Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Faruk Ortes

27 Numerical Simulation of Structural Behavior of NSM CFRP Strengthened RC Beams Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Baris Sayin, Tarik Serhat Bozkurt, Cemil Akcay


The technique using near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has proved to be an reliable strengthening technique. However, the effects of different parameters for the use of NSM CFRP are not fully developed yet. This study focuses on the development of a numerical modeling that can predict the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with NSM FRP rods exposed to bending loading and the efficiency of various parameters such as CFRP rod size and filling material type are evaluated by using prepared models. For this purpose, three different models are developed and implemented in the ANSYS® software using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that CFRP rod size and filling material type are significant factors in the behavior of the analyzed RC beams.

Keywords: numerical model, FEA, RC beam, NSM technique, CFRP rod, filling material

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26 Estimation of Forces Applied to Forearm Using EMG Signal Features to Control of Powered Human Arm Prostheses

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Derya Karabulut, Yunus Ziya Arslan


Myoelectric features gathering from musculature environment are considered on a preferential basis to perceive muscle activation and control human arm prostheses according to recent experimental researches. EMG (electromyography) signal based human arm prostheses have shown a promising performance in terms of providing basic functional requirements of motions for the amputated people in recent years. However, these assistive devices for neurorehabilitation still have important limitations in enabling amputated people to perform rather sophisticated or functional movements. Surface electromyogram (EMG) is used as the control signal to command such devices. This kind of control consists of activating a motion in prosthetic arm using muscle activation for the same particular motion. Extraction of clear and certain neural information from EMG signals plays a major role especially in fine control of hand prosthesis movements. Many signal processing methods have been utilized for feature extraction from EMG signals. The specific objective of this study was to compare widely used time domain features of EMG signal including integrated EMG(IEMG), root mean square (RMS) and waveform length(WL) for prediction of externally applied forces to human hands. Obtained features were classified using artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict the forces. EMG signals supplied to process were recorded during only type of muscle contraction which is isometric and isotonic one. Experiments were performed by three healthy subjects who are right-handed and in a range of 25-35 year-old aging. EMG signals were collected from muscles of the proximal part of the upper body consisting of: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectorialis major and trapezius. The force prediction results obtained from the ANN were statistically analyzed and merits and pitfalls of the extracted features were discussed with detail. The obtained results are anticipated to contribute classification process of EMG signal and motion control of powered human arm prosthetics control.

Keywords: assistive devices for neurorehabilitation, electromyography, feature extraction, force estimation, human arm prosthesis

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25 Depth Estimation in DNN Using Stereo Thermal Image Pairs

Authors: Ahmet Faruk Akyuz, Hasan Sakir Bilge


Depth estimation using stereo images is a challenging problem in computer vision. Many different studies have been carried out to solve this problem. With advancing machine learning, tackling this problem is often done with neural network-based solutions. The images used in these studies are mostly in the visible spectrum. However, the need to use the Infrared (IR) spectrum for depth estimation has emerged because it gives better results than visible spectra in some conditions. At this point, we recommend using thermal-thermal (IR) image pairs for depth estimation. In this study, we used two well-known networks (PSMNet, FADNet) with minor modifications to demonstrate the viability of this idea.

Keywords: thermal stereo matching, deep neural networks, CNN, Depth estimation

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24 A Comparative Study for the Axial Load Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns

Authors: Eylem Guzel, Faruk Osmanoglu, Muhammet Kurucu


The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete-filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian standard

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23 Bacteria Immobilized Electrospun Fibrous Biocomposites for Cr (VI) Remediation in Water

Authors: Omer Faruk Sarioglu, Asli Celebioglu, Turgay Tekinay, Tamer Uyar


Fibrous biocomposites were developed by immobilization of a Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strain, morganella morganii STB5, on electrospun polystyrene (PS) and polysulfone (PSU) webs. Cr(VI) removal characteristics of STB5/PS and STB5/PSU fibrous biocomposites were determined at 25 mg L-1 of initial Cr(VI) and 70.41% and 68.27% of removal were observed within 72 h, respectively. Reusability test results indicate that both biocomposites are potentially reusable and can be used for at least 5 cycles. After storage test results suggest that the biocomposites can be stored awhile without losing their Cr(VI) bioremoval capabilities. SEM images of STB5 immobilized PS and PSU webs after the reusability test exhibit strong attachment of bacterial biofilms onto fibrous surfaces. Our results are quite promising and suggesting that reusable bacteria immobilized electrospun fibrous biocomposites might be applicable for Cr(VI) remediation in water systems.

Keywords: electrospinning, polystyrene, polysulfone, Cr(VI) bioremoval, environmental sustainability

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22 Out-of-Plane Free Vibrations of Circular Rods

Authors: Faruk Firat Çalim, Nurullah Karaca, Hakan Tacettin Türker


In this study, out-of-plane free vibrations of a circular rods is investigated theoretically. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods are obtained using Timoshenko beam theory and rewritten for circular rods. Effects of the axial and shear deformations are considered in the formulations. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form are solved analytically by using transfer matrix method. The circular rods of the mass matrix are obtained by using straight rod of consistent mass matrix. Free vibrations frequencies obtained by solving eigenvalue problem. A computer program coded in MATHEMATICA language is prepared. Circular beams are analyzed through various examples for free vibrations analysis. Results are compared with ANSYS results based on finite element method and available in the literature.

Keywords: circular rod, out-of-plane free vibration analysis, transfer matrix method

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21 The Management of Behcet's Disease Patient's Mandibular Total Edentulism with Custom Made Implant Supported Bar Retainer: A Case Report

Authors: Faruk Emir, Simel Ayyıldız, Cem Şahin


Behçet’s disease or Behçet’s syndrome is a chronic and multi-systemic inflammatory disease of unknown cause. This syndrome often presents with mucous membrane ulceration and ocular problems. As a systemic disease Behcet includes triple-symptom complex of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Nearly all patients present with some form of painful oral mucocutaneous ulcerations in the form of aphthous ulcers. The aim of the treatment plan for Behçet’s Disease patients is to eliminate oral problems and increase the patient comfort.This clinical report represents the prosthodontic rehabilitation of Behcet’s disease patients mandibular total edentulism with the use of implant supported prosthesis that planned on custom abutments and bar retainers via CAD/CAM technology and patient satisfaction has been achieved in function and aesthetics.

Keywords: Behçet’s disease, CAD/CAM, custom-made manufacturing, titanium milled bar retainer

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20 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain


The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Cox1, 12S rRNA, molecular characterization, Bangladesh

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19 Weighted Risk Scores Method Proposal for Occupational Safety Risk Assessment

Authors: Ulas Cinar, Omer Faruk Ugurlu, Selcuk Cebi


Occupational safety risk management is the most important element of a safe working environment. Effective risk management can only be possible with accurate analysis and evaluations. Scoring-based risk assessment methods offer considerable ease of application as they convert linguistic expressions into numerical results. It can also be easily adapted to any field. Contrary to all these advantages, important problems in scoring-based methods are frequently discussed. Effective measurability is one of the most critical problems. Existing methods allow experts to choose a score equivalent to each parameter. Therefore, experts prefer the score of the most likely outcome for risk. However, all other possible consequences are neglected. Assessments of the existing methods express the most probable level of risk, not the real risk of the enterprises. In this study, it is aimed to develop a method that will present a more comprehensive evaluation compared to the existing methods by evaluating the probability and severity scores, all sub-parameters, and potential results, and a new scoring-based method is proposed in the literature.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, risk assessment, scoring based risk assessment method, underground mining, weighted risk scores

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18 Mining the Proteome of Fusobacterium nucleatum for Potential Therapeutics Discovery

Authors: Abdul Musaweer Habib, Habibul Hasan Mazumder, Saiful Islam, Sohel Sikder, Omar Faruk Sikder


The plethora of genome sequence information of bacteria in recent times has ushered in many novel strategies for antibacterial drug discovery and facilitated medical science to take up the challenge of the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to current antibiotics. In this study, we adopted subtractive genomics approach to analyze the whole genome sequence of the Fusobacterium nucleatum, a human oral pathogen having association with colorectal cancer. Our study divulged 1499 proteins of Fusobacterium nucleatum, which has no homolog in human genome. These proteins were subjected to screening further by using the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) that resulted in the identification of 32 vitally important proteins for the bacterium. Subsequent analysis of the identified pivotal proteins, using the KEGG Automated Annotation Server (KAAS) resulted in sorting 3 key enzymes of F. nucleatum that may be good candidates as potential drug targets, since they are unique for the bacterium and absent in humans. In addition, we have demonstrated the 3-D structure of these three proteins. Finally, determination of ligand binding sites of the key proteins as well as screening for functional inhibitors that best fitted with the ligands sites were conducted to discover effective novel therapeutic compounds against Fusobacterium nucleatum.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, drug target, Fusobacterium nucleatum, homology modeling, ligands

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17 Comparison of Isokinetic Powers (Flexion and Knee Extension) of Basketball and Football Players (Age 17–20)

Authors: Ugur Senturk, Ibrahım Erdemır, Faruk Guven, Cuma Ece


The objective of this study is to compare flexion and extension movements in knee-joint group by measuring isokinetic knee power of amateur basketball and football players. For this purpose, total 21 players were included, which consist of football players (n=12) and basketball players (n=9), within the age range of 17–20. After receiving the age, length, body weight, vertical jump, and BMI measurements of all subjects, the measurement of lower extremity knee-joint movement (Flexion-Extension) was made with isokinetic dynamometer (isomed 2000) at 60 o/sec. and 240 o/sec. angular velocity. After arrangement and grouping of collected information forms and knee flexion and extension parameters, all data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analyses of the parameters were made. Non-parametric t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the parameters of football players and basketball players and to find the inter-group differences. The comparisons and relations in the range p<0.05 and p<0.01 between the groups were surveyed. As a conclusion, no statistical differences were found between isokinetic knee flexion and extension parameters of football and basketball players. However, it was found that the football players were older than the basketball players. In addition to this, the average values of the basketball players in the highest torque and the highest torque average curve were found higher than football players in comparisons of left knee extension. However, it was found that fat levels of the basketball players were found to be higher than the football players.

Keywords: isokinetic contraction, isokinetic dynamometer, peak torque, flexion, extension, football, basketball

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16 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Stiffened Aluminum Panels under Compression

Authors: Ismail Cengiz, Faruk Elaldi


Within the scope of the study presented in this paper, load carrying capacity and buckling behavior of a stiffened aluminum panel designed by adopting current ‘buckle-resistant’ design application and ‘Post –Buckling’ design approach were investigated experimentally and numerically. The test specimen that is stabilized by Z-type stiffeners and manufactured from aluminum 2024 T3 Clad material was test under compression load. Buckling behavior was observed by means of 3 – dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) and strain gauge pairs. The experimental study was followed by developing an efficient and reliable finite element model whose ability to predict behavior of the stiffened panel used for compression test is verified by compering experimental and numerical results in terms of load – shortening curve, strain-load curves and buckling mode shapes. While finite element model was being constructed, non-linear behaviors associated with material and geometry was considered. Finally, applicability of aluminum stiffened panel in airframe design against to composite structures was evaluated thorough the concept of ‘Structural Efficiency’. This study reveals that considerable amount of weight saving could be gained if the concept of ‘post-buckling design’ is preferred to the already conventionally used ‘buckle resistant design’ concept in aircraft industry without scarifying any of structural integrity under load spectrum.

Keywords: post-buckling, stiffened panel, non-linear finite element method, aluminum, structural efficiency

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15 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin


This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

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14 Changing Skills with the Transformation of Procurement Function

Authors: Ömer Faruk Ada, Türker Baş, M. Yaman Öztek


In this study, we aim to investigate the skills to be owned by procurement professionals in order to fulfill their developing and changing role completely. Market conditions, competitive pressure, and high financial costs make it more important than ever for organizations to be able to use resources more efficiently. Research shows that procurement expenses consist more than 50 % of the operating expenses. With increasing profit impact of procurement, reviewing the position of the procurement function within the organization has become inevitable. This study is significant as it indicates the necessary skills that procurement professionals must have to keep in step with the transformation of procurement units from transaction oriented to value chain oriented. In this study, the transformation of procurement is investigated from the perspective of procurement professionals and we aim to answer following research questions: • How do procurement professionals perceive their role within the organization? • How has their role changed and what challenges have they had to face? • What portfolio of skills do they believe will enable them to fulfill their role effectively? Literature review consists of the first part of the study by investigating the changing role of procurement from different perspectives. In the second part, we present the results of the in-depth interviews with 15 procurement professionals and we used descriptive analysis as a methodology. In the light of these results, we classified procurement skills under operational, tactical and strategic levels and Procurement Skills Framework has been developed. This study shows the differences in the perception of purchasing by professionals and the organizations. The differences in the perception are considered as an important barrier beyond the procurement transformation. Although having the necessary skills has a significant effect for procurement professionals to fulfill their role completely and keep in step with the transformation of the procurement function, It is not the only factor and the degree of high-level management and organizational support has also a direct impact during this transformation.

Keywords: procuement skills, procurement transformation, strategic procurement, value chain

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13 An Analysis of Human Resource Management Policies for Constructing Employer Brands in the Logistics Sector

Authors: Müberra Yüksel, Ömer Faruk Görçün


The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of strategic human resource management (SHRM) in constructing "employer branding" in logistics. Prior research does not focus on internal stakeholders, that is, employees. Despite the fact that logistic sector has become customer-oriented, the focus is solely on service quality as the unique aspect of logistic companies for competitive advantage. With an increasing interest lately in internal marketing of the employer brand, the emphasis is on the value that human capital brings to the firm which cannot be imitated. `Employer branding` has been the application of branding and relationship marketing principles for competitive advantage in SHRM. Employer branding is an organizing framework for human resource managers since it represents an organization’s efforts to promote, both within and outside, a coherent view of what makes the firm different and desirable as an employer, i.e., the distinct “employer brand personality” and "employee value propositions" (EVP) offered. The presumption of employer branding enhanced by internal marketing is to make customer-conscious employees to handle services better by being aligned with business mission and goals. Starting from internal customers and analyzing the gaps of EVP by using analytical hierarchy process methodology (AHP) and inquiring whether these brand values are communicated and conceived well may be the initial steps in our proposal for employer branding in logistics sector. This empirical study aims to fill this research gap within the context of an emergent market- Turkey, which is located at a hub of transportation and logistics.

Keywords: Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM), employer branding, Employee Value Propositions (EVP), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), logistics

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12 Egg Hatching Inhibition Activity of Volatile Oils Extracted from Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants against Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne hapla

Authors: Anil F. Felek, Mehmet M. Ozcan, Faruk Akyazi


Volatile oils of medicinal and aromatic plants are important for managing nematological problems in agriculture. In present study, volatile oils extracted from five medicinal and aromatic plants including Origanum onites (flower+steam+leaf), Salvia officinalis (leaf), Lippia citriodora (leaf+seed), Mentha spicata (leaf) and Mentha longifolia (leaf) were tested for egg hatching inhibition activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under laboratory conditions. The essential oils were extracted using water distillation method with a Clevenger system. For the homogenisation process of the oils, 2% gum arabic solution was used and 4 µl oils was added into 1ml filtered gum arabic solution to prepare the last stock solution. 5 ml of stock solution and 1 ml of M. hapla egg suspension (about 100 eggs) were added into petri dishes. Gum arabic solution was used as control. Seven days after exposure to oils at room temperature (26±2 °C), the cumulative hatched and unhatched eggs were counted under 40X inverted light microscope and Abbott’s formula was used to calculate egg hatching inhibition rates. As a result, the highest inhibition rate was found as 54% for O. onites. In addition, the other inhibition rates varied as 31.4%, 21.6%, 23.8%, 25.67% for the other plants, S. officinalis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and L. citriodora, respectively. Carvacrol was found as the main component (68.8%) of O. onites followed by Thujone 27.77% for S. officinalis, I-Menthone 76.92% for M. longifolia, Carvone 27.05% for M. spicata and Citral 19.32% for L. citriodora.

Keywords: egg hatching, Meloidogyne hapla, medicinal and aromatic plants, root-knot nematodes, volatile oils

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11 An Assessment of Airport Collaborative Decision-Making System Using Predictive Maintenance

Authors: Faruk Aras, Melih Inal, Tansel Cinar


The coordination of airport staff especially in the operations and maintenance departments is important for the airport operation. As a result, this coordination will increase the efficiency in all operation. Therefore, a Collaborative Decision-Making (CDM) system targets on improving the overall productivity of all operations by optimizing the use of resources and improving the predictability of actions. Enlarged productivity can be of major benefit for all airport operations. It also increases cost-efficiency. This study explains how predictive maintenance using IoT (Internet of Things), predictive operations and the statistical data such as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) improves airport terminal operations and utilize airport terminal equipment in collaboration with collaborative decision making system/Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC). Data generated by the predictive maintenance methods is retrieved and analyzed by maintenance managers to predict when a problem is about to occur. With that information, maintenance can be scheduled when needed. As an example, AOCC operator would have chance to assign a new gate that towards to this gate all the equipment such as travellator, elevator, escalator etc. are operational if the maintenance team is in collaboration with AOCC since maintenance team is aware of the health of the equipment because of predictive maintenance methods. Applying predictive maintenance methods based on analyzing the health of airport terminal equipment dramatically reduces the risk of downtime by on time repairs. We can classify the categories as high priority calls for urgent repair action, as medium priority requires repair at the earliest opportunity, and low priority allows maintenance to be scheduled when convenient. In all cases, identifying potential problems early resulted in better allocation airport terminal resources by AOCC.

Keywords: airport, predictive maintenance, collaborative decision-making system, Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC)

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10 Design and Implementation of Smart Watch Textile Antenna for Wi-Fi Bio-Medical Applications in Millimetric Wave Band

Authors: M. G. Ghanem, A. M. M. A. Allam, Diaa E. Fawzy, Mehmet Faruk Cengiz


This paper is devoted to the design and implementation of a smartwatch textile antenna for Wi-Fi bio-medical applications in millimetric wave bands. The antenna is implemented on a leather textile-based substrate to be embedded in a smartwatch. It enables the watch to pick Wi-Fi signals without the need to be connected to a mobile through Bluetooth. It operates at 60 GHz or WiGig (Wireless Gigabit Alliance) band with a wide band for higher rate applications. It also could be implemented over many stratified layers of the body organisms to be used in the diagnosis of many diseases like diabetes and cancer. The structure is designed and simulated using CST (Studio Suite) program. The wearable patch antenna has an octagon shape, and it is implemented on leather material that acts as a flexible substrate with a size of 5.632 x 6.4 x 2 mm3, a relative permittivity of 2.95, and a loss tangent of 0.006. The feeding is carried out using differential feed (discrete port in CST). The work provides five antenna implementations; antenna without ground, a ground is added at the back of the antenna in order to increase the antenna gain, the substrate dimensions are increased to 15 x 30 mm2 to resemble the real hand watch size, layers of skin and fat are added under the ground of the antenna to study the effect of human body tissues human on the antenna performance. Finally, the whole structure is bent. It is found that the antenna can achieve a simulated peak realized gain in dB of 5.68, 7.28, 6.15, 3.03, and 4.37 for antenna without ground, antenna with the ground, antenna with larger substrate dimensions, antenna with skin and fat, and bent structure, respectively. The antenna with ground exhibits high gain; while adding the human organisms absorption, the gain is degraded because of human absorption. The bent structure contributes to higher gain.

Keywords: bio medical engineering, millimetric wave, smart watch, textile antennas, Wi-Fi

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9 Peat Resources, Paleo-Environmental Interpretation as well as Their Utilization, Hakaluki Haor, Moulvibazar and Sylhet District, Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammed Masum, Mohammad Omer Faruk Khan, Md. Nazwanul Haque, Anwar Sadat Md. Sayem, Md. Azhar Hossain


The study area is the Hakaluki Haor which is the second largest wet land of Bangladesh. It spans over the districts of Moulvibazar and Sylhet in southeast Bangladesh. The study was focused in the exploration of peat reserve, reconstruction of the paleo-environment as well as the utilization of the peat resources. Peat is found randomly from 0.5 m to 7 m below the surface and 1 m to 11 m thickness at over 40 beels as well as small plain lands of 90 km2 area of Hakaluki Haor. The total reserve of peat is 282 million ton in wet condition and 112 million ton in dry condition. The peat deposits of Hakaluki Haor area is the largest peat reserves of the Bangladesh. Peat bearing Hakaluki Haor is a low-lying wet land which geological term is synclinal depression. It may be a syncline between two anticlines which was filled with sediments as well as various plant materials derived from the hilly region (anticline) on both sides (west and east) of the Haor. The transportation may be triggered by large natural disasters or any tectonic reason. On the other hand vegetation occurred in this depression as aquatic plants which might have been destroyed by large natural disasters or any tectonic reason. As environment dictates the characteristics and the source of sediments, various aspects of the sediment are indicators of the environment. Peat has mainly industrial importance as a fuel for power production, traditionally used for cooking, domestic heating and in brick fields, also used as insulator in many industries, agricultural purposes, retaining moisture in soil, raw material in horticulture and colour industries etc. Power plants of about 100 MW capacities may be established in this region based on peat of Hakaluki Haor which may be continued more than one hundred years.

Keywords: peat, pale environment, Hakaluki Haor, beel, syncline, anticline

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8 Small-Sided Games in Football: Effect of Field Sizes on Technical Parameters

Authors: Faruk Guven, Nurtekin Erkmen, Samet Aktas, Cengiz Taskin


The aim of this study was to determine effects of field sizes on technical parameters of small-sided games in football players. Eight amateur football players (27.23±3.08 years, heigth: 171.01±5.36 cm, body weigth: 66.86±4.54 kg, sports experience: 12.88±3.28 years) performed 4-a-side small-sided games (SSG) with different field sizes. In SSGs, field sizes were 30 x 40 m and 26 mx24 m. SSGs was conducted as a series of 3 bouts of 6 min with 5 min recovery durations. All SSGs were video recorded using two digital video camcorder positioned on a tripot. Shoot on taget, passes, succesful passes, unsuccesful passes, dripling, tackle, possession in SSGs were counted by Mathball Match Analysis System. The effects of bouts on technical score were examined separately using a Friedman’s test. Mann Whitney U test was applied to analyse differences between field sizes. There were no significant differences in shoots on target, total pass, successful pass, tackle, interception, possession between bouts in 30x40 m field size (p>0.05). Unsuccessful pass in bout 3 for 30x40 m field size was lower than bout 1 and bout 2 (p<0.05) and dripling in bout 3 was lower than bout 2 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in technical actions between bouts for 26x34 m field size (p>0.05). Shoot on target in SSG with 26 x 34 m field size was higher than SSG with 30x40 m field size (p<0.05). Unsuccessful pass for 26x34 m field size in bout 3 was higher than SSG with 30x40 m field size (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in technical actions between field sizes (p>0.05). In conclusion; in this study demonstrates that technical actions in a-4-side SSG are not influenced by different field sizes (for 30x40 m and 26x34 m field sizes). This consequence is same for both total SSG time and each bout. Dripling and unsuccessful pass decrease in bout 3 during SSG in 30 x 40 m field size.

Keywords: small-sided games, football, technical actions, sport science

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7 Heterogeneity of Genes Encoding the Structural Proteins of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, Siamak Zohari, Lena H. M. Renström, Désirée S. Jansson, Faruk Otman, Karin Ullman, Claudia Baule


Infectious bronchitis is an acute, highly contagious respiratory, nephropathogenic and reproductive disease of poultry that is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The present study used a large data set of structural gene sequences, including newly generated ones and sequences available in the GenBank database to further analyze the diversity and to identify selective pressures and recombination spots. There were some deletions or insertions in the analyzed regions in isolates of the Italy-02 and D274 genotypes. Whereas, there were no insertions or deletions observed in the isolates of the Massachusetts and 4/91 genotype. The hypervariable nucleotide sequence regions spanned positions 152–239, 554–582, 686–737 and 802–912 in the S1 sub-unit of the all analyzed genotypes. The nucleotide sequence data of the E gene showed that this gene was comparatively unstable and subjected to a high frequency of mutations. The M gene showed substitutions consistently distributed except for a region between nucleotide positions 250–680 that remained conserved. The lowest variation in the nucleotide sequences of ORF5a was observed in the isolates of the D274 genotype. While, ORF5b and N gene sequences showed highly conserved regions and were less subjected to variation. Genes ORF3a, ORF3b, M, ORF5a, ORF5b and N presented negative selective pressure among the analyzed isolates. However, some regions of the ORFs showed favorable selective pressure(s). The S1 and E proteins were subjected to a high rate of mutational substitutions and non-synonymous amino acids. Strong signals of recombination breakpoints and ending break point were observed in the S and N genes. Overall, the results of this study revealed that very likely the strong selective pressures in E, M and the high frequency of substitutions in the S gene can probably be considered the main determinants in the evolution of IBV.

Keywords: IBV, avian infectious bronchitis, structural genes, genotypes, genetic diversity

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6 Representation of History in Cinema: Comparative Analysis of Turkish Films Based on the Conquest of Istanbul

Authors: Dilara Balcı Gulpinar


History, which can be defined as the narrative of the past, is a process of reproduction that takes place in current time. Scientificness of historiography is controversial for reasons such as the fact that the historian makes choices and comments; even the reason for choosing the subject distracts him/her from objectivity. Historians may take advantage of the current values, cannot be able to afford to contradict society and/or face pressures of dominant groups. In addition, due to the lack of documentation, interpretation, and fiction are used to integrate historical events that seem disconnected. In this respect, there are views that relate history to narrative arts rather than positive sciences. Popular historical films, which are visual historical representations, appeal to wider audiences by taking advantage of visuality, dramatic fictional narrative, various effects, music, stars, and other populist elements. Historical film, which does not claim to be scientific and even has the freedom to distort historical reality, can be perceived as reality itself and becomes an indispensable resource for individual and social memory. The ideological discourse of popular films is not only impressive and manipulative but also changeable. Socio-cultural and political changes can transform the representation of history in films extremely sharply and rapidly. In accordance with the above-mentioned hypothesis, this study is aimed at examining Turkish historical films about the conquest of Istanbul, using methods of historical and social analysis. İstanbul’un Fethi (Conquest of Istanbul, Aydin Arakon, 1953), Kuşatma Altında Aşk (Love Under Siege, Ersin Pertan, 1997) and Fetih 1453 (Conquest 1453, Faruk Aksoy, 2012) are the only three films in Turkish cinema that revolve around the said conquest, therefore constituting the sample of this study. It has been determined that real and fictional events, as well as characters, both focused and ignored, differ from one another in each film. Such significant differences in the dramatic and cinematographic structure of these three films shot respectively in the 50s, 90s, and 2010s show that the representation of history in popular cinema has altered throughout the years, losing its aspect of objectivity.

Keywords: cinema, conquest of Istanbul, historical film, representation

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5 Determination of the Walkability Comfort for Urban Green Space Using Geographical Information System

Authors: Muge Unal, Cengiz Uslu, Mehmet Faruk Altunkasa


Walkability relates to the ability of the places to connect people with varied destinations within a reasonable amount of time and effort, and to offer visual interest in journeys throughout the network. So, the good quality of the physical environment and arrangement of walkway and sidewalk appear to be more crucial in influencing the pedestrian route choice. Also, proximity, connectivity, and accessibility are significant factor for walkability in terms of an equal opportunity for using public spaces. As a result, there are two important points for walkability. Firstly, the place should have a well-planned street network for accessible and secondly facilitate the pedestrian need for comfort. In this respect, this study aims to examine the both physical and bioclimatic comfort levels of the current condition of pedestrian route with reference to design criteria of a street to access the urban green spaces. These aspects have been identified as the main indicators for walkable streets such as continuity, materials, slope, bioclimatic condition, walkway width, greenery, and surface. Additionally, the aim was to identify the factors that need to be considered in future guidelines and policies for planning and design in urban spaces especially streets. Adana city was chosen as a study area. Adana is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. This study workflow can be summarized in four stages: (1) environmental and physical data were collected by referred to literature and used in a weighted criteria method to determine the importance level of these data , (2) environmental characteristics of pedestrian routes gained from survey studies are evaluated to hierarchies these criteria of the collected information, (3) and then each pedestrian routes will have a score that provides comfortable access to the park, (4) finally, the comfortable routes to park will be mapped using GIS. It is hoped that this study will provide an insight into future development planning and design to create a friendly and more comfort street environment for the users.

Keywords: comfort level, geographical information system (GIS), walkability, weighted criteria method

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4 Comparative Performance of Retting Methods on Quality Jute Fibre Production and Water Pollution for Environmental Safety

Authors: A. K. M. Zakir Hossain, Faruk-Ul Islam, Muhammad Alamgir Chowdhury, Kazi Morshed Alam, Md. Rashidul Islam, Muhammad Humayun Kabir, Noshin Ara Tunazzina, Taufiqur Rahman, Md. Ashik Mia, Ashaduzzaman Sagar


The jute retting process is one of the key factors for the excellent jute fibre production as well as maintaining water quality. The traditional method of jute retting is time-consuming and hampers the fish cultivation by polluting the water body. Therefore, a low cost, time-saving, environment-friendly, and improved technique is essential for jute retting to overcome this problem. Thus the study was focused to compare the extent of water pollution and fibre quality of two retting systems, i.e., traditional retting practices over-improved retting method (macha retting) by assessing different physico-chemical and microbiological properties of water and fibre quality parameters. Water samples were collected from the top and bottom of the retting place at the early, mid, and final stages of retting from four districts of Bangladesh viz., Gaibandha, Kurigram, Lalmonirhat, and Rangpur. Different physico-chemical parameters of water samples viz., pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity (CD), total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, phosphorus and sulphur content were measured. Irrespective of locations, the DO of the final stage retting water samples was very low as compared to the mid and early stage, and the DO of traditional jute retting method was significantly lower than the improved macha method. The pH of the water samples was slightly more acidic in the traditional retting method than that of the improved macha method. Other physico-chemical parameters of the water sample were found higher in the traditional method over-improved macha retting in all the stages of retting. Bacterial species were isolated from the collected water samples following the dilution plate technique. Microbiological results revealed that water samples of improved macha method contained more bacterial species that are supposed to involve in jute retting as compared to water samples of the traditional retting method. The bacterial species were then identified by the sequencing of 16SrDNA. Most of the bacterial species identified belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pectobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas. In addition, the tensile strength of the jute fibre was tested, and the results revealed that the improved macha method showed higher mechanical strength than the traditional method in most of the locations. The overall results indicate that the water and fibre quality were found better in the improved macha retting method than the traditional method. Therefore, a time-saving and cost-friendly improved macha retting method can be widely adopted for the jute retting process to get the quality jute fiber and to keep the environment clean and safe.

Keywords: jute retting methods, physico-chemical parameters, retting microbes, tensile strength, water quality

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3 Effects of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Growth Performance, Fertility Traits and Milk Yield/Composition in Saanen Goats

Authors: Deniz Dincel, Sena Ardicli, Hale Samli, Mustafa Ogan, Faruk Balci


The aim of the study was to determine the effects of some environmental and genetic factors on growth, fertility traits, milk yield and composition in Saanen goats. For this purpose, the total of 173 Saanen goats and kids were investigated for growth, fertility and milk traits in Marmara Region of Turkey. Fertility parameters (n=70) were evaluated during two years. Milk samples were collected during the lactation and the milk yield/components (n=59) of each goat were calculated. In terms of CSN3 and AGPAT6 gene; the genotypes were defined by PCR-RFLP. Saanen kids (n=86-112) were measured from birth to 6 months of life. The birth, weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ, 120ᵗʰ and 180tᵗʰ days of average live weights were calculated. The effects of maternal age on pregnancy rate (p < 0.05), birth rate (p < 0.05), infertility rate (p < 0.05), single born kidding (p < 0.001), twinning rate (p < 0.05), triplet rate (p < 0.05), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.05), number of kids per parturition (p < 0.01) and number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant. The impacts of year on birth rate (p < 0.05), abortion rate (p < 0.001), single born kidding (p < 0.01), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.01), number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant for fertility traits. The impacts of lactation length on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, totally solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001) were found significant. The effects of age on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, total solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001), protein rate (p < 0.05), fat rate (p < 0.05), total solid rate (p < 0.01), solid not fat rate (p < 0.05), casein rate (p < 0.05) and lactation length (p < 0.01), were found significant too. However, the effect of AGPAT6 gene on milk yield and composition was not found significant in Saanen goats. The herd was found monomorphic (FF) for CSN3 gene. The effects of sex on live weights until 90ᵗʰ days of life (birth, weaning and 60ᵗʰ day of average weight) were found significant statistically (p < 0.001). The maternal age affected only birth weight (p < 0,001). The effects month at birth on all of the investigated day [the birth, 120ᵗʰ, 180ᵗʰ days (p < 0.05); the weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ days (p < 0,001)] were found significant. The birth type was found significant on the birth (p < 0,001), weaning (p < 0,01), 60ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) and 90ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) days of average live weights. As a result, screening the other regions of CSN3, AGPAT6 gene and also investigation the phenotypic association of them should be useful to clarify the efficiency of target genes. Environmental factors such as maternal age, year, sex and birth type were found significant on some growth, fertility and milk traits in Saanen goats. So consideration of these factors could be used as selection criteria in dairy goat breeding.

Keywords: fertility, growth, milk yield, Saanen goats

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2 Fabrication of Electrospun Green Fluorescent Protein Nano-Fibers for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yakup Ulusu, Faruk Ozel, Numan Eczacioglu, Abdurrahman Ozen, Sabriye Acikgoz


GFP discovered in the mid-1970s, has been used as a marker after replicated genetic study by scientists. In biotechnology, cell, molecular biology, the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression. In modified forms, it has been used to make biosensors. Many animals have been created that express GFP as an evidence that a gene can be expressed throughout a given organism. Proteins labeled with GFP identified locations are determined. And so, cell connections can be monitored, gene expression can be reported, protein-protein interactions can be observed and signals that create events can be detected. Additionally, monitoring GFP is noninvasive; it can be detected by under UV-light because of simply generating fluorescence. Moreover, GFP is a relatively small and inert molecule, that does not seem to treat any biological processes of interest. The synthesis of GFP has some steps like, to construct the plasmid system, transformation in E. coli, production and purification of protein. GFP carrying plasmid vector pBAD–GFPuv was digested using two different restriction endonuclease enzymes (NheI and Eco RI) and DNA fragment of GFP was gel purified before cloning. The GFP-encoding DNA fragment was ligated into pET28a plasmid using NheI and Eco RI restriction sites. The final plasmid was named pETGFP and DNA sequencing of this plasmid indicated that the hexa histidine-tagged GFP was correctly inserted. Histidine-tagged GFP was expressed in an Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 (pLysE) strain. The strain was transformed with pETGFP plasmid and grown on LuiraBertoni (LB) plates with kanamycin and chloramphenicol selection. E. coli cells were grown up to an optical density (OD 600) of 0.8 and induced by the addition of a final concentration of 1mM isopropyl-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and then grown for additional 4 h. The amino-terminal hexa-histidine-tag facilitated purification of the GFP by using a His Bind affinity chromatography resin (Novagen). Purity of GFP protein was analyzed by a 12 % sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The concentration of protein was determined by UV absorption at 280 nm (Varian Cary 50 Scan UV/VIS spectrophotometer). Synthesis of GFP-Polymer composite nanofibers was produced by using GFP solution (10mg/mL) and polymer precursor Polyvinylpyrrolidone, (PVP, Mw=1300000) as starting materials and template, respectively. For the fabrication of nanofibers with the different fiber diameter; a sol–gel solution comprising of 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80 g PVP (depending upon the desired fiber diameter) and 100 mg GFP in 10 mL water: ethanol (3:2) mixtures were prepared and then the solution was covered on collecting plate via electro spinning at 10 kV with a feed-rate of 0.25 mL h-1 using Spellman electro spinning system. Results show that GFP-based nano-fiber can be used plenty of biomedical applications such as bio-imaging, bio-mechanic, bio-material and tissue engineering.

Keywords: biomaterial, GFP, nano-fibers, protein expression

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1 The Importance of Value Added Services Provided by Science and Technology Parks to Boost Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Turkey

Authors: Faruk Inaltekin, Imran Gurakan


This paper will aim to discuss the importance of value-added services provided by Science and Technology Parks for entrepreneurship development in Turkey. Entrepreneurship is vital subject for all countries. It has not only fostered economic development but also promoted innovation at local and international levels. To foster high tech entrepreneurship ecosystem, Technopark (Science and Technology Park/STP) concept was initiated with the establishment of Silicon Valley in the 1950s. The success and rise of Silicon Valley led to the spread of technopark activities. Developed economies have been setting up projects to plan and build STPs since the 1960s and 1970s. To promote the establishment of STPs, necessary legislations were made by Ministry of Science, Industry, and Technology in 2001, Technology Development Zones Law (No. 4691) and it has been revised in 2016 to provide more supports. STPs’ basic aim is to provide customers high-quality office spaces with various 'value added services' such as business development, network connections, cooperation programs, investor/customers meetings and internationalization services. For this aim, STPs should help startups deal with difficulties in the early stages and to support mature companies’ export activities in the foreign market. STPs should support the production, commercialization and more significantly internationalization of technology-intensive business and foster growth of companies. Nowadays within this value-added services, internationalization is very popular subject in the world. Most of STPs design clusters or accelerator programs in order to support their companies in the foreign market penetration. If startups are not ready for international competition, STPs should help them to get ready for foreign market with training and mentoring sessions. These training and mentoring sessions should take a goal based approach to working with companies. Each company has different needs and goals. Therefore the definition of ‘success' varies for each company. For this reason, it is very important to create customized value added services to meet the needs of startups. After local supports, STPs should also be able to support their startups in foreign market. Organizing well defined international accelerator program plays an important role in this mission. Turkey is strategically placed between key markets in Europe, Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. Its population is young and well educated. So both government agencies and the private sectors endeavor to foster and encourage entrepreneurship ecosystem with many supports. In sum, the task of technoparks with these and similar value added services is very important for developing entrepreneurship ecosystem. The priorities of all value added services are to identify the commercialization and growth obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and get rid of them with the one-to-one customized services. Also, in order to have a healthy startup ecosystem and create sustainable entrepreneurship, stakeholders (technoparks, incubators, accelerators, investors, universities, governmental organizations etc.) should fulfill their roles and/or duties and collaborate with each other. STPs play an important role as bridge for these stakeholders & entrepreneurs. STPs always should benchmark and renew services offered to how to help the start-ups to survive, develop their business and benefit from these stakeholders.

Keywords: accelerator, cluster, entrepreneurship, startup, technopark, value added services

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