceptive policies have been derived to achieve desired reductions in the growth rate and also, applied to the data of Uttar-Pradesh, India for illustration. Using the Lotka’s integral equation for the stable population, expressions for the proportion of contraceptive users at different ages have been obtained. At the age of 20 years, 42% of contraceptive users is imperative to reduce the present annual growth rate of 0.036 to 0.02, assuming that 40% of the contraceptive users discontinue at the age of 25 years and 30% again continue contraceptive use at age 30 years. Further, presuming that 75% of women start using contraceptives at the age of 23 years, and 50% of the remaining women start using contraceptives at the age of 28 years, while the rest of them start using it at the age of 32 years. If we set a minimum age of marriage as 20 years, a reduction of 0.019 in growth rate will be obtained. This study describes how the level of contraceptive use at different age groups of women reduces the growth rate in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The article also promotes delayed marriage in the region.

Keywords: child bearing, contraceptive devices, contraceptive policies, population growth, stable population

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151 Influence of Colonial Architecture on South Indian Vernacular Constructions: A Case of Venkatagiri in Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Jahnavi Priya Alluri, Sarang Barbarwar


With over 6000 years of sustained civilization, India has been home to diverse social customs and various communities. The country’s culture and architecture have been profoundly impacted by the extensive variation in its geography and climatic conditions. In its history, many kingdoms have ruled in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The vernacular constructions of this region have progressed considerably in this period. The paper discusses the impact on vernacular architecture in Venkatagiri, Andhra Pradesh, post the arrival of the British. The town was a small settlement that finds its roots in the Vijaynagara Empire. The study tries to highlight the amalgamation of colonial influences on the local construction techniques and material usage. It discusses the new variation in the style of architecture through the case of Venkatagiri Palace and its precincts. The paper also discusses the traits of distinction in the influence through various social and economic groups of the old city of the same town.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, colonial architecture, Venkatagiri, south Indian vernacular

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150 Comparative Study of Accuracy of Land Cover/Land Use Mapping Using Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study

Authors: M. C. Paliwal, A. K. Jain, S. K. Katiyar


Classification of satellite imagery is very important for the assessment of its accuracy. In order to determine the accuracy of the classified image, usually the assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data using Global Positioning System. The data collected from satellite imagery and ground truth data is then compared to find out the accuracy of data and error matrices are prepared. Overall and individual accuracies are calculated using different methods. The study illustrates advanced classification and accuracy assessment of land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. IRS-1C-LISS IV data were used for classification of satellite imagery. The satellite image was classified using the software in fourteen classes namely water bodies, agricultural fields, forest land, urban settlement, barren land and unclassified area etc. Classification of satellite imagery and calculation of accuracy was done by using ERDAS-Imagine software to find out the best method. This study is based on the data collected for Bhopal city boundaries of Madhya Pradesh State of India.

Keywords: resolution, accuracy assessment, land use mapping, satellite imagery, ground truth data, error matrices

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149 Disparities in the Levels of Economic Development in Uttar Pradesh: A Regional Analysis

Authors: Naushaba Naseem Ahmed


Economic development does not merely depend upon the level of development but also on its distributive aspect. As it is a serious issue, the fruit of development is not equally distributed among the different section of peoples and different part of the country this cause the regional disparities in the levels of social economic development. Different part of the country has different resource endowments in term of natural, human and capital. If there is the uniform condition to grow, these areas that have better resources, are favourably placed grow comparatively faster as other areas. Thus with the very stage of development, gap between resourceful and less resourceful area goes on widening. This paper is an attempt to highlight the levels of disparities in term of economic development with the help of selected variables. Principal component analysis, correlation, and coefficient of variation are the techniques which were used in paper and employed published data for analysis. The result shows that Western region of Uttar Pradesh is more developed followed by Central Region. There will be urgent need in investment and developmental policies for the backward region like Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: coefficient of variation, correlation, economic development, principal component analysis

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148 Assessing the Socio-Economic Problems and Environmental Implications of Green Revolution In Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Naima Umar


Mid-1960’s has been landmark in the history of Indian agriculture. It was in 1966-67 when a New Agricultural Strategy was put into practice to tide over chronic shortages of food grains in the country. This strategy adopted was the use High-Yielding Varieties (HYV) of seeds (wheat and rice), which was popularly known as the Green Revolution. This phase of agricultural development has saved us from hunger and starvation and made the peasants more confident than ever before, but it has also created a number of socio-economic and environmental implications such as the reduction in area under forest, salinization, waterlogging, soil erosion, lowering of underground water table, soil, water and air pollution, decline in soil fertility, silting of rivers and emergence of several diseases and health hazards. The state of Uttar Pradesh in the north is bounded by the country of Nepal, the states of Uttrakhand on the northwest, Haryana on the west, Rajasthan on the southwest, Madhya Pradesh on the south and southwest, and Bihar on the east. It is situated between 23052´N and 31028´N latitudes and 7703´ and 84039´E longitudes. It is the fifth largest state of the country in terms of area, and first in terms of population. Forming the part of Ganga plain the state is crossed by a number of rivers which originate from the snowy peaks of Himalayas. The fertile plain of the Ganga has led to a high concentration of population with high density and the dominance of agriculture as an economic activity. Present paper highlights the negative impact of new agricultural technology on health of the people and environment and will attempt to find out factors which are responsible for these implications. Karl Pearson’s Correlation coefficient technique has been applied by selecting 1 dependent variable (i.e. Productivity Index) and some independent variables which may impact crop productivity in the districts of the state. These variables have categorized as: X1 (Cropping Intensity), X2 (Net irrigated area), X3 (Canal Irrigated area), X4 (Tube-well Irrigated area), X5 (Irrigated area by other sources), X6 (Consumption of chemical fertilizers (NPK) Kg. /ha.), X7 (Number of wooden plough), X8 (Number of iron plough), X9 (Number of harrows and cultivators), X10 (Number of thresher machines), X11(Number of sprayers), X12 (Number of sowing instruments), X13 (Number of tractors) and X14 (Consumption of insecticides and pesticides (in Kg. /000 ha.). The entire data during 2001-2005 and 2006- 2010 have been taken and 5 years average value is taken into consideration, based on secondary sources obtained from various government, organizations, master plan report, economic abstracts, district census handbooks and village and town directories etc,. put on a standard computer programmed SPSS and the results obtained have been properly tabulated.

Keywords: agricultural technology, environmental implications, health hazards, socio-economic problems

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147 Prevalence and Intensity of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections among the School Children in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Prasanta Saini, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Subrata Majumdar


Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are the major problem in all the nations of the world. The major focus of STH research is to study the prevalence of three major helminths, such as Ascaris, Trituris and hookworm. Here we are reporting the prevalence and intensity of the STH in the school children of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of STH infection among the school children, aged between 5-10 years in 27 districts randomly selected districts with covering nine agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. For this cross-sectional survey, we have selected the populations of government primary school going children in Uttar Pradesh. The sampling was performed in the nine different agro-climatic zones. Every individual of the study populations filled their daily information in the questioner's form and then the sample was collected and processed by kato-katz methods by following the guidelines of WHO. In this method, the sampling was performed in total of 6421 populations. A total of 6,421 children from 130 schools were surveyed. Infection with any soil-transmitted helminths was detected among 4,578 children with an overall prevalence of 75.6% (95% CI: 65.3-83.6). Among the 6421 population, the prevalence of Ascaris is 69.6% (95% CL 57.97-79.11), hookworm is 22.7% (95%CL 19.3-26.3) and Trichuris sp is 4.6% (95% CL 0.8-21.6), so the predicted prevalence map indicates that the STH infection was hyperendemic in this state. The findings of our survey in 130 schools covering 9 agro-climatic with one or more soil transmitted helminths. Majority of STH infections were of light intensity. STH infection was hyper-endemic in entire state, except three zones in western Uttar Pradesh. High prevalence ( > 75%) in all age groups also indicate little impact of existing deworming initiatives, including those among pre-school aged children. WHO recommends annual treatment in areas where STH prevalence is between 20% and 50%, and, a bi-annual treatment in areas with prevalence rates of over 50%. In view of high prevalence of STH infection in Uttar Pradesh, it is strongly recommended to initiate a deworming programme for school children in the state. Although our survey was among primary school children, high prevalence among children aged 4-6 years also indicates the need to strengthen the existing deworming programs for pre-school children. Extending the benefits of deworming to pre-school children through deworming in Anganwadi schools would further reduce to decrease the load of infection in community. As a long-term solution for control STH infection, it is also necessary to improve the sanitation levels in the area, as majority of the houses did not have latrines and most of the children were defecating in open fields, a factor that was found to be significantly associated with STH infection.

Keywords: prevalence, school going children, soil transmitted helminthes, Uttar Pradesh-India

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146 Users and Non-Users of Social Media: An Exploratory Study of Rural Women in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Neha Bhushan


For the purpose of this study a village of district Azamgarh has been selected which is a part of the most populous and backward state of the country, Uttar Pradesh. In the age of information, everyone has the right to acquire information and it becomes important to assess the acceptance and non-acceptance of social media among rural population. Rural women of the state are showing positive trends in the form of increased social media and mobile usage. This study is an effort to know the purpose of rural women for using social media. The study design is exploratory and qualitative in nature. Data collection primarily consisted of 25 semi-structured individual interviews having 10 open-ended specific questions in one of the villages of Azamgarh district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Sampling approach is flexible and situational. Data reveals that rural women have become active on social media since last six months to one year. Most of them are using Facebook, Whatsapp, and YouTube for the purpose of interaction, learning new skills, checking out recipes and latest fashion. This pilot study gives a bird eye view of the problem and opens door for exploring this least explored area.

Keywords: exploratory research, mobile usage, rural women, social media

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