Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: Yunus Ziya Arslan

118 Estimation of Forces Applied to Forearm Using EMG Signal Features to Control of Powered Human Arm Prostheses

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Derya Karabulut, Yunus Ziya Arslan

Abstract:

Myoelectric features gathering from musculature environment are considered on a preferential basis to perceive muscle activation and control human arm prostheses according to recent experimental researches. EMG (electromyography) signal based human arm prostheses have shown a promising performance in terms of providing basic functional requirements of motions for the amputated people in recent years. However, these assistive devices for neurorehabilitation still have important limitations in enabling amputated people to perform rather sophisticated or functional movements. Surface electromyogram (EMG) is used as the control signal to command such devices. This kind of control consists of activating a motion in prosthetic arm using muscle activation for the same particular motion. Extraction of clear and certain neural information from EMG signals plays a major role especially in fine control of hand prosthesis movements. Many signal processing methods have been utilized for feature extraction from EMG signals. The specific objective of this study was to compare widely used time domain features of EMG signal including integrated EMG(IEMG), root mean square (RMS) and waveform length(WL) for prediction of externally applied forces to human hands. Obtained features were classified using artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict the forces. EMG signals supplied to process were recorded during only type of muscle contraction which is isometric and isotonic one. Experiments were performed by three healthy subjects who are right-handed and in a range of 25-35 year-old aging. EMG signals were collected from muscles of the proximal part of the upper body consisting of: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectorialis major and trapezius. The force prediction results obtained from the ANN were statistically analyzed and merits and pitfalls of the extracted features were discussed with detail. The obtained results are anticipated to contribute classification process of EMG signal and motion control of powered human arm prosthetics control.

Keywords: assistive devices for neurorehabilitation, electromyography, feature extraction, force estimation, human arm prosthesis

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117 The Influence of Leader’s Sources of Power on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohamed Yunus, Noorlaila Yunus, Kadulliah Ghazali

Abstract:

In this an era of intense competition, Malaysia aspires to be a fully developed country by 2020 and desires its citizens to perform and execute excellent work behaviors. For that reason, organizations are focusing on employees’ positive and constructive behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). They expect employees to not only complete their required duties by providing excellent performance but also keenly go beyond their roles that are not specifying in their formal job descriptions to ensure organizational success. The role and duty to acquire employees to engage and connect in OCB is the responsibility of a leader. Thus, leaders can utilize their sources of power to enable subordinates to accomplish organizational objective including OCB. Therefore, this paper formulates a framework postulating leader’s sources of power as an antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The discussion on implications for future theory development is discussed.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), leader’s sources of power, call centre industry, conceptual paper

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116 Schools of Thought in the Field of Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Cris Bravo

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is a new and exciting topic that holds a great promise in helping alleviate the social problems of the world. As a new subject, the meaning of the term is too broad and this is counterproductive in trying to build understanding around the concept. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the elements of social entrepreneurship as defined by seven international organizations leading social entrepreneurship projects: Ashoka Foundation, Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation and Yunus Center; as well as from three other institutions fostering social entrepreneurship: Global Social Benefit Institute, BRAC University, and Socialab. The study used document analysis from Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation, Yunus Center and Ashoka Foundation; and open ended interview to experts from the Global Social Benefit Institute at Santa Clara University in United States, BRAC University from Bangladesh, and Socialab from Argentina. The study identified three clearly differentiated schools of thought, based on their views on revenue, scalability, replicability and geographic location. While this study is by no means exhaustive, it provides an indication of the patterns of ideas fostered by important players in the field. By clearly identifying the similarities and differences in the concept of social entrepreneurship, research and practitioners are better equipped to build on the subject, and to promote more adequate and accurate social policies to foster the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: replicability, revenue, scalability, schools of thought, social entrepreneurship

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115 Critical Discourse Analysis of Political TV Talk Show of Pakistani Media

Authors: Sumaira Saleem, Sajjad Hussain, Asma Kashif Shahzad, Hina Shaheen

Abstract:

This study aims at exploring the relationship between language and ideology and how such relationships are represented in the analysis of spoken texts, following Van Dijk’s Socio Cognitive Model (2002). In this study, it is tried to show that political Talk shows broadcast by Private TV channels are working apparatuses of ideology and store meanings which are not always obvious for readers. This analysis was about the situation created by Arslan Iftkhar, the son of ex-Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudry and PTI Chief Imran Khan. Arslan Iftikhar submitted an application against Imran Khan that he is not able to become a member of parliament of Pakistan. In the application, he demanded the documents, which are submitted by Imran Khan at the time of Election to the Election Commission of Pakistan. Murad Ali from PTI also submitted an application against PM Nawaz Sharif to the Election Commission of Pakistan for providing the copies. It also suggests that these talk shows mystify the agency of processes by using various strategies. In other words, critical text analyses reveal how these choices enable speakers to manipulate the realizations of agency and power in the representation of action to produce particular meanings which are not always explicit for all readers.

Keywords: ECP, CDA, socio cognitive model, ideology, TV channels, power

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114 Synthesis of SnO Novel Cabbage Nanostructure and Its Electrochemical Property as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

Authors: Yongkui Cui, Fengping Wang, Hailei Zhao, Muhammad Zubair Iqbal, Ziya Wang, Yan Li, Pengpeng LV

Abstract:

The novel 3D SnO cabbages self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal growth method under facile conditions.The XRD results manifest that the as-prepared SnO is tetragonal phase. The TEM and HRTEM results show that the cabbage nanosheets are polycrystalline structure consisted of considerable single-crystalline nanoparticles. Two typical Raman modes A1g=210 and Eg=112 cm-1 of SnO are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, galvanostatic cycling tests has been performed using the SnO cabbages as anode material of lithium ion battery and the electrochemical results suggest that the synthesized SnO cabbage structures are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

Keywords: electrochemical property, hydrothermal synthesis, lithium ion battery, stannous oxide

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113 Alternative Robust Estimators for the Shape Parameters of the Burr XII Distribution

Authors: Fatma Zehra Doğru, Olcay Arslan

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In this paper, we propose alternative robust estimators for the shape parameters of the Burr XII distribution. We provide a small simulation study and a real data example to illustrate the performance of the proposed estimators over the ML and the LS estimators.

Keywords: burr xii distribution, robust estimator, m-estimator, least squares

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112 Long-Persistent Luminescent MAl2O4:Eu;Dy Phoshors Synthesized by Combustion

Authors: Yusuf Ziya Halefoğlu

Abstract:

Phosphorescence, classically, excitation effects (radiation, electron beam, electric field, temperature, etc.) is the name given after the elimination of materials that glow in the visible region. This event continues to glow after the elimination of the effect of excitation is called phosphorescence. In this study were synthesized by the method of the combustion lanthanide doped alkaline earth aluminates. High temperature and long reaction time required and the sol-gel method of combustion according to the methods of solid state synthesis temperature lower than the short reaction time, a small particle size, convenience, and is superior in terms of being secured. Their microstructures and its effect on the photoluminescence properties were studied. Phosphorescence is derived in the dark when produced materials are held in sunlight or under ultraviolet light typically at 365-520 nm wavelength range. In this study, the optimal ratio of rare earth elements, in terms of brightness and glow duration was examined by SEM, XRD and photoluminescence analysis.

Keywords: persistence luminescence, phosphorescence, trap depth, combustion method

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111 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

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The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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110 Materialized View Effect on Query Performance

Authors: Yusuf Ziya Ayık, Ferhat Kahveci

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Currently, database management systems have various tools such as backup and maintenance, and also provide statistical information such as resource usage and security. In terms of query performance, this paper covers query optimization, views, indexed tables, pre-computation materialized view, query performance analysis in which query plan alternatives can be created and the least costly one selected to optimize a query. Indexes and views can be created for related table columns. The literature review of this study showed that, in the course of time, despite the growing capabilities of the database management system, only database administrators are aware of the need for dealing with archival and transactional data types differently. These data may be constantly changing data used in everyday life, and also may be from the completed questionnaire whose data input was completed. For both types of data, the database uses its capabilities; but as shown in the findings section, instead of repeating similar heavy calculations which are carrying out same results with the same query over a survey results, using materialized view results can be in a more simple way. In this study, this performance difference was observed quantitatively considering the cost of the query.

Keywords: cost of query, database management systems, materialized view, query performance

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109 Model Driven Architecture Methodologies: A Review

Authors: Arslan Murtaza

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Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is technique presented by OMG (Object Management Group) for software development in which different models are proposed and converted them into code. The main plan is to identify task by using PIM (Platform Independent Model) and transform it into PSM (Platform Specific Model) and then converted into code. In this review paper describes some challenges and issues that are faced in MDA, type and transformation of models (e.g. CIM, PIM and PSM), and evaluation of MDA-based methodologies.

Keywords: OMG, model driven rrchitecture (MDA), computation independent model (CIM), platform independent model (PIM), platform specific model(PSM), MDA-based methodologies

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108 Ethnographic Exploration of Elderly Residents' Perceptions and Utilization of Health Care to Improve Their Quality of Life

Authors: Seyed Ziya Tabatabaei, Azimi Bin Hj Hamzah, Fatemeh Ebrahimi

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The increase in proportion of older people in Malaysia has led to a significant growth of health care demands. The aim of this study is to explore how perceived health care needs influence on quality of life among elderly Malay residents who reside in a Malaysian residential home. This study employed a method known as ethnographic research from May 2011 to January 2012. Four data collection strategies were selected as the main data-collecting tools including participant observation, field notes, in-depth interviews, and review of related documents. The nine knowledgeable participants for the present study were selected using the purposive sampling method. Two themes were identified: (1) Medical concerns: Feeling secure, lack of information, inadequate medical staff; and (2) Health promotion: Body condition, health education, physiotherapy and rehabilitation. These results could evoke the attention of policy-makers and care providers to better meet elderly residents’ health care needs.

Keywords: ethnographic study, health care needs, Malay elderly people, Malaysia, Quality of life, Residential home

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107 Software Architecture Optimization Using Swarm Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Arslan Ellahi, Syed Amjad Hussain, Fawaz Saleem Bokhari

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Optimization of software architecture can be done with respect to a quality attributes (QA). In this paper, there is an analysis of multiple research papers from different dimensions that have been used to classify those attributes. We have proposed a technique of swarm intelligence Meta heuristic ant colony optimization algorithm as a contribution to solve this critical optimization problem of software architecture. We have ranked quality attributes and run our algorithm on every QA, and then we will rank those on the basis of accuracy. At the end, we have selected the most accurate quality attributes. Ant colony algorithm is an effective algorithm and will perform best in optimizing the QA’s and ranking them.

Keywords: complexity, rapid evolution, swarm intelligence, dimensions

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106 Healing Architecture and Evidence Based Design: An Interior Design Example in Medicana KızıLtoprak Hospital

Authors: Yunus Emre Kara, Atilla Kuzu, Levent Cirpici

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Recently, in the interior design of hospitals, the effect of the physical environment on the healing process has been frequently emphasized, and the importance of psychological and behavioral factors has increased day by day. When designing new hospital interiors, it became important to create spaces that not only meet medical requirements but also support the healing process of patients with interior design. In this study, the patient rooms, corridor, atrium area, waiting area, and entrance counter in a hospital were handled with patient-centered design, evidence-based design, and remedial architectural approaches, and it was seen that the healing and reassuring elements in hospitals were extremely important.

Keywords: evidence based design, healing architecture, hospital, organic design, parametric design

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105 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Castor Oil from Castor Bean

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Nurfarahin Bt Harun, Mardhiana Binti Ismail

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The microwave extraction has attracted great interest among the researchers. The main virtue of the microwave technique is cost-effective, time saving and simple handling procedure. Castor beans was chosen because of its high content in fatty acid, especially ricinoleic acid. The purpose of this research is to extract the castor oil by using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) using ethanol as solvent and to investigate the influence of extraction time on castor oil yield and to characterize the main composition of the produced castor oil by using the GC-MS. It was found that there is a direct dependence between the oil yield and the time of extraction as it increases from 45% to 58% as the time increase from 10 min to 60 min. The major components of castor oil detected by GC-MS were ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), castor oil, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid

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104 Why Trust Matters for Women Entrepreneurs: Insights from Malaysia

Authors: Suraini Mohd Rhouse, Noor Lela Ahmad, Nek Kamal Yeop Yunus, Rosfizah Md Taib

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This article aims to explore the importance of trust to women entrepreneurs. In particular, the research uses a social constructionist lens to examine ways in which women entrepreneurs construct trust in relation to their various stakeholders. A semi-structured interview was used to gather the data. The findings suggest women highlight the importance of trust in order to establish customer satisfaction that can further develop customer loyalty. In addition, aspect of trust with the employees is seen as vital for building organizational commitment to the business organization. Women also see the trust dimension in terms of their relationships with financial providers in order to gain approval for financial resources. This article contributes to the literature on the value of trust to women’s business environments.

Keywords: qualitative, social constructionist, trust, women entrepreneurship

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103 Influence of the Reliability Index on the Safety Factor of the Concrete Contribution to Shear Strength of HSC Beams

Authors: Ali Sagiroglu, Sema Noyan Alacali, Guray Arslan

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This paper presents a study on the influence of the safety factor in the concrete contribution to shear strength of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams according to TS500. In TS500, the contribution of concrete to shear strength is obtained by reducing diagonal cracking strength with a safety factor of 0.8. It was investigated that the coefficient of 0.8 considered in determining the contribution of concrete to the shear strength corresponds to which value of failure probability. Also, the changes in the reduction factor depending on different coefficients of variation of concrete were examined.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, beam, shear strength, failure probability, safety factor

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102 Investigation of VN/TiN Multilayer Coatings on AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: M. Ertas, A. C. Onel, G. Ekinci, B. Toydemir, S. Durdu, M. Usta, L. Colakerol Arslan

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To develop AZ91D magnesium alloys with improved properties, we have applied TiN and VN/TiN multilayer coatings using DC magnetron sputter technique. Coating structure, surface morphology, chemical bonding and corrosion resistance of coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tafel extrapolation method, respectively. XPS analysis reveal that VN overlayer reacts with oxygen at the VN/TiN interface and forms more stable TiN layer. Morphological investigations and the corrosion results show that VN/TiN multilayer thin film coatings are quite effective to optimize the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloys, high corrosion resistance, transition metal nitride coatings, magnetron sputter

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101 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari

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Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: framework, mobile technology, augmented reality, pre-literacy skills

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100 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

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Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells

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99 Social Business: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Mustafizur Rahaman

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Social business is a new concept in the field of Business Economics and Capitalist Economy. It has increased the importance in economic and social development in emerging economies. Professor Muhammad Yunus is the founding father of the notion. While conventional business underscores profit maximization as a core business principle, social business calls for addressing social problems at the expense of profit. This underlying principle gives social business advantageous position over conventional businesses to serve those who live at the bottom of the pyramid. It also poses grave challenges to the social business because social business sacrifices profit at one hand and seeks financial sustainability on the other. For the sake of its financial sustainability, the social business might increase the price of its product or service which might lower its social impact, thus, makes the business self-defeating. Therefore, social business should be more innovative in every business process including production, marketing, and management. Otherwise, the business is unlikely to be driven out from the society.

Keywords: innovativeness, self-defeat, social business, social problem

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98 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

Abstract:

In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, x-ray diffraction

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97 Towards a Conscious Design in AI by Overcoming Dark Patterns

Authors: Ayse Arslan

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One of the important elements underpinning a conscious design is the degree of toxicity in communication. This study explores the mechanisms and strategies for identifying toxic content by avoiding dark patterns. Given the breadth of hate and harassment attacks, this study explores a threat model and taxonomy to assist in reasoning about strategies for detection, prevention, mitigation, and recovery. In addition to identifying some relevant techniques such as nudges, automatic detection, or human-ranking, the study suggests the use of major metrics such as the overhead and friction of solutions on platforms and users or balancing false positives (e.g., incorrectly penalizing legitimate users) against false negatives (e.g., users exposed to hate and harassment) to maintain a conscious design towards fairness.

Keywords: AI, ML, algorithms, policy, system design

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96 Hand Gestures Based Emotion Identification Using Flex Sensors

Authors: S. Ali, R. Yunus, A. Arif, Y. Ayaz, M. Baber Sial, R. Asif, N. Naseer, M. Jawad Khan

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In this study, we have proposed a gesture to emotion recognition method using flex sensors mounted on metacarpophalangeal joints. The flex sensors are fixed in a wearable glove. The data from the glove are sent to PC using Wi-Fi. Four gestures: finger pointing, thumbs up, fist open and fist close are performed by five subjects. Each gesture is categorized into sad, happy, and excited class based on the velocity and acceleration of the hand gesture. Seventeen inspectors observed the emotions and hand gestures of the five subjects. The emotional state based on the investigators assessment and acquired movement speed data is compared. Overall, we achieved 77% accurate results. Therefore, the proposed design can be used for emotional state detection applications.

Keywords: emotion identification, emotion models, gesture recognition, user perception

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95 Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Fiber

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin, Mohammad Dalour Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

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Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were produced by using the ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp with different hydrolysis time then were analyzed by using FESEM and TGA as in comparison with EFB fiber and EFB pulp. Based on the FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a rod like shaped under the acid hydrolysis with an assistant of ultrasound. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained show remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to EFB fiber and EFB pulp. However, as the hydrolysis time increase, the thermal stability of NCC was deceased. As in conclusion, the NCC can be prepared by using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The NCC obtained have good thermal stability and have a great potential as the reinforcement in composite materials.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline cellulose, ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis, thermal stability, morphology, empty fruit bunch (EFB)

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94 Development of Winter Wears Having Improved Thermal Comfort and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Samen Boota, Arslan Ishaq

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More than 4 billion tons of chicken feathers are wasted yearly worldwide which is not environmental friendly. In order to make use of these 4 billion tons of feathers it is necessary to incorporate them to the textile materials. The main objective of this study is to develop the winter wears with improved thermal comfort and mechanical properties. Chick feathers were blended with cotton fibers to spin them into yarn, weave them dye them using reactive dyes. The developed fabric was tested for thermal comfort, tensile and tears strength. The results were also compared with pure cotton fabric of similar GSM. It is observed from the results that chicken feathers and cotton blended fabric was improved thermal comfort and mechanical properties.

Keywords: Alambeta, compatibilizing, permeability, sliver

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93 Effectiveness of Earthing System in Vertical Configurations

Authors: S. Yunus, A. Suratman, N. Mohamad Nor, M. Othman

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This paper presents the measurement and simulation results by Finite Element Method (FEM) for earth resistance (RDC) for interconnected vertical ground rod configurations. The soil resistivity was measured using the Wenner four-pin Method, and RDC was measured using the Fall of Potential (FOP) method, as outlined in the standard. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed to interpret the soil resistivity to that of a 2-layer soil model. The same soil resistivity data that were obtained by Wenner four-pin method were used in FEM for simulation. This paper compares the results of RDC obtained by FEM simulation with the real measurement at field site. A good agreement was seen for RDC obtained by measurements and FEM. This shows that FEM is a reliable software to be used for design of earthing systems. It is also found that the parallel rod system has a better performance compared to a similar setup using a grid layout.

Keywords: earthing system, earth electrodes, finite element method, genetic algorithm, earth resistances

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92 Shopping Centers in the Context of a Growing and Changing City: The Case of Konya Kent Plaza

Authors: H. Derya Arslan

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Shopping centers have become an important part of urban life. The numbers of shopping centers have rapidly increased for ten years, in Turkey. Malls that have been built with increasing speed in the last two decades meet most social and cultural needs of people. In this study, architectural characteristics of a recent mall built in the city of Konya in Turkey have been discussed. The assessment of the mall in question has been made in the context of a growing and changing city. The study opened up new horizons and discussion areas to entrepreneurs who make significant investments in shopping centers, architects who design shopping centers as efficient commercial and social environments, and social scientists that investigate the effects of increase in these closed urban spaces on urban life.

Keywords: shopping center, architecture, city, social

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91 MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe

Authors: Ziya Uddin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto-hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nano fluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nano thermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nano particles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nano fluids. To model the rotation of nano particles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.

Keywords: nanofluids, wedge shaped wick, heat pipe, numerical modeling, particle swarm optimization, nanofluid applications, Heat transfer

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90 Determination of Relationship among Shape Indexes Used for Land Consolidation

Authors: Firat Arslan, Hasan Degirmenci, Serife Tulin Akkaya Aslan

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The aim of the current experiment was to determine the relationship among shape indexes which are used by the researchers in many fields to evaluate parcel shapes which is very important for farming even if these indexes are controversial. In the current study, land consolidation project of Halitaga village in Mersin province in Turkey which has 278 parcel and cover 894.4 ha, was taken as a material. Commonly used indicators such as fractal dimension (FD), shape index (SI), form factor (FORM), areal form factor (AFF) and two distinct area-perimeter ratio (APR-1 and APR2) in land consolidation are used to measure agricultural plot’s shape. FD was positively correlated with SI, APR-1 and APR-2 whereas it was negatively correlated with FORM and AFF. SI was positively correlated with APR-1 and APR-2 whereas it was negatively correlated with FORM and AFF. As a conclusion, it is likely that these indexes involved may be used interchangeably due to high correlations among them.

Keywords: GIS, land consolidation, parcel shape, shape index

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89 A Laundry Algorithm for Colored Textiles

Authors: H. E. Budak, B. Arslan-Ilkiz, N. Cakmakci, I. Gocek, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, M. H. Arslan

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The aim of this study is to design a novel laundry algorithm for colored textiles which have significant decoloring problem. During the experimental work, bleached knitted single jersey fabric made of 100% cotton and dyed with reactive dyestuff was utilized, since according to a conducted survey textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers and for coloration of textiles reactive dyestuffs are the ones that are the most commonly used in the textile industry for dyeing cotton-made products. Therefore, the fabric used in this study was selected and purchased in accordance with the survey results. The fabric samples cut out of this fabric were dyed with different dyeing parameters by using Remazol Brilliant Red 3BS dyestuff in Gyrowash machine at laboratory conditions. From the alternative reactive-dyed cotton fabric samples, the ones that have high tendency to color loss were determined and examined. Accordingly, the parameters of the dyeing process used for these fabric samples were evaluated and the dyeing process which was chosen to be used for causing high tendency to color loss for the cotton fabrics was determined in order to reveal the level of improvement in color loss during this study clearly. Afterwards, all of the untreated fabric samples cut out of the fabric purchased were dyed with the dyeing process selected. When dyeing process was completed, an experimental design was created for the laundering process by using Minitab® program considering temperature, time and mechanical action as parameters. All of the washing experiments were performed in domestic washing machine. 16 washing experiments were performed with 8 different experimental conditions and 2 repeats for each condition. After each of the washing experiments, water samples of the main wash of the laundering process were measured with UV spectrophotometer. The values obtained were compared with the calibration curve of the materials used for the dyeing process. The results of the washing experiments were statistically analyzed with Minitab® program. According to the results, the most suitable washing algorithm to be used in terms of the parameters temperature, time and mechanical action for domestic washing machines for minimizing fabric color loss was chosen. The laundry algorithm proposed in this study have the ability of minimalizing the problem of color loss of colored textiles in washing machines by eliminating the negative effects of the parameters of laundering process on color of textiles without compromising the fundamental effects of basic cleaning action being performed properly. Therefore, since fabric color loss is minimized with this washing algorithm, dyestuff residuals will definitely be lower in the grey water released from the laundering process. In addition to this, with this laundry algorithm it is possible to wash and clean other types of textile products with proper cleaning effect and minimized color loss.

Keywords: color loss, laundry algorithm, textiles, domestic washing process

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