Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2158

Search results for: schools of thought

2158 Reemergence of Behaviorism in Language Teaching

Authors: Hamid Gholami

Abstract:

During the years, the language teaching methods have been the offshoots of schools of thought in psychology. The methods were mainly influenced by their contemporary psychological approaches, as Audiolingualism was based on behaviorism and Communicative Language Teaching on constructivism. In 1950s, the text books were full of repetition exercises which were encouraged by Behaviorism. In 1980s they got filled with communicative exercises as suggested by constructivism. The trend went on to nowadays that sees no specific method as prevalent since none of the schools of thought seem to be illustrative of the complexity in human being learning. But some changes can be notable; some textbooks are giving more and more space to repetition exercises at least to enhance some aspects of language proficiency, namely collocations, rhythm and intonation, and conversation models. These changes may mark the reemergence of one of the once widely accepted schools of thought in psychology; behaviorism.

Keywords: language teaching methods, psychology, schools of thought, Behaviorism

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2157 Values Education in Military Schools and Işıklar Air Force High School Sample

Authors: Mehmet Eren Çelik

Abstract:

Values are notions that help people to decide what is good or not and to direct their attitude. Teaching values has always been very important throughout the history. Values should be thought in younger ages to get more efficiency. Therefore military schools are the last stop to learn values effectively. That’s why values education in military schools has vital importance. In this study the military side of values education is examined. The purpose of the study is to show how important values education is and why military students need values education. First of all what value is and what values education means is clearly explained and values education in schools and specifically in military schools is stated. Then values education in Işıklar Air Force High School exemplifies the given information.

Keywords: Işıklar Air Force High School, military school, values, values education

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2156 Schools of Thought in the Field of Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Cris Bravo

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is a new and exciting topic that holds a great promise in helping alleviate the social problems of the world. As a new subject, the meaning of the term is too broad and this is counterproductive in trying to build understanding around the concept. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the elements of social entrepreneurship as defined by seven international organizations leading social entrepreneurship projects: Ashoka Foundation, Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation and Yunus Center; as well as from three other institutions fostering social entrepreneurship: Global Social Benefit Institute, BRAC University, and Socialab. The study used document analysis from Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation, Yunus Center and Ashoka Foundation; and open ended interview to experts from the Global Social Benefit Institute at Santa Clara University in United States, BRAC University from Bangladesh, and Socialab from Argentina. The study identified three clearly differentiated schools of thought, based on their views on revenue, scalability, replicability and geographic location. While this study is by no means exhaustive, it provides an indication of the patterns of ideas fostered by important players in the field. By clearly identifying the similarities and differences in the concept of social entrepreneurship, research and practitioners are better equipped to build on the subject, and to promote more adequate and accurate social policies to foster the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: replicability, revenue, scalability, schools of thought, social entrepreneurship

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2155 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh

Abstract:

Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilance

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2154 Dutch Schools: Their Ventilation Systems

Authors: Milad Golshan, Wim Zeiler

Abstract:

During the last decade research was done to clarify the importance of good Indoor Air Quality in schools. As a result, measurements were undertaken in different types of schools to see whether naturally ventilated schools could provide adequate indoor conditions. Also, a comparison was made between schools with hybrid ventilation and those with complete mechanical ventilation systems. Recently a large survey was undertaken at 60 schools to establish the average current situation of schools in the Netherlands. The results of the questionnaires were compared with those of earlier measured schools. This allowed us to compare different types of schools as well as schools of different periods. Overall it leads to insights about the actual current perceived quality by the teachers as well as the pupils and enables to draw some conclusions about the typical performances of specific types of school ventilation systems. Also, the perceived thermal comfort and controllability were researched. It proved that in around 50% of the schools there were major complains about the indoor air quality causing concentration problems and headaches by the pupils at the end of class. Although the main focus of the latest research was focused more on the quality of recently finished nearly Zero Energy schools, this research showed that especially the main focus school be on the renovation and upgrading of the existing 10.000 schools in the Netherlands.

Keywords: school ventilation, indoor air quality, perceiver thermal comfort, comparison different types

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2153 The Controversy of the English Sentence and Its Teaching Implication

Authors: Franklin Uakhemen Ajogbor

Abstract:

The issue of the English sentence has remained controversial from Traditional Grammar to modern linguistics. The English sentence occupies the highest rank in the hierarchy of grammatical units. Its consideration is therefore very necessary in learning English as a second language. Unfortunately, divergent views by grammarians on the concept of the English sentence have generated much controversy. There seems not to be a unanimous agreement on what actually constitute a sentence. Some schools of thought believe that a sentence must have a subject and a predicate while some believe that it should not. The types of sentence according to structure are also not devoid of controversy as the views of several linguists have not been properly harmonized. Findings have shown that serious effort and attention have not been paid by previous linguists to clear these ambiguities as it has a negative implication in the learning and teaching of English language. The variations on the concept of the English sentence have become particularly worrisome as a result of the widening patronage of English as a global language. The paper is therefore interested in the investigation of this controversy and suggesting a solution to the problem. In doing this, data was collected from students and scholars that show lack of uniformity in what a sentence is. Using the Systemic Functional Model as theoretical framework, the paper launches into the views held by these various schools of thought with the aim of reconciling these divergent views and also an attempt to open up further research on what actually constitute a sentence.

Keywords: traditional grammar, linguistics, controversy, sentence, grammatical units

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2152 Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Public Girls’ and Boys’ Secondary Schools in Riyadh

Authors: Nasser Marshad Alzeer

Abstract:

This study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Riyadh. It considers both public girls and boys sector provision and assesses the efficiency of the spatial distribution of secondary schools. Since the establishment of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 1953 and General Presidency for Female Education, (GPFE) in 1960, there has been a great expansion of education services in Saudi Arabia, particularly during the 1980s. However, recent years have seen much slower rates of increase in the public education sector but the population continues to grow rapidly. This study investigates the spatial distribution of schools through the use of questionnaire surveys and applied GIS. Overall, the results indicate a shortage of public secondary schools, especially in the north of the city. It is clear that there is overcrowding in the majority of secondary schools. The establishment of new schools has been suggested to solve the problem of overcrowding. A number of socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with differences in the utilization of the public secondary schools. A GIS was applied in this study in order to assess the spatial distribution of secondary schools including the modification of existing catchment area boundaries and locating new schools. This modification could also reduce the pupil pressure on certain schools and further benefits could probably be gained.

Keywords: analysis, distribution, Saudi, GIS, schools

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2151 The Effect of Contemporary Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Development of Science

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, Vita Fathimah Silondae, Askoning

Abstract:

The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multi-dimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al-Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So, the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, development of science

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2150 Net Zero Energy Schools: The Starting Block for the Canadian Energy Neutral K-12 Schools

Authors: Hamed Hakim, Roderic Archambault, Charles J. Kibert, Maryam Mirhadi Fard

Abstract:

Changes in the patterns of life in the late 20th and early 21st century have created new challenges for educational systems. Greening the physical environment of school buildings has emerged as a response to some of those challenges and led to the design of energy efficient K-12 school buildings. With the advancement in knowledge and technology, the successful construction of Net Zero Energy Schools, such as the Lady Bird Johnson Middle School demonstrates a cutting edge generation of sustainable schools, and solves the former challenge of attaining energy self-sufficient educational facilities. There are approximately twenty net zero energy K-12 schools in the U.S. of which about six are located in Climate Zone 5 and 6 based on ASHRAE climate zone classification. This paper aims to describe and analyze the current status of energy efficient and NZE schools in Canada. An attempt is made to study existing U.S. energy neutral strategies closest to the climate zones in Canada (zones 5 and 6) and identify the best practices for Canadian schools.

Keywords: Canada K-12 schools, green school, energy efficient, net-zero energy schools

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2149 The Influence of Modern Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Improvement of Science

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim

Abstract:

The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary general science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multidimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al -Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, al-Qur’an textual studies

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2148 Effect of the Interference of Political Elected Members on the Performance of Public Schools

Authors: Farhat Ullah

Abstract:

It is very unfortunate that in Pakistani public schools political interference is on its peak. The present study tries to find out the effect of the interference of political elected members in the affairs of public schools. The objectives of the study were to find out, the degree of interference of political members in public school, the positive and negative effects of political members, influence in public schools, students, and its administrators. This study was quantitative in nature. All the public schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were the population of this study. A sample of 400 teachers and 100 schools heads were selected for this study. A survey questionnaire consisted of 50 items related to objectives, was used for this study. The questionnaire consisted of five options based on Likert scale. Data were collected by the researcher himself from the respondents. Data were analyzed using chi square test. It was concluded from the analysis of data that recently the political members are involved in the process of school activities, which had badly affected the freedom and autonomy of school administrators. Mostly teachers are transferred from schools on political influence, which had created uncertainty among the schools teachers. Further, the student’s academic performance was also affected badly. It is recommended that schools must be free from political involvement for the smooth running of schools.

Keywords: public schools, politics, interference, performance

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2147 Leading Gifted Education in Saudi Rural Schools: Case Studies of Differently Performing Schools

Authors: Abdullah Almalky, Colin Evers

Abstract:

Gifted individuals in rural areas may lack access and opportunities compared with urban students. This case study research provides research-based evidence to identify the professional needs of principals running rural schools with gifted education (GE) programs. The data were obtained from diverse cases (high-performing [HP] and low-performing [LP] schools) by conducting interviews with principals and teachers, conducting focus groups with gifted students, and analyzing policy documents. The findings reveal a lack of knowledge among principals in relation to GE. However, HP schools were more concerned with the needs of gifted students compared with LP schools. In addition, principals of HP schools were mostly instructional leaders, whereas LP schools were mostly led by building managers. Therefore, the study recommends a revision of GE policy in Saudi Arabia and urges ministries of education and universities to consider including GE in principals’ and teachers’ preparation programs to better serve gifted students in schools.

Keywords: gifted, Saudi Arabia, leadership, policy, rural education, case study, interview

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2146 Intrusiveness, Appraisal and Thought Control Strategies in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Authors: T. Arshad

Abstract:

A correlation study was done to explore the relationship of intrusiveness, appraisal and thought control strategies in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Theoretical frame work for the present study was Salkovskis (1985) cognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder. Sample of 100 patients (men=48, women=52) of age 14-62 years (M=32.13, SD=10.37) was recruited from hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Revised Obsessional Intrusion Inventory, Stress Appraisal Measure, Thought Control Questionnaire and Symptoms Checklist-R were self-administered. Findings revealed that intrusiveness is correlated with appraisals (controllable by self, controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment). Furthermore, appraisals (uncontrollable, stressfulness, controllable by others) were emerged as strong predictors for different through control strategies (distraction, punishment and social control). Moreover, men have higher frequency of intrusion, whereas women were frequently using social control as thought control strategy. Results implied that intrusiveness, appraisals (controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment) are related which maintains the disorder.

Keywords: appraisal, intrusiveness, obsessive compulsive disorder, thought control strategies

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2145 Architectural Design as Knowledge Production: A Comparative Science and Technology Study of Design Teaching and Research at Different Architecture Schools

Authors: Kim Norgaard Helmersen, Jan Silberberger

Abstract:

Questions of style and reproducibility in relation to architectural design are not only continuously debated; the very concepts can seem quite provocative to architects, who like to think of architectural design as depending on intuition, ideas, and individual personalities. This standpoint - dominant in architectural discourse - is challenged in the present paper presenting early findings from a comparative STS-inspired research study of architectural design teaching and research at different architecture schools in varying national contexts. In philosophy of science framework, the paper reflects empirical observations of design teaching at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen and presents a tentative theoretical framework for the on-going research project. The framework suggests that architecture – as a field of knowledge production – is mainly dominated by three epistemological positions, which will be presented and discussed. Besides serving as a loosely structured framework for future data analysis, the proposed framework brings forth the argument that architecture can be roughly divided into different schools of thought, like the traditional science disciplines. Without reducing the complexity of the discipline, describing its main intellectual positions should prove fruitful for the future development of architecture as a theoretical discipline, moving an architectural critique beyond discussions of taste preferences. Unlike traditional science disciplines, there is a lack of a community-wide, shared pool of codified references in architecture, with architects instead referencing art projects, buildings, and famous architects, when positioning their standpoints. While these inscriptions work as an architectural reference system, to be compared to codified theories in academic writing of traditional research, they are not used systematically in the same way. As a result, architectural critique is often reduced to discussions of taste and subjectivity rather than epistemological positioning. Architects are often criticized as judges of taste and accused that their rationality is rooted in cultural-relative aesthetical concepts of taste closely linked to questions of style, but arguably their supposedly subjective reasoning, in fact, forms part of larger systems of thought. Putting architectural ‘styles’ under a loop, and tracing their philosophical roots, can potentially open up a black box in architectural theory. Besides ascertaining and recognizing the existence of specific ‘styles’ and thereby schools of thought in current architectural discourse, the study could potentially also point at some mutations of the conventional – something actually ‘new’ – of potentially high value for architectural design education.

Keywords: architectural theory, design research, science and technology studies (STS), sociology of architecture

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2144 Modern and Postmodern Marketing Approaches to Consumer Loyalty in Case of Indonesia Real Estate Developer

Authors: Lincoln Panjaitan, Antonius Sumarlin

Abstract:

The development of property businesses in the metropolitan area is growing rapidly forcing big real estate developers to come up with various strategies in winning the heart of consumers. This empirical research is focusing on how the two schools of marketing thoughts; namely, Modern and postmodern marketing employed by the preceding developers to retain consumers’ commitment toward their prospective brands. The data was collected from three different properties of PT. Intiland Tbk using accidental sampling technique. The data of 600 respondents was then put into Structural Equation Model (SEM). The result of the study suggests that both schools of thought can equally produce commitment and loyalty of consumers; however, the difference lays where the loyalty belongs to. The first is more toward developer’s brand and the latter is more toward the co-creation value of the housing community.

Keywords: consumer loyalty, consumer commitment, knowledge sharing platform, marketing mix

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2143 Professionals’ Collaboration on Strengthening the Teaching of History

Authors: L. B. Ni, N. S. Bt Rohadi, H. Bt Alfana, A. S. Bin Ali Hassan, J. Bin Karim, C. Bt Rasin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the shared effort of teaching history in K-12 schools, community colleges, four-year colleges and universities to develop students' understanding of the history and habits of thought history. This study presents and discusses the problems of K-12 schools in colleges and universities, and the establishment of secondary school principals. This study also shows that the changing nature of practice can define new trends and affect the history professional in the classroom. There are many problems that historians and teachers of college faculty share in the history of high school teachers. History teachers can and should do better to get students in the classroom. History provides valuable insights into the information and embedded solid-state analysis models that are conflicting on the planet and are quickly changing exceptionally valuable. The survey results can reflect the history teaching in Malaysia.

Keywords: history issue, history teaching, school-university collaboration, history profession

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2142 The Right Hand in Indigenous African Economic Thought: The Case of the Benin People of Southern Nigeria

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo

Abstract:

The paper analyses the right hand in indigenous African economic thought using the Benin people of Southern Nigeria as a case study. The Benin people esteemed handiwork and industriousness and embodied it with the right hand, which was regarded as the ultimate bringer of material wellbeing and societal status. The paper aims to contribute to African economic thought by analysing the conception of the hand in pre-colonial Benin society as the source of material wherewithal and to reveal how the hand was epitomised as the ultimate purveyor of economic providence and class status. The study adopts the historical method, and the interpretive design was used. Primary and secondary sources were utilised, and the findings confirm that the conception of the hand as the giver of material wellbeing was calculatingly done to recompense an industrious and productive lifestyle worthy of accolades and emulations. Findings also show that the people of Benin thought that the right hand is the ultimate bringer of material prosperity and therefore placed tremendous value on it up to the point of veneration. The paper also reveals that the Benin people thought that the fruits of one’s labour outvalued other possessions like an inheritance. The paper also shows that the Benin economic thought, on the hand, as signifying productiveness, intensely encouraged productivity and disdained indolence in the society.

Keywords: Benin, economic thought, hand, industriousness

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2141 Investigating the Effect of Aesthetics of Wisdom and Thought on Islamic-Iranian Architecture and Modern Western Architecture: Considering the Position of Islamic Philosophy and Western Philosophy in the Art of Architecture

Authors: Hamid Mohamad Hosein Zadeh Hashemi

Abstract:

In this article, in order to recognize the value of aesthetics of the place of wisdom and mysticism on Islamic art-architecture, and compare it with the influence of philosophy and thought on the "modern art of architecture" of the West, it examines the position of wisdom and philosophy in art Architecture ". In this regard, one can point out the unique status of "art of architecture" in human societies, which in two cultures of the East and West, based on the ideas of Islamic wisdom and Western thought, has taken a dual path, so that even today, even from the original And the basic "art of architecture" of its primary and academic has turned away and has undergone some kind of transformation. To this end, we examine some of the "aesthetics" positions based on the "art of architecture" in the broad sense of the word, in order to reflect on the historical course of this art, and with regard to the position of Islamic thought and Western thought, each of which originated from, but based on The basis of cultures, climate, and sociology, and others, are ultimately the result of an arbitrary result, namely the achievement of the aesthetic position of wisdom and mysticism on the "Islamic-Iranian" architecture of art "and its opposition to the position of philosophy and thought On modern art of modern architecture of the West.

Keywords: aesthetics, art, philosophy, the art of Architecture, wisdom

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2140 Application of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of English Language in Nigerian Secondary Schools

Authors: Richard Ayobayowa Foyewa

Abstract:

This work examined the application of ICT in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. The definition of ICT was given briefly before areas in which the ICT could be applied in teaching and learning of English language were observed. Teachers’ attitudes towards the use of the computer and Internet facilities were also observed. The conclusion drawn was that ICT is very relevant in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. It was therefore recommended that teachers who are not computer literate should go for the training without further delay; government should always employ English language teachers who are computer literates. Government should make fund available in schools for the training and re-training of English language teachers in various computer programmes and in making internet facilities available in secondary schools.

Keywords: ICT, Nigerian secondary schools, teaching and learning of English

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2139 Religion, Education, and Nation: Anticlerical Principle of France and Private School Law of South Korea

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

The education plays an important role of political socialization in politics. In Korean and in France, religion in education is situated in an important place, but religious education in school is dealt differently in two countries. In this article, the author tries to reveal the reason why in France private Catholic schools can keep their religious discipline, but in Korea, private Christian schools cannot insist Christianism to their students. This is because of the different situation of their budget. In Korea, even though private schools are named ‘private’, they cannot be managed without government subsidy but in France, private Catholic schools are owned by private foundation and their budget is based on their own resource. That’s why French private schools do not need to follow governmental guidance but not in Korean case.

Keywords: religion, politics, South Korea, France

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2138 Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Public School During Covid-19: A Way Forward

Authors: Sumaira Taj

Abstract:

Blended learning is emerged as a prerequisite approach for teaching in all schools after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how much public elementary and secondary schools in Pakistan are ready for adapting this approach and what should be done to prepare schools and students for blended learning are the questions that this paper attempts to answer. Mixed-method research methodology was used to collect data from 40 teachers, 500 students, and 10 mothers. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data. As for as readiness is concerned, schools lack resources for blended/ virtual/ online classes from infra-structure to skills, parents’ literacy level hindered students’ learning process and teachers’ skills presented challenges in a smooth and swift shift of the schools from face-to-face learning to blended learning. It is recommended to establish a conducive environment in schools by providing all required resources and skills. Special trainings should be organized for low literacy level parents. Multiple ways should be adopted to benefit all students.

Keywords: blended learning, challenges in online classes, education in covid-19, public schools in pakistan

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2137 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph

Abstract:

This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: class-size, instructional materials, learning, academic achievement

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2136 A Mixed Thought Pattern and the Question of Justification: A Feminist Project

Authors: Angana Chatterjee

Abstract:

The feminist scholars point out the various problematic issues in the traditional mainstream western thought and theories. The thought practices behind the discriminatory and oppressive social practices are based on concepts that play a pivotal role in theorisation. Therefore, many feminist philosophers take up reformation or reconceptualisation projects. Such projects have bearings on various aspects of philosophical thought, namely, ontology, epistemology, logic, ethics, social, political thought, and so on. In tune with this spirit, the present paper suggests a well-established thought pattern which is not western but has got the potential to deal with the problems of mainstream western thought culture that are identified by the feminist critics. The Indian thought pattern is theorised in the domain of Indian logic, which is a study of inference patterns. As, in the Indian context, the inference is considered as a source of knowledge, certain epistemological questions are linked with the discussion of inference. One of the key epistemological issues is one regarding justification. The study about the nature of derivation of knowledge from available evidence, and the nature of the evidence itself, are integral parts of the discipline called Indian logic. But if we contrast the western tradition of thought with the Indian one, we can find that the Indian logic has got some peculiar features which may be shown to deal with the problems identified by the feminist scholars in western thought culture more plausibly. The tradition of western logic, starting from Aristotle, has been maintaining sharp differences between two forms of reasoning, namely, deductive and inductive. These two different forms of reasoning have been theorised and dealt with separately within the domain of the study called ‘logic.’ There are various philosophical problems that are raised around concepts and issues regarding both deductive and inductive reasoning. Indian logic does not distinguish between deduction and induction as thought patterns, but their distinction is very usual to make in the western tradition. Though there can be found various interpretations about this peculiarity of Indian thought pattern, these mixed patterns were actually very close to the cross-cultural pattern in which human beings would tend to argue or infer from the available data or evidence. The feminist theories can successfully operate in the domain of lived experience if they make use of such a mixed pattern of reasoning or inference. By offering sound inferential knowledge on contextual evidences, the Indian thought pattern is potent to serve the feminist purposes in a meaningful way.

Keywords: feminist thought, Indian logic, inference, justification, mixed thought pattern

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2135 Realization Mode and Theory for Extensible Music Cognition Education: Taking Children's Music Education as an Example

Authors: Yumeng He

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to establish the “extenics” of children music education, the “extenics” thought and methods are introduced into the children music education field. Discussions are made from the perspective of children music education on how to generate new music cognitive from music cognitive, how to generate new music education from music education and how to generate music learning from music learning. The research methods including the extensibility of music art, extensibility of music education, extensibility of music capability and extensibility of music learning. Results of this study indicate that the thought and research methods of children’s extended music education not only have developed the “extenics” concept and ideological methods, meanwhile, the brand-new thought and innovative research perspective have been employed in discussing the children music education. As indicated in research, the children’s extended music education has extended the horizon of children music education, and has endowed the children music education field with a new thought and research method.

Keywords: comprehensive evaluations, extension thought, extension cognition music education, extensibility

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2134 Modeling Child Development Factors for the Early Introduction of ICTs in Schools

Authors: K. E. Oyetade, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

One of the fundamental characteristics of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been the ever-changing nature of continuous release and models of ICTs with its impact on the academic, social, and psychological benefits of its introduction in schools. However, there seems to be a growing concern about its negative impact on students when introduced early in schools for teaching and learning. This study aims to design a model of child development factors affecting the early introduction of ICTs in schools in an attempt to improve the understanding of child development and introduction of ICTs in schools. The proposed model is based on a sound theoretical framework. It was designed following a literature review of child development theories and child development factors. The child development theoretical framework that fitted to the best of all child development factors was then chosen as the basis for the proposed model. This study hence found that the Jean Piaget cognitive developmental theory is the most adequate theoretical frameworks for modeling child development factors for ICT introduction in schools.

Keywords: child development factors, child development theories, ICTs, theory

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2133 Thai Teachers' Growth Mindset as Related to Thai Students' Achievements

Authors: Chintida Vichitsophaphan, Piyapat Chitpirom, Chaichana Nimnuan, Teerakiat Jareonsettasin

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the influence of a growth mindset, as defined by Prof. Dweck, in Thai teachers and Thai students’ achievements and success. The participants of the study were teachers of schools in Office of the Basic Education Commission in Bangkok. The teachers were recruited from high achievement schools and low achievement schools (based on average National Standard Test Score). Participants were divided into two groups: 85 teachers in 3 high achievement schools and 213 teachers in 6 low achievement schools. They were asked to complete the Carol Dweck’s Implicit Theories Scale – (Adults) 8 items. Data were analyzed including the use of mean, standard deviation and t-test to test hypothesis. The finding of this study revealed that teachers who were in the high achievement schools have higher scores in Carol Dweck’s Implicit Theories Scale (x ̅= 35.5, SE = .58) than teachers who were in the low achievement schools (x ̅= 33.9, SE = .35) at .05 level. The difference is statistically significant (t (296) = 2.44, p = .015) with the effect size of 0.31. In conclusion, teachers’ growth mindset from high achievement schools have higher scores than teachers’ growth mindset from low achievement schools, and this is statistically significant. From the study, it can be concluded that growth mindset development for teachers has a tendency to increase students’ achievements. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement such training and development in our education system in larger scale, and even nationwide policies.

Keywords: fixed mindset, growth mindset, students’ achievement, teachers’ growth mindset

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2132 School Leaders and Professional Licenses: Measuring the Impact as Perceived by Qatari Schools' Stakeholders

Authors: Hissa Sadiq, Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Fatma Al-Mutawah, Hamda Al-Sulaiti

Abstract:

The purpose of this quantitative study was to measure the difference in levels of satisfaction of students, teachers, and parents in schools run by licensed school leaders comparing with schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Data was gathered from 108 school performance reports as published by Ministry of Education and Higher Education for the year 2015-2016. School leaders in 58 participating schools obtained the professional licenses while school leaders in 56 participating schools have no professional licenses. Percentages, standard deviations, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results showed that no statistical differences were found in students’ satisfaction between the two school types. However, there were statistical differences in parents and teachers’ satisfaction in the two school types attributed to obtaining the professional license. Teachers and parents of students in schools run by licensed school leaders satisfied more than schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Finally, many recommendations and implications were discussed and proposed. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP7-1224-5-178) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar Foundation) to Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author

Keywords: professional licenses, Qatari schools, licensure system, satisfaction

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2131 The Enlightenment Project in the Arab World: Saudi Arabia as a Case Study in Modern Islamic Thought

Authors: Khawla Almulla

Abstract:

It is noticed that many Arab intellectuals have called to the need and the importance of enlightenment and its application in their communities, such as Saudi Arabia. To every Islamic state, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia represents a strategic cornerstone, since it is considered the cradle of Islam. It is the Land of the Two Holy Mosques: the Holy Mosque in Makkah surrounding the Kaaba, towards which all Muslims around the world turn while performing daily prayers and even travel to if possible in order to perform the Hajj (Pilgrimage). It also has the Prophet'ـ‘s Holy Mosque in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, which contains the tomb of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Therefore, Saudi Arabia occupies an eminent position among Arab and Islamic countries on a religious level. Saudi Arabia has become the most influential country in the Arab world, since it has one-third of the oil resources outside Central Asia, China and Russia .It is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil. Discovering oil in Saudi Arabia converted it from an important country for Muslims-only to an important country for the major industrial countries and also the developing countries, as well. For various reasons, the diversity of intellectual currents can play a significant role in each community by way of cultural improvement, the development of civilization and the education of people until they become accustomed to accepting or rejecting opinions or ideas which differ from or oppose their own. In addition, the intellectual pluralism and cultural diversity can play a variety of roles. This helps promote dialogue and understanding between different groups or schools of thought. It can also develop cognitive skills, by exchanging ideas and views between different schools and intellectual currents. However, in Saudi Arabia there is much to oppose this plurality. The situation today shows that having a variety of ideologies and differences of cultures are not considered a reasonable way to develop intellectually as an individual or as a country. Rather the opposite is recommended, such that the ideologies of different groups are enough to bring out intellectual conflict and then to the segregation of society. As a consequence, extremism of thought from the different currents in Saudi Arabia has become apparent. This research is of great importance in its exploration of two significant themes. First, it highlights the Saudi Arabian background, in particular the historical, religious and social contexts, in order to understand the background of each religious or liberal movement and find the core of the intellectual differences between them. In addition, the aim of this research is to show the importance of moderation in Islamic thought in Saudi Arabia by tracing the thoughts and views of Dr Salman Al-Odah, whom he has considered to be the most important moderate thinker in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, intellectual movements, religious movements, extremism, moderation, Salafism, liberalism, Salman Al-Odah

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2130 Water Resources and Sanitation in Public Schools of Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao

Authors: Lahaina U. Dilangalen

Abstract:

Using descriptive-experimental research methods, this study aimed to identify the main resources of water, assessed the water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices, and extent of implementation. Complete enumeration was done in 28 elementary public schools of Datu Odin Sinsuat Municipality. Questionnaires were given to the school advisers. Water samples were obtained from the same schools and were submitted to the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Region XII for microbial analysis, specifically the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. Four water resources such as hand pump, faucet, deep well and spring were found being used in the 28 schools. Of water resources, the only treated was from the faucet. Most of the schools used the water for drinking and washing. Two schools strongly agreed, nine schools agreed and seventeen schools disagreed that they implemented DepEd Order no.56 s. 2009. In addition, two schools strongly agreed and twenty six agreed that they implemented DepEd Order No. 65 s. 2009. Five schools had water supply that were safe to drink while sixteen schools had water supply that were not safe to drink due to high fecal coliform count and did not undergo chemical treatment. The only safe for drinking were water resources that came from faucet because they were chemically treated. Seven out of 28 schools did not have water supply due to their location in mountainous areas. More than half of the schools did not comply with the DepEd Order No. 56 s. 2009 due to the lack of funds and support from the PTA and LGU. It is recommended that the Department of Education must have an urgent assessment of implementing both DepEd Orders No.56 and 65, to assure that the schoolchildren be protected from water and sanitation related ailments. Also, all water resources that are not treated must be used for washing only. Ideally, all the water resources must be treated to assure the safety of all school constituents. Moreover, the school administrators and teachers in the municipality must be provided copies of the results of this study for reference in implementing the said programs.

Keywords: assessment, drinking water, fecal coliform, groundwater

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2129 Models of Bilingual Education in Majority Language Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Bilingual Programmes in Qatari Primary Schools

Authors: Fatma Al-Maadheed

Abstract:

Following an ethnographic approach this study explored bilingual programmes offered by two types of primary schools in Qatar: international and Independent schools. Qatar with its unique linguistic and socio-economic situation launched a new initiative for educatiobnal development in 2001 but with hardly any research linked to theses changes. The study reveals that the Qatari bilingual schools context was one of heteroglossia, with three codes in operation: Modern Standard Arabic, Colloquial Arabic dialects and English. The two schools adopted different models of bilingualism. The international school adopted a strict separation policy between the two languages following a monoglossic belief. The independent school was found to apply a flexible language policy. The study also highlighted the daily challnges produced from the diglossia situation in Qatar, the difference between students and teacher dialect as well as acquiring literacy in the formal language. In addition to an abscence of a clear language policy in Schools, the study brought attention to the instructional methods utilised in language teaching which are mostly associated with successful bilingual education.

Keywords: diglossia, instructional methods, language policy, qatari primary schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 402