Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: scalability

101 A Lightweight Blockchain: Enhancing Internet of Things Driven Smart Buildings Scalability and Access Control Using Intelligent Direct Acyclic Graph Architecture and Smart Contracts

Authors: Syed Irfan Raza Naqvi, Zheng Jiangbin, Ahmad Moshin, Pervez Akhter


Currently, the IoT system depends on a centralized client-servant architecture that causes various scalability and privacy vulnerabilities. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) introduces a set of opportunities for the IoT, which leads to practical ideas for existing components at all levels of existing architectures. Blockchain Technology (BCT) appears to be one approach to solving several IoT problems, like Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum, which offer multiple possibilities. Besides, IoTs are resource-constrained devices with insufficient capacity and computational overhead to process blockchain consensus mechanisms; the traditional BCT existing challenge for IoTs is poor scalability, energy efficiency, and transaction fees. IOTA is a distributed ledger based on Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) that ensures M2M micro-transactions are free of charge. IOTA has the potential to address existing IoT-related difficulties such as infrastructure scalability, privacy and access control mechanisms. We proposed an architecture, SLDBI: A Scalable, lightweight DAG-based Blockchain Design for Intelligent IoT Systems, which adapts the DAG base Tangle and implements a lightweight message data model to address the IoT limitations. It enables the smooth integration of new IoT devices into a variety of apps. SLDBI enables comprehensive access control, energy efficiency, and scalability in IoT ecosystems by utilizing the Masked Authentication Message (MAM) protocol and the IOTA Smart Contract Protocol (ISCP). Furthermore, we suggest proof-of-work (PoW) computation on the full node in an energy-efficient way. Experiments have been carried out to show the capability of a tangle to achieve better scalability while maintaining energy efficiency. The findings show user access control management at granularity levels and ensure scale up to massive networks with thousands of IoT nodes, such as Smart Connected Buildings (SCBDs).

Keywords: blockchain, IOT, direct acyclic graphy, scalability, access control, architecture, smart contract, smart connected buildings

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100 Quantum Computing with Qudits on a Graph

Authors: Aleksey Fedorov


Building a scalable platform for quantum computing remains one of the most challenging tasks in quantum science and technologies. However, the implementation of most important quantum operations with qubits (quantum analogues of classical bits), such as multiqubit Toffoli gate, requires either a polynomial number of operation or a linear number of operations with the use of ancilla qubits. Therefore, the reduction of the number of operations in the presence of scalability is a crucial goal in quantum information processing. One of the most elegant ideas in this direction is to use qudits (multilevel systems) instead of qubits and rely on additional levels of qudits instead of ancillas. Although some of the already obtained results demonstrate a reduction of the number of operation, they suffer from high complexity and/or of the absence of scalability. We show a strong reduction of the number of operations for the realization of the Toffoli gate by using qudits for a scalable multi-qudit processor. This is done on the basis of a general relation between the dimensionality of qudits and their topology of connections, that we derived.

Keywords: quantum computing, qudits, Toffoli gates, gate decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
99 Collision Detection Algorithm Based on Data Parallelism

Authors: Zhen Peng, Baifeng Wu


Modern computing technology enters the era of parallel computing with the trend of sustainable and scalable parallelism. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) is an important way to go along with the trend. It is able to gather more and more computing ability by increasing the number of processor cores without the need of modifying the program. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific computing and engineering design, many computation intensive applications are facing the challenge of increasingly large amount of data. Data parallel computing will be an important way to further improve the performance of these applications. In this paper, we take the accurate collision detection in building information modeling as an example. We demonstrate a model for constructing a data parallel algorithm. According to the model, a complex object is decomposed into the sets of simple objects; collision detection among complex objects is converted into those among simple objects. The resulting algorithm is a typical SIMD algorithm, and its advantages in parallelism and scalability is unparalleled in respect to the traditional algorithms.

Keywords: data parallelism, collision detection, single instruction multiple data, building information modeling, continuous scalability

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98 Performance Evaluation of Hierarchical Location-Based Services Coupled to the Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rania Khadim, Mohammed Erritali, Abdelhakim Maaden


Nowadays Wireless Sensor Networks have attracted worldwide research and industrial interest, because they can be applied in various areas. Geographic routing protocols are very suitable to those networks because they use location information when they need to route packets. Obviously, location information is maintained by Location-Based Services provided by network nodes in a distributed way. In this paper we choose to evaluate the performance of two hierarchical rendezvous location based-services, GLS (Grid Location Service) and HLS (Hierarchical Location Service) coupled to the GPSR routing protocol (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) for Wireless Sensor Network. The simulations were performed using NS2 simulator to evaluate the performance and power of the two services in term of location overhead, the request travel time (RTT) and the query Success ratio (QSR). This work presents also a new scalability performance study of both GLS and HLS, specifically, what happens if the number of nodes N increases. The study will focus on three qualitative metrics: The location maintenance cost, the location query cost and the storage cost.

Keywords: location based-services, routing protocols, scalability, wireless sensor networks

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97 A Cloud Computing System Using Virtual Hyperbolic Coordinates for Services Distribution

Authors: Telesphore Tiendrebeogo, Oumarou Sié


Cloud computing technologies have attracted considerable interest in recent years. Thus, these latters have become more important for many existing database applications. It provides a new mode of use and of offer of IT resources in general. Such resources can be used “on demand” by anybody who has access to the internet. Particularly, the Cloud platform provides an ease to use interface between providers and users, allow providers to develop and provide software and databases for users over locations. Currently, there are many Cloud platform providers support large scale database services. However, most of these only support simple keyword-based queries and can’t response complex query efficiently due to lack of efficient in multi-attribute index techniques. Existing Cloud platform providers seek to improve performance of indexing techniques for complex queries. In this paper, we define a new cloud computing architecture based on a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) and design a prototype system. Next, we perform and evaluate our cloud computing indexing structure based on a hyperbolic tree using virtual coordinates taken in the hyperbolic plane. We show through our experimental results that we compare with others clouds systems to show our solution ensures consistence and scalability for Cloud platform.

Keywords: virtual coordinates, cloud, hyperbolic plane, storage, scalability, consistency

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96 RSU Aggregated Message Delivery for VANET

Authors: Auxeeliya Jesudoss, Ashraph Sulaiman, Ratnakar Kotnana


V2V communication brings up several questions of scalability issues although message sharing in vehicular ad-hoc networks comprises of both Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication (V2I). It is not an easy task for a vehicle to verify all signatures of the messages sent by its neighboring vehicles in a timely manner, without resulting in message loss. Moreover, the communication overhead of a vehicle to authenticate another vehicle would increase together with the security of the system. Another issue to be addressed is the continuous mobility of vehicles which requires at least some information on the node’s own position to be revealed to the neighboring vehicles. This may facilitate the attacker to congregate information on a node’s position or its mobility patterns. In order to tackle these issues, this paper introduces a RSU aggregated message deliverance scheme called RAMeD. With RAMeD, roadside units (RSUs) are responsible for verifying the identity of the vehicles entering in its range, collect messages from genuine vehicles and to aggregate similar messages into groups before sending them to all the vehicles in its communication range. This aggregation will tremendously improve the rate of message delivery and reduce the message lose ratio by avoiding similar messages being sent to the vehicles redundantly. The proposed protocol is analyzed extensively to evaluate its merits and efficiency for vehicular communication.

Keywords: vehicular ad-hoc networks, V2V, V2I, VANET communication, scalability, message aggregation

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95 Schools of Thought in the Field of Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Cris Bravo


Social entrepreneurship is a new and exciting topic that holds a great promise in helping alleviate the social problems of the world. As a new subject, the meaning of the term is too broad and this is counterproductive in trying to build understanding around the concept. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the elements of social entrepreneurship as defined by seven international organizations leading social entrepreneurship projects: Ashoka Foundation, Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation and Yunus Center; as well as from three other institutions fostering social entrepreneurship: Global Social Benefit Institute, BRAC University, and Socialab. The study used document analysis from Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation, Yunus Center and Ashoka Foundation; and open ended interview to experts from the Global Social Benefit Institute at Santa Clara University in United States, BRAC University from Bangladesh, and Socialab from Argentina. The study identified three clearly differentiated schools of thought, based on their views on revenue, scalability, replicability and geographic location. While this study is by no means exhaustive, it provides an indication of the patterns of ideas fostered by important players in the field. By clearly identifying the similarities and differences in the concept of social entrepreneurship, research and practitioners are better equipped to build on the subject, and to promote more adequate and accurate social policies to foster the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: replicability, revenue, scalability, schools of thought, social entrepreneurship

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94 Distributed Real-Time Range Query Approximation in a Streaming Environment

Authors: Simon Keller, Rainer Mueller


Continuous range queries are a common means to handle mobile clients in high-density areas. Most existing approaches focus on settings in which the range queries for location-based services are more or less static, whereas the mobile clients in the ranges move. We focus on a category called dynamic real-time range queries (DRRQ), assuming that both, clients requested by the query and the inquirers, are mobile. In consequence, the query parameters and the query results continuously change. This leads to two requirements: the ability to deal with an arbitrarily high number of mobile nodes (scalability) and the real-time delivery of range query results. In this paper, we present the highly decentralized solution adaptive quad streaming (AQS) for the requirements of DRRQs. AQS approximates the query results in favor of a controlled real-time delivery and guaranteed scalability. While prior works commonly optimize data structures on the involved servers, we use AQS to focus on a highly distributed cell structure without data structures automatically adapting to changing client distributions. Instead of the commonly used request-response approach, we apply a lightweight streaming method in which no bidirectional communication and no storage or maintenance of queries are required at all.

Keywords: approximation of client distributions, continuous spatial range queries, mobile objects, streaming-based decentralization in spatial mobile environments

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93 Providing Reliability, Availability and Scalability Support for Quick Assist Technology Cryptography on the Cloud

Authors: Songwu Shen, Garrett Drysdale, Veerendranath Mannepalli, Qihua Dai, Yuan Wang, Yuli Chen, David Qian, Utkarsh Kakaiya


Hardware accelerator has been a promising solution to reduce the cost of cloud data centers. This paper investigates the QoS enhancement of the acceleration of an important datacenter workload: the webserver (or proxy) that faces high computational consumption originated from secure sockets layer (SSL) or transport layer security (TLS) procession in the cloud environment. Our study reveals that for the accelerator maintenance cases—need to upgrade driver/firmware or hardware reset due to hardware hang; we still can provide cryptography services by switching to software during maintenance phase and then switching back to accelerator after maintenance. The switching is seamless to server application such as Nginx that runs inside a VM on top of the server. To achieve this high availability goal, we propose a comprehensive fallback solution based on Intel® QuickAssist Technology (QAT). This approach introduces an architecture that involves the collaboration between physical function (PF) and virtual function (VF), and collaboration among VF, OpenSSL, and web application Nginx. The evaluation shows that our solution could provide high reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of hardware cryptography service in a 7x24x365 manner in the cloud environment.

Keywords: accelerator, cryptography service, RAS, secure sockets layer/transport layer security, SSL/TLS, virtualization fallback architecture

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92 An Investigation Enhancing E-Voting Application Performance

Authors: Aditya Verma


E-voting using blockchain provides us with a distributed system where data is present on each node present in the network and is reliable and secure too due to its immutability property. This work compares various blockchain consensus algorithms used for e-voting applications in the past, based on performance and node scalability, and chooses the optimal one and improves on one such previous implementation by proposing solutions for the loopholes of the optimally working blockchain consensus algorithm, in our chosen application, e-voting.

Keywords: blockchain, parallel bft, consensus algorithms, performance

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91 The Role of Optimization and Machine Learning in e-Commerce Logistics in 2030

Authors: Vincenzo Capalbo, Gianpaolo Ghiani, Emanuele Manni


Global e-commerce sales have reached unprecedented levels in the past few years. As this trend is only predicted to go up as we continue into the ’20s, new challenges will be faced by companies when planning and controlling e-commerce logistics. In this paper, we survey the related literature on Optimization and Machine Learning as well as on combined methodologies. We also identify the distinctive features of next-generation planning algorithms - namely scalability, model-and-run features and learning capabilities - that will be fundamental to cope with the scale and complexity of logistics in the next decade.

Keywords: e-commerce, hardware acceleration, logistics, machine learning, mixed integer programming, optimization

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90 Geographic Information System Cloud for Sustainable Digital Water Management: A Case Study

Authors: Mohamed H. Khalil


Water is one of the most crucial elements which influence human lives and development. Noteworthy, over the last few years, GIS plays a significant role in optimizing water management systems, especially after exponential developing in this sector. In this context, the Egyptian government initiated an advanced ‘GIS-Web Based System’. This system is efficiently designed to tangibly assist and optimize the complement and integration of data between departments of Call Center, Operation and Maintenance, and laboratory. The core of this system is a unified ‘Data Model’ for all the spatial and tabular data of the corresponding departments. The system is professionally built to provide advanced functionalities such as interactive data collection, dynamic monitoring, multi-user editing capabilities, enhancing data retrieval, integrated work-flow, different access levels, and correlative information record/track. Noteworthy, this cost-effective system contributes significantly not only in the completeness of the base-map (93%), the water network (87%) in high level of details GIS format, enhancement of the performance of the customer service, but also in reducing the operating costs/day-to-day operations (~ 5-10 %). In addition, the proposed system facilitates data exchange between different departments (Call Center, Operation and Maintenance, and laboratory), which allowed a better understanding/analyzing of complex situations. Furthermore, this system reflected tangibly on: (i) dynamic environmental monitor/water quality indicators (ammonia, turbidity, TDS, sulfate, iron, pH, etc.), (ii) improved effectiveness of the different water departments, (iii) efficient deep advanced analysis, (iv) advanced web-reporting tools (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annually), (v) tangible planning synthesizing spatial and tabular data; and finally, (vi) scalable decision support system. It is worth to highlight that the proposed future plan (second phase) of this system encompasses scalability will extend to include integration with departments of Billing and SCADA. This scalability will comprise advanced functionalities in association with the existing one to allow further sustainable contributions.

Keywords: GIS Web-Based, base-map, water network, decision support system

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89 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini


Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

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88 Research of Data Cleaning Methods Based on Dependency Rules

Authors: Yang Bao, Shi Wei Deng, WangQun Lin


This paper introduces the concept and principle of data cleaning, analyzes the types and causes of dirty data, and proposes several key steps of typical cleaning process, puts forward a well scalability and versatility data cleaning framework, in view of data with attribute dependency relation, designs several of violation data discovery algorithms by formal formula, which can obtain inconsistent data to all target columns with condition attribute dependent no matter data is structured (SQL) or unstructured (NoSQL), and gives 6 data cleaning methods based on these algorithms.

Keywords: data cleaning, dependency rules, violation data discovery, data repair

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87 Mining Big Data in Telecommunications Industry: Challenges, Techniques, and Revenue Opportunity

Authors: Hoda A. Abdel Hafez


Mining big data represents a big challenge nowadays. Many types of research are concerned with mining massive amounts of data and big data streams. Mining big data faces a lot of challenges including scalability, speed, heterogeneity, accuracy, provenance and privacy. In telecommunication industry, mining big data is like a mining for gold; it represents a big opportunity and maximizing the revenue streams in this industry. This paper discusses the characteristics of big data (volume, variety, velocity and veracity), data mining techniques and tools for handling very large data sets, mining big data in telecommunication and the benefits and opportunities gained from them.

Keywords: mining big data, big data, machine learning, telecommunication

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86 A Survey of Attacks and Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar


Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of many interconnected networked systems, they equipped with energy resources and they are used to detect other physical characteristics. On WSN, there are many researches are performed in past decades. WSN applicable in many security systems govern by military and in many civilian related applications. Thus, the security of WSN gets attention of researchers and gives an opportunity for many future aspects. Still, there are many other issues are related to deployment and overall coverage, scalability, size, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), computational power and many more. In this paper we discus about various applications and security related issue and requirements of WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network (WSN), wireless network attacks, wireless network security, security requirements

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85 Performance Analysis of Scalable Secure Multicasting in Social Networking

Authors: R. Venkatesan, A. Sabari


Developments of social networking internet scenario are recommended for the requirements of scalable, authentic, secure group communication model like multicasting. Multicasting is an inter network service that offers efficient delivery of data from a source to multiple destinations. Even though multicast has been very successful at providing an efficient and best-effort data delivery service for huge groups, it verified complex process to expand other features to multicast in a scalable way. Separately, the requirement for secure electronic information had become gradually more apparent. Since multicast applications are deployed for mainstream purpose the need to secure multicast communications will become significant.

Keywords: multicasting, scalability, security, social network

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84 Signs-Only Compressed Row Storage Format for Exact Diagonalization Study of Quantum Fermionic Models

Authors: Michael Danilov, Sergei Iskakov, Vladimir Mazurenko


The present paper describes a high-performance parallel realization of an exact diagonalization solver for quantum-electron models in a shared memory computing system. The proposed algorithm contains a storage format for efficient computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a quantum electron Hamiltonian matrix. The results of the test calculations carried out for 15 sites Hubbard model demonstrate reduction in the required memory and good multiprocessor scalability, while maintaining performance of the same order as compressed row storage.

Keywords: sparse matrix, compressed format, Hubbard model, Anderson model

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83 Electrochemical Layer by Layer Assembly

Authors: Mao Li, Yuguang Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga


The performance of functional materials is governed by their ability to interact with surrounding environments in a well-defined and controlled manner. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is one of the most widely used technologies for coating both planar and particulate substrates in a diverse range of fields, including optics, energy, catalysis, separations, and biomedicine. Herein, we introduce electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer assembly as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This assembly method not only determines the process properties (such as the time, scalability, and manual intervention) but also directly control the physicochemical properties of the films (such as the thickness, homogeneity, and inter- and intra-layer film organization), with both sets of properties linked to application-specific performance.

Keywords: layer by layer assembly, electropolymerization, carbazole, optical thin film, electronics

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82 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali


The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several sub-networks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, AD HOC topology, cluster, sub-network, WSN design requirements

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81 Implementing Fault Tolerance with Proxy Signature on the Improvement of RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi


Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the improved RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: fault tolerance, improved RSA, key agreement, proxy signature

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80 An Online Priority-Configuration Algorithm for Obstacle Avoidance of the Unmanned Air Vehicles Swarm

Authors: Lihua Zhu, Jianfeng Du, Yu Wang, Zhiqiang Wu


Collision avoidance problems of a swarm of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) flying in an obstacle-laden environment are investigated in this paper. Given that the UAV swarm needs to adapt to the obstacle distribution in dynamic operation, a priority configuration is designed to guide the UAVs to pass through the obstacles in turn. Based on the collision cone approach and the prediction of the collision time, a collision evaluation model is established to judge the urgency of the imminent collision of each UAV, and the evaluation result is used to assign the priority of each UAV to further instruct them going through the obstacles in descending order. At last, the simulation results provide the promising validation in terms of the efficiency and scalability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: UAV swarm, collision avoidance, complex environment, online priority design

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
79 An Architecture for New Generation of Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Preventive Detection

Authors: H. Benmoussa, A. A. El Kalam, A. Ait Ouahman


The design and implementation of intrusion detection systems (IDS) remain an important area of research in the security of information systems. Despite the importance and reputation of the current intrusion detection systems, their efficiency and effectiveness remain limited as they should include active defense approach to allow anticipating and predicting intrusions before their occurrence. Consequently, they must be readapted. For this purpose we suggest a new generation of distributed intrusion detection system based on preventive detection approach and using intelligent and mobile agents. Our architecture benefits from mobile agent features and addresses some of the issues with centralized and hierarchical models. Also, it presents advantages in terms of increasing scalability and flexibility.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS), preventive detection, mobile agents, distributed architecture

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78 A Secure Proxy Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi


Due to the rapid growth in modern communication systems, fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in a secure transaction. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a secure proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: proxy signature, fault tolerance, rsa, key agreement protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
77 Secure Optimized Ingress Filtering in Future Internet Communication

Authors: Bander Alzahrani, Mohammed Alreshoodi


Information-centric networking (ICN) using architectures such as the Publish-Subscribe Internet Technology (PURSUIT) has been proposed as a new networking model that aims at replacing the current used end-centric networking model of the Internet. This emerged model focuses on what is being exchanged rather than which network entities are exchanging information, which gives the control plane functions such as routing and host location the ability to be specified according to the content items. The forwarding plane of the PURSUIT ICN architecture uses a simple and light mechanism based on Bloom filter technologies to forward the packets. Although this forwarding scheme solve many problems of the today’s Internet such as the growth of the routing table and the scalability issues, it is vulnerable to brute force attacks which are starting point to distributed- denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. In this work, we design and analyze a novel source-routing and information delivery technique that keeps the simplicity of using Bloom filter-based forwarding while being able to deter different attacks such as denial of service attacks at the ingress of the network. To achieve this, special forwarding nodes called Edge-FW are directly attached to end user nodes and used to perform a security test for malicious injected random packets at the ingress of the path to prevent any possible attack brute force attacks at early stage. In this technique, a core entity of the PURSUIT ICN architecture called topology manager, that is responsible for finding shortest path and creating a forwarding identifiers (FId), uses a cryptographically secure hash function to create a 64-bit hash, h, over the formed FId for authentication purpose to be included in the packet. Our proposal restricts the attacker from injecting packets carrying random FIds with a high amount of filling factor ρ, by optimizing and reducing the maximum allowed filling factor ρm in the network. We optimize the FId to the minimum possible filling factor where ρ ≤ ρm, while it supports longer delivery trees, so the network scalability is not affected by the chosen ρm. With this scheme, the filling factor of any legitimate FId never exceeds the ρm while the filling factor of illegitimate FIds cannot exceed the chosen small value of ρm. Therefore, injecting a packet containing an FId with a large value of filling factor, to achieve higher attack probability, is not possible anymore. The preliminary analysis of this proposal indicates that with the designed scheme, the forwarding function can detect and prevent malicious activities such DDoS attacks at early stage and with very high probability.

Keywords: forwarding identifier, filling factor, information centric network, topology manager

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76 A Computational Cost-Effective Clustering Algorithm in Multidimensional Space Using the Manhattan Metric: Application to the Global Terrorism Database

Authors: Semeh Ben Salem, Sami Naouali, Moetez Sallami


The increasing amount of collected data has limited the performance of the current analyzing algorithms. Thus, developing new cost-effective algorithms in terms of complexity, scalability, and accuracy raised significant interests. In this paper, a modified effective k-means based algorithm is developed and experimented. The new algorithm aims to reduce the computational load without significantly affecting the quality of the clusterings. The algorithm uses the City Block distance and a new stop criterion to guarantee the convergence. Conducted experiments on a real data set show its high performance when compared with the original k-means version.

Keywords: pattern recognition, global terrorism database, Manhattan distance, k-means clustering, terrorism data analysis

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75 Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series

Authors: Tushnik Sarkar, Mofazzal H. Khondekar, Subrata Banerjee


This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.

Keywords: detrended fluctuation analysis, generalized hurst exponent, holder exponents, multifractal exponent, multifractal spectrum, singularity spectrum, time series analysis

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74 Implementation of Distributed Randomized Algorithms for Resilient Peer-to-Peer Networks

Authors: Richard Tanaka, Ying Zhu


This paper studies a few randomized algorithms in application-layer peer-to-peer networks. The significant gain in scalability and resilience that peer-to-peer networks provide has made them widely used and adopted in many real-world distributed systems and applications. The unique properties of peer-to-peer networks make them particularly suitable for randomized algorithms such as random walks and gossip algorithms. Instead of simulations of peer-to-peer networks, we leverage the Docker virtual container technology to develop implementations of the peer-to-peer networks and these distributed randomized algorithms running on top of them. We can thus analyze their behaviour and performance in realistic settings. We further consider the problem of identifying high-risk bottleneck links in the network with the objective of improving the resilience and reliability of peer-to-peer networks. We propose a randomized algorithm to solve this problem and evaluate its performance by simulations.

Keywords: distributed randomized algorithms, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology, resilient networks

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73 Evaluation Of A Start Up Business Strategy In Movie Industry: Case Study Of Visinema

Authors: Stacia E. H. Sitohang, S.Mn., Socrates Rudy Sirait


The first movie theater in Indonesia was established in December 1900. The movie industry started with international movie penetration. After a while, local movie producers started to rise and created local Indonesian movies. The industry is growing through ups and downs in Indonesia. In 2008, Visinema was founded in Jakarta, Indonesia, by AnggaDwimasSasongko, one of the most respected movie director in Indonesia. After getting achievements and recognition, Visinema chose to grow the company horizontally as opposed to only grow vertically and gain another similar achievement. Visinemachose to build the ecosystem that enables them to obtain many more opportunities and generatebusiness sustainability. The company proceed as an agile company. They created several business subsidiaries to support the company’s Intellectual Property (IP) development. This research was done through interview with the key persons in the company and questionnaire to get market insights regarding Visinema. The is able to transform their IP that initially started from movies to different kinds of business model. Interestingly, Angga chose to use the start up approach to create Visinema. In 2019, the company successfully gained Series A funding from Intudo Ventures and got other various investment schemes to support the business. In early 2020, Covid-19 pandemic negatively impacted many industries in Indonesia, especially the entertainment and leisure businesses. Fortunately, Visinema did not face any significant problem regarding survival during the pandemic, there were nolay-offs nor work hour reductions. Instead, they were thinking of much bigger opportunities and problems. While other companies suffer during the pandemic, Visinema created the first focused Transactional Video On Demand (TVOD) in Indonesia named Bioskop Online. The platform was created to keep the company innovating and adapting with the new online market as the result of the Covid-19 pandemic. Other than a digital platform, Visinemainvested heavily in animation to target kids and family business. They believed that penetrating the technology and animation market is going to be the biggest opportunity in Visinema’s road map. Besides huge opportunities, Visinema is also facing problems. The first is company brand positioning. Angga, as the founder, felt the need to detach his name from the brand image of Visinema to create system sustainability and scalability. Second, the company has to create a strategy to refocus in a particular business area to maintain and improve the competitive advantages. The third problem, IP piracy is a huge structural problem in Indonesia, the company considers IP thieves as their biggest competitors as opposed to other production company. As the recommendation, we suggest a set of branding and management strategy to detach the founder’s name from Visinema’s brand and improve the competitive advantages. We also suggest Visinema invest in system building to prevent IP piracy in the entertainment industry, which later can be another business subsidiary of Visinema.

Keywords: business ecosystem, agile, sustainability, scalability, start Up, intellectual property, digital platform

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72 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Video Conference over MPLS VPN Network

Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun, Tarek R. Sheltami


Video conferencing is a highly demanding facility now a days in order to its real time characteristics, but faster communication is the prior requirement of this technology. Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) address this problem and it is able to make a communication faster than others techniques. However, this paper studies the performance comparison of video traffic between two routing protocols namely the Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol(EIGRP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). The combination of traditional routing and MPLS improve the forwarding mechanism, scalability and overall network performance. We will use GNS3 and OPNET Modeler 14.5 to simulate many different scenarios and metrics such as delay, jitter and mean opinion score (MOS) value are measured. The simulation result will show that OSPF and BGP-MPLS VPN offers best performance for video conferencing application.

Keywords: OSPF, BGP, EIGRP, MPLS, Video conference, Provider router, edge router, layer3 VPN

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