Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10340

Search results for: parametric design

10340 Parametric Design as an Approach to Respond to Complexity

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Zahrasadat Saide Zarabadi


A city is an intertwined texture from the relationship of different components in a whole which is united in a one, so designing the whole complex and its planning is not an easy matter. By considering that a city is a complex system with infinite components and communications, providing flexible layouts that can respond to the unpredictable character of the city, which is a result of its complexity, is inevitable. Parametric design approach as a new approach can produce flexible and transformative layouts in any stage of design. This study aimed to introduce parametric design as a modern approach to respond to complex urban issues by using descriptive and analytical methods. This paper firstly introduces complex systems and then giving a brief characteristic of complex systems. The flexible design and layout flexibility is another matter in response and simulation of complex urban systems that should be considered in design, which is discussed in this study. In this regard, after describing the nature of the parametric approach as a flexible approach, as well as a tool and appropriate way to respond to features such as limited predictability, reciprocating nature, complex communications, and being sensitive to initial conditions and hierarchy, this paper introduces parametric design.

Keywords: complexity theory, complex system, flexibility, parametric design

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10339 Formex Algebra Adaptation into Parametric Design Tools: Dome Structures

Authors: Réka Sárközi, Péter Iványi, Attila B. Széll


The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system, primarily used for planning structural systems such like truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the research is to allow architects to plan truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools based on the versatile formex algebra mathematical system. To produce regular structures, coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The paper covers the basic dome types, and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimization of special truss-grid domes.

Keywords: parametric design, structural morphology, space structures, spherical coordinate system

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10338 Parametric Study for Optimal Design of Hybrid Bridge Joint

Authors: Bongsik Park, Jae Hyun Park, Jae-Yeol Cho


Mixed structure, which is a kind of hybrid system, is incorporating steel beam and prestressed concrete beam. Hybrid bridge adopting mixed structure have some merits. Main span length can be made longer by using steel as main span material. In case of cable-stayed bridge having asymmetric span length, negative reaction at side span can be restrained without extra restraining devices by using weight difference between main span material and side span material. However angle of refraction might happen because of rigidity difference between materials and stress concentration also might happen because of abnormal loading transmission at joint in the hybrid bridge. Therefore the joint might be a weak point of the structural system and it needs to pay attention to design of the joint. However, design codes and standards about the joint in the hybrid-bridge have not been established so the joint designs in most of construction cases have been very conservative or followed previous design without extra verification. In this study parametric study using finite element analysis for optimal design of hybrid bridge joint is conducted. Before parametric study, finite element analysis was conducted based on previous experimental data and it is verified that analysis result approximated experimental data. Based on the finite element analysis results, parametric study was conducted. The parameters were selected as those have influences on joint behavior. Based on the parametric study results, optimal design of hybrid bridge joint has been determined.

Keywords: parametric study, optimal design, hybrid bridge, finite element analysis

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10337 CAD Tool for Parametric Design modification of Yacht Hull Surface Models

Authors: Shahroz Khan, Erkan Gunpinar, Kemal Mart


Recently parametric design techniques became a vital concept in the field of Computer Aided Design (CAD), which helps to provide sophisticated platform to the designer in order to automate the design process in efficient time. In these techniques, design process starts by parameterizing the important features of design models (typically the key dimensions), with the implementation of design constraints. The design constraints help to retain the overall shape of the model while modifying its parameters. However, the process of initializing an appropriate number of design parameters and constraints is the crucial part of parametric design techniques, especially for complex surface models such as yacht hull. This paper introduces a method to create complex surface models in favor of parametric design techniques, a method to define the right number of parameters and respective design constraints, and a system to implement design parameters in contract to design constraints schema. For this, in our proposed approach the design process starts by dividing the yacht hull into three sections. Each section consists of different shape lines, which form the overall shape of yacht hull. The shape lines are created using Cubic Bezier Curves, which allow larger design flexibility. Design parameters and constraints are defined on the shape lines in 3D design space to facilitate the designers for better and individual handling of parameters. Afterwards, shape modifiers are developed, which allow the modification of each parameter while satisfying the respective set of criteria and design constraints. Such as, geometric continuities should be maintained between the shape lines of the three sections, fairness of the hull surfaces should be preserved after modification and while design modification, effect of a single parameter should be negligible on other parameters. The constraints are defined individually on shape lines of each section and mutually between the shape lines of two connecting sections. In order to validate and visualize design results of our shape modifiers, a real time graphic interface is created.

Keywords: design parameter, design constraints, shape modifies, yacht hull

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10336 A Semiparametric Approach to Estimate the Mode of Continuous Multivariate Data

Authors: Tiee-Jian Wu, Chih-Yuan Hsu


Mode estimation is an important task, because it has applications to data from a wide variety of sources. We propose a semi-parametric approach to estimate the mode of an unknown continuous multivariate density function. Our approach is based on a weighted average of a parametric density estimate using the Box-Cox transform and a non-parametric kernel density estimate. Our semi-parametric mode estimate improves both the parametric- and non-parametric- mode estimates. Specifically, our mode estimate solves the non-consistency problem of parametric mode estimates (at large sample sizes) and reduces the variability of non-parametric mode estimates (at small sample sizes). The performance of our method at practical sample sizes is demonstrated by simulation examples and two real examples from the fields of climatology and image recognition.

Keywords: Box-Cox transform, density estimation, mode seeking, semiparametric method

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
10335 Design of Single Point Mooring Buoy System by Parametric Analysis

Authors: Chul-Hee Jo, Do-Youb Kim, Seok-Jin Cho, Yu-Ho Rho


The Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring (CALM) Single Point Mooring (SPM) buoy system is the most popular and widely used type of offshore loading terminals. SPM buoy mooring systems have been deployed worldwide for a variety of applications, water depths and vessel sizes ranging from small production carriers to Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs). Because of safe and easy berthing and un-berthing operations, the SPM buoy mooring system is also preferred for offshore terminals. The SPM buoy consists of a buoy that is permanently moored to the seabed by means of multiple mooring lines. The buoy contains a bearing system that allows a part of it to rotate around the moored geostatic part. When moored to the rotating part of the buoy, a vessel is able to freely weathervane around the buoy. This study was verified the effects of design variables in order to design an SPM buoy mooring system through parametric analysis. The design variables have independent and nonlinear characteristics. Using parametric analysis, this research was found that the fairlead departure angle, wave height and period, chain diameter and line length effect to the mooring top tension, buoy excursion and line layback.

Keywords: Single Point Mooring (SPM), Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring(CALM), design variables, parametric analysis, mooring system optimization

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10334 Application of Biomimetic Approach in Optimizing Buildings Heat Regulating System Using Parametric Design Tools to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Indoor Spaces in Hot Arid Regions

Authors: Aya M. H. Eissa, Ayman H. A. Mahmoud


When it comes to energy efficient thermal regulation system, natural systems do not only offer an inspirational source of innovative strategies but also sustainable and even regenerative ones. Using biomimetic design an energy efficient thermal regulation system can be developed. Although, conventional design process methods achieved fairly efficient systems, they still had limitations which can be overcome by using parametric design software. Accordingly, the main objective of this study is to apply and assess the efficiency of heat regulation strategies inspired from termite mounds in residential buildings’ thermal regulation system. Parametric design software is used to pave the way for further and more complex biomimetic design studies and implementations. A hot arid region is selected due to the deficiency of research in this climatic region. First, the analysis phase in which the stimuli, affecting, and the parameters, to be optimized, are set mimicking the natural system. Then, based on climatic data and using parametric design software Grasshopper, building form and openings height and areas are altered till settling on an optimized solution. Finally, an assessment of the efficiency of the optimized system, in comparison with a conventional system, is determined by firstly, indoors airflow and indoors temperature, by Ansys Fluent (CFD) simulation. Secondly by and total solar radiation falling on the building envelope, which was calculated using Ladybug, Grasshopper plugin. The results show an increase in the average indoor airflow speed from 0.5m/s to 1.5 m/s. Also, a slight decrease in temperature was noticed. And finally, the total radiation was decreased by 4%. In conclusion, despite the fact that applying a single bio-inspired heat regulation strategy might not be enough to achieve an optimum system, the concluded system is more energy efficient than the conventional ones as it aids achieving indoors comfort through passive techniques. Thus demonstrating the potential of parametric design software in biomimetic design.

Keywords: biomimicry, heat regulation systems, hot arid regions, parametric design, thermal comfort

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10333 Development of the Parametric Building Information Model of Bridge Components and the Integration of Bridge Model by Visual Programming Language

Authors: Elfrido Elias Tita, Shao Peilun, Gakuho Watanabe


Recently, the number of transportation facilities like bridges has grown significantly due to economic growth and an increase in traffic. Since the conventional bridge design method requires a manual and repetitive process, it consumes much time, cost, and energy for designers and engineers. To decrease those burden and get high productivity, Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Visual programming language (VPL) dynamo have emerged as modern and innovative design methods and document projects. It enables the bridge engineers to optimize their design and modeling workflows effectively, faster, and accurately. In this research, the parametric BIM model for bridge components to optimize the design processes is developed for a PC-balanced cantilever bridge. It enables to speed up the modeling and reduces the time and costs of bridge design projects. Also, VPL dynamo is used to provide automatic assembling of the bridge models from their components, significantly reducing the burden of iterative processes in the design project. In addition, Autodesk InfraWorks is applied for the simulation and visualization of the bridge model with the surrounding environment.

Keywords: BIM, parametric model, VPL, automatic assembling, InfraWorks

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10332 Urban Ecological Interaction: Air, Water, Light and New Transit at the Human Scale of Barcelona’s Superilles

Authors: Philip Speranza


As everyday transit options are shifting from autocentric to pedestrian and bicycle oriented modes for healthy living, downtown streets are becoming more attractive places to live. However, tools and methods to measure the natural environment at the small scale of streets do not exist. Fortunately, a combination of mobile data collection technology and parametric urban design software now allows an interface to relate urban ecological conditions. This paper describes creation of an interactive tool to measure urban phenomena of air, water, and heat/light at the scale of new three-by-three block pedestrianized areas in Barcelona called Superilles. Each Superilla limits transit to the exterior of the blocks and to create more walkable and bikeable interior streets for healthy living. The research will describe the integration of data collection, analysis, and design output via a live interface using parametric software Rhino Grasshopper and the Human User Interface (UI) plugin.

Keywords: transit, urban design, GIS, parametric design, Superilles, Barcelona, urban ecology

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10331 Approximation of Intersection Curves of Two Parametric Surfaces

Authors: Misbah Irshad, Faiza Sarfraz


The problem of approximating surface to surface intersection is considered to be very important in computer aided geometric design and computer aided manufacturing. Although it is a complex problem to handle, its continuous need in the industry makes it an active topic in research. A technique for approximating intersection curves of two parametric surfaces is proposed, which extracts boundary points and turning points from a sequence of intersection points and interpolate them with the help of rational cubic spline functions. The proposed approach is demonstrated with the help of examples and analyzed by calculating error.

Keywords: approximation, parametric surface, spline function, surface intersection

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10330 Writing a Parametric Design Algorithm Based on Recreation and Structural Analysis of Patkane Model: The Case Study of Oshtorjan Mosque

Authors: Behnoush Moghiminia, Jesus Anaya Diaz


The current study attempts to present the relationship between the structure development and Patkaneh as one of the Iranian geometric patterns and parametric algorithms by introducing two practical methods. While having a structural function, Patkaneh is also used as an ornamental element. It can be helpful in the scientific and practical review of Patkaneh. The current study aims to use Patkaneh as a parametric form generator based on the algorithm. The current paper attempts to express how can a more complete algorithm of this covering be obtained based on the parametric study and analysis of a sample of a Patkaneh and also investigate the relationship between the development of the geometrical pattern of Patkaneh as a structural-decorative element of Iranian architecture and digital design. In this regard, to achieve the research purposes, researchers investigated the oldest type of Patkaneh in the architecture history of Iran, such as the Northern Entrance Patkaneh of Oshtorjan Jame’ Mosque. An accurate investigation was done on the history of the background to answer the questions. Then, by investigating the structural behavior of Patkaneh, the decorative or structural-decorative role of Patkaneh was investigated to eliminate the ambiguity. Then, the geometrical structure of Patkaneh was analyzed by introducing two practical methods. The first method is based on the constituent units of Patkaneh (Square and diamond) and investigating the interactive relationships between them in 2D and 3D. This method is appropriate for cases where there are rational and regular geometrical relationships. The second method is based on the separation of the floors and the investigation of their interrelation. It is practical when the constituent units are not geometrically regular and have numerous diversity. Finally, the parametric form algorithm of these methods was codified.

Keywords: geometric properties, parametric design, Patkaneh, structural analysis

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10329 Non-Parametric Regression over Its Parametric Couterparts with Large Sample Size

Authors: Jude Opara, Esemokumo Perewarebo Akpos


This paper is on non-parametric linear regression over its parametric counterparts with large sample size. Data set on anthropometric measurement of primary school pupils was taken for the analysis. The study used 50 randomly selected pupils for the study. The set of data was subjected to normality test, and it was discovered that the residuals are not normally distributed (i.e. they do not follow a Gaussian distribution) for the commonly used least squares regression method for fitting an equation into a set of (x,y)-data points using the Anderson-Darling technique. The algorithms for the nonparametric Theil’s regression are stated in this paper as well as its parametric OLS counterpart. The use of a programming language software known as “R Development” was used in this paper. From the analysis, the result showed that there exists a significant relationship between the response and the explanatory variable for both the parametric and non-parametric regression. To know the efficiency of one method over the other, the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used, and it is discovered that the nonparametric regression performs better than its parametric regression counterparts due to their lower values in both the AIC and BIC. The study however recommends that future researchers should study a similar work by examining the presence of outliers in the data set, and probably expunge it if detected and re-analyze to compare results.

Keywords: Theil’s regression, Bayesian information criterion, Akaike information criterion, OLS

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10328 Parametric Screening and Design Refinement of Ceiling Fan Blades

Authors: Shamraiz Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad, Adnan Maqsood


This paper describes the application of 2k-design of experiment in order to screen the geometric parameters and experimental refinement of ceiling fan blades. The ratio of the air delivery to the power consumed is commonly known as service value (SV) in ceiling fan designer’s community. Service value was considered as the response for 56 inch ceiling fan and four geometric parameters (bend position at root, bend position at tip, bent angle at root and bent angle at tip) of blade were analyzed. With two levels, the 4-design parameters along with their eleven interactions were studied and design of experiment was employed for experimental arrangement. Blade manufacturing and testing were done in a medium scale enterprise. The objective was achieved and service value of ceiling fan was increased by 10.4 % without increasing the cost of production and manufacturing system. Experiments were designed and results were analyzed using Minitab® 16 software package.

Keywords: parametric screening, 2k-design of experiment, ceiling fan, service value, performance improvement

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10327 Additive Manufacturing of Overhangs: From Temporary Supports to Self-Support

Authors: Paulo Mendonca, Nzar Faiq Naqeshbandi


The objective of this study is to propose an interactive design environment that outlines the underlying computational framework to reach self-supporting overhangs. The research demonstrates the digital printability of overhangs taking into consideration factors related to the geometry design, the material used, the applied support, and the printing set-up of slicing and the extruder inclination. Parametric design tools can contribute to the design phase, form-finding, and stability optimization of self-supporting structures while printing in order to hold the components in place until they are sufficiently advanced to support themselves. The challenge is to ensure the stability of the printed parts in the critical inclinations during the whole fabrication process. Facilitating the identification of parameterization will allow to predict and optimize the process. Later, in the light of the previous findings, some guidelines of simulations and physical tests are given to be conducted for estimating the structural and functional performance.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, overhangs, self-support overhangs, printability, parametric tools

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10326 Origamic Forms: A New Realm in Improving Acoustical Environment

Authors: Mostafa Refat Ismail, Hazem Eldaly


The adaptation of architecture design to building function is getting highly needed in contemporary designs, especially with the great progression in design methods and tools. This, in turn, requires great flexibility in design strategies, as well as a wider spectrum of space settings to achieve the required environment that special activities imply. Acoustics is an essential factor influencing cognitive acts and behavior as well as, on the extreme end, the physical well-being inside a space. The complexity of this constrain is fueled up by the extended geometric dimensions of multipurpose halls, making acoustic adequateness a great concern that could not easily be achieved for each purpose. To achieve a performance oriented acoustic environment, various parametric shaped false ceilings based on origami folded notion are simulated. These parametric origami shapes are able to fold and unfold forming an interactive structure that changes the mutual acoustic environment according to the geometric shapes' position and its changing exposed surface areas. The mobility of the facets in the origami surface can stretch up the range from a complete plain surface to an unfolded element where a considerable amount of absorption is added to the space. The behavior of the parametric origami shapes are being modeled employing a ray tracing computer simulation package for various shapes topology. The conclusion shows a great variation in the acoustical performance due to the variation in folding faces of the origami surfaces, which cause different reflections and consequently large variations in decay curves.

Keywords: parametric, origami, acoustics, architecture

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10325 Elastic Deformation of Multistory RC Frames under Lateral Loads

Authors: Hamdy Elgohary, Majid Assas


Estimation of lateral displacement and interstory drifts represent a major step in multistory frames design. In the preliminary design stage, it is essential to perform a fast check for the expected values of lateral deformations. This step will help to ensure the compliance of the expected values with the design code requirements. Also, in some cases during or after the detailed design stage, it may be required to carry fast check of lateral deformations by design reviewer. In the present paper, a parametric study is carried out on the factors affecting in the lateral displacements of multistory frame buildings. Based on the results of the parametric study, simplified empirical equations are recommended for the direct determination of the lateral deflection of multistory frames. The results obtained using the recommended equations have been compared with the results obtained by finite element analysis. The comparison shows that the proposed equations lead to good approximation for the estimation of lateral deflection of multistory RC frame buildings.

Keywords: lateral deflection, interstory drift, approximate analysis, multistory frames

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10324 Parametric Study of Ball and Socket Joint for Bio-Mimicking Exoskeleton

Authors: Mukesh Roy, Basant Singh Sikarwar, Ravi Prakash, Priya Ranjan, Ayush Goyal


More than 11% of people suffer from weakness in the bone resulting in inability in walking or climbing stairs or from limited upper body and limb immobility. This motivates a fresh bio-mimicking solution to the design of an exo-skeleton to support human movement in the case of partial or total immobility either due to congenital or genetic factors or due to some accident or due to geratological factors. A deeper insight and detailed understanding is required into the workings of the ball and socket joints. Our research is to mimic ball and socket joints to design snugly fitting exoskeletons. Our objective is to design an exoskeleton which is comfortable and the presence of which is not felt if not in use. Towards this goal, a parametric study is conducted to provide detailed design parameters to fabricate an exoskeleton. This work builds up on real data of the design of the exoskeleton, so that the designed exo-skeleton will be able to provide required strength and support to the subject.

Keywords: bio-mimicking, exoskeleton, ball joint, socket joint, artificial limb, patient rehabilitation, joints, human-machine interface, wearable robotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
10323 Flexible Design Solutions for Complex Free form Geometries Aimed to Optimize Performances and Resources Consumption

Authors: Vlad Andrei Raducanu, Mariana Lucia Angelescu, Ion Cinca, Vasile Danut Cojocaru, Doina Raducanu


By using smart digital tools, such as generative design (GD) and digital fabrication (DF), problems of high actuality concerning resources optimization (materials, energy, time) can be solved and applications or products of free-form type can be created. In the new digital technology materials are active, designed in response to a set of performance requirements, which impose a total rethinking of old material practices. The article presents the design procedure key steps of a free-form architectural object - a column type one with connections to get an adaptive 3D surface, by using the parametric design methodology and by exploiting the properties of conventional metallic materials. In parametric design the form of the created object or space is shaped by varying the parameters values and relationships between the forms are described by mathematical equations. Digital parametric design is based on specific procedures, as shape grammars, Lindenmayer - systems, cellular automata, genetic algorithms or swarm intelligence, each of these procedures having limitations which make them applicable only in certain cases. In the paper the design process stages and the shape grammar type algorithm are presented. The generative design process relies on two basic principles: the modeling principle and the generative principle. The generative method is based on a form finding process, by creating many 3D spatial forms, using an algorithm conceived in order to apply its generating logic onto different input geometry. Once the algorithm is realized, it can be applied repeatedly to generate the geometry for a number of different input surfaces. The generated configurations are then analyzed through a technical or aesthetic selection criterion and finally the optimal solution is selected. Endless range of generative capacity of codes and algorithms used in digital design offers various conceptual possibilities and optimal solutions for both technical and environmental increasing demands of building industry and architecture. Constructions or spaces generated by parametric design can be specifically tuned, in order to meet certain technical or aesthetical requirements. The proposed approach has direct applicability in sustainable architecture, offering important potential economic advantages, a flexible design (which can be changed until the end of the design process) and unique geometric models of high performance.

Keywords: parametric design, algorithmic procedures, free-form architectural object, sustainable architecture

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10322 Estimating the Life-Distribution Parameters of Weibull-Life PV Systems Utilizing Non-Parametric Analysis

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan


In this paper, a model is proposed to determine the life distribution parameters of the useful life region for the PV system utilizing a combination of non-parametric and linear regression analysis for the failure data of these systems. Results showed that this method is dependable for analyzing failure time data for such reliable systems when the data is scarce.

Keywords: masking, bathtub model, reliability, non-parametric analysis, useful life

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10321 A Non-Parametric Based Mapping Algorithm for Use in Audio Fingerprinting

Authors: Analise Borg, Paul Micallef


Over the past few years, the online multimedia collection has grown at a fast pace. Several companies showed interest to study the different ways to organize the amount of audio information without the need of human intervention to generate metadata. In the past few years, many applications have emerged on the market which are capable of identifying a piece of music in a short time. Different audio effects and degradation make it much harder to identify the unknown piece. In this paper, an audio fingerprinting system which makes use of a non-parametric based algorithm is presented. Parametric analysis is also performed using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). The feature extraction methods employed are the Mel Spectrum Coefficients and the MPEG-7 basic descriptors. Bin numbers replaced the extracted feature coefficients during the non-parametric modelling. The results show that non-parametric analysis offer potential results as the ones mentioned in the literature.

Keywords: audio fingerprinting, mapping algorithm, Gaussian Mixture Models, MFCC, MPEG-7

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10320 Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Qasim Idrees, Gao Liangtian, Liu Bo, Miao Yiran


In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of five dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the Chinese Classification Society (CCS) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two-order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.

Keywords: parameterization, response surface, structure optimization, pressure hull

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10319 Healing Architecture and Evidence Based Design: An Interior Design Example in Medicana KızıLtoprak Hospital

Authors: Yunus Emre Kara, Atilla Kuzu, Levent Cirpici


Recently, in the interior design of hospitals, the effect of the physical environment on the healing process has been frequently emphasized, and the importance of psychological and behavioral factors has increased day by day. When designing new hospital interiors, it became important to create spaces that not only meet medical requirements but also support the healing process of patients with interior design. In this study, the patient rooms, corridor, atrium area, waiting area, and entrance counter in a hospital were handled with patient-centered design, evidence-based design, and remedial architectural approaches, and it was seen that the healing and reassuring elements in hospitals were extremely important.

Keywords: evidence based design, healing architecture, hospital, organic design, parametric design

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10318 Numerical Investigation on Design Method of Timber Structures Exposed to Parametric Fire

Authors: Robert Pečenko, Karin Tomažič, Igor Planinc, Sabina Huč, Tomaž Hozjan


Timber is favourable structural material due to high strength to weight ratio, recycling possibilities, and green credentials. Despite being flammable material, it has relatively high fire resistance. Everyday engineering practice around the word is based on an outdated design of timber structures considering standard fire exposure, while modern principles of performance-based design enable use of advanced non-standard fire curves. In Europe, standard for fire design of timber structures EN 1995-1-2 (Eurocode 5) gives two methods, reduced material properties method and reduced cross-section method. In the latter, fire resistance of structural elements depends on the effective cross-section that is a residual cross-section of uncharred timber reduced additionally by so called zero strength layer. In case of standard fire exposure, Eurocode 5 gives a fixed value of zero strength layer, i.e. 7 mm, while for non-standard parametric fires no additional comments or recommendations for zero strength layer are given. Thus designers often implement adopted 7 mm rule also for parametric fire exposure. Since the latest scientific evidence suggests that proposed value of zero strength layer can be on unsafe side for standard fire exposure, its use in the case of a parametric fire is also highly questionable and more numerical and experimental research in this field is needed. Therefore, the purpose of the presented study is to use advanced calculation methods to investigate the thickness of zero strength layer and parametric charring rates used in effective cross-section method in case of parametric fire. Parametric studies are carried out on a simple solid timber beam that is exposed to a larger number of parametric fire curves Zero strength layer and charring rates are determined based on the numerical simulations which are performed by the recently developed advanced two step computational model. The first step comprises of hygro-thermal model which predicts the temperature, moisture and char depth development and takes into account different initial moisture states of timber. In the second step, the response of timber beam simultaneously exposed to mechanical and fire load is determined. The mechanical model is based on the Reissner’s kinematically exact beam model and accounts for the membrane, shear and flexural deformations of the beam. Further on, material non-linear and temperature dependent behaviour is considered. In the two step model, the char front temperature is, according to Eurocode 5, assumed to have a fixed temperature of around 300°C. Based on performed study and observations, improved levels of charring rates and new thickness of zero strength layer in case of parametric fires are determined. Thus, the reduced cross section method is substantially improved to offer practical recommendations for designing fire resistance of timber structures. Furthermore, correlations between zero strength layer thickness and key input parameters of the parametric fire curve (for instance, opening factor, fire load, etc.) are given, representing a guideline for a more detailed numerical and also experimental research in the future.

Keywords: advanced numerical modelling, parametric fire exposure, timber structures, zero strength layer

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10317 Thermodynamic Modeling of Three Pressure Level Reheat HRSG, Parametric Analysis and Optimization Using PSO

Authors: Mahmoud Nadir, Adel Ghenaiet


The main purpose of this study is the thermodynamic modeling, the parametric analysis, and the optimization of three pressure level reheat HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) using PSO method (Particle Swarm Optimization). In this paper, a parametric analysis followed by a thermodynamic optimization is presented. The chosen objective function is the specific work of the steam cycle that may be, in the case of combined cycle (CC), a good criterion of thermodynamic performance analysis, contrary to the conventional steam turbines in which the thermal efficiency could be also an important criterion. The technologic constraints such as maximal steam cycle temperature, minimal steam fraction at steam turbine outlet, maximal steam pressure, minimal stack temperature, minimal pinch point, and maximal superheater effectiveness are also considered. The parametric analyses permitted to understand the effect of design parameters and the constraints on steam cycle specific work variation. PSO algorithm was used successfully in HRSG optimization, knowing that the achieved results are in accordance with those of the previous studies in which genetic algorithms were used. Moreover, this method is easy to implement comparing with the other methods.

Keywords: combined cycle, HRSG thermodynamic modeling, optimization, PSO, steam cycle specific work

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10316 Different Sampling Schemes for Semi-Parametric Frailty Model

Authors: Nursel Koyuncu, Nihal Ata Tutkun


Frailty model is a survival model that takes into account the unobserved heterogeneity for exploring the relationship between the survival of an individual and several covariates. In the recent years, proposed survival models become more complex and this feature causes convergence problems especially in large data sets. Therefore selection of sample from these big data sets is very important for estimation of parameters. In sampling literature, some authors have defined new sampling schemes to predict the parameters correctly. For this aim, we try to see the effect of sampling design in semi-parametric frailty model. We conducted a simulation study in R programme to estimate the parameters of semi-parametric frailty model for different sample sizes, censoring rates under classical simple random sampling and ranked set sampling schemes. In the simulation study, we used data set recording 17260 male Civil Servants aged 40–64 years with complete 10-year follow-up as population. Time to death from coronary heart disease is treated as a survival-time and age, systolic blood pressure are used as covariates. We select the 1000 samples from population using different sampling schemes and estimate the parameters. From the simulation study, we concluded that ranked set sampling design performs better than simple random sampling for each scenario.

Keywords: frailty model, ranked set sampling, efficiency, simple random sampling

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10315 Knitting Stitches’ Manipulation for Catenary Textile Structures

Authors: Virginia Melnyk


This paper explores the design for catenary structure using knitted textiles. Using the advantages of Grasshopper and Kangaroo parametric software to simulate and pre-design an overall form, the design is then translated to a pattern that can be made with hand manipulated stitches on a knitting machine. The textile takes advantage of the structure of knitted materials and the ability for it to stretch. Using different types of stitches to control the amount of stretch that can occur in portions of the textile generates an overall formal design. The textile is then hardened in an upside-down hanging position and then flipped right-side-up. This then becomes a structural catenary form. The resulting design is used as a small Cat House for a cat to sit inside and climb on top of.

Keywords: architectural materials, catenary structures, knitting fabrication, textile design

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
10314 Exploration of Building Information Modelling Software to Develop Modular Coordination Design Tool for Architects

Authors: Muhammad Khairi bin Sulaiman


The utilization of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the construction industry has provided an opportunity for designers in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry to proceed from the conventional method of using manual drafting to a way that creates alternative designs quickly, produces more accurate, reliable and consistent outputs. By using BIM Software, designers can create digital content that manipulates the use of data using the parametric model of BIM. With BIM software, more alternative designs can be created quickly and design problems can be explored further to produce a better design faster than conventional design methods. Generally, BIM is used as a documentation mechanism and has not been fully explored and utilised its capabilities as a design tool. Relative to the current issue, Modular Coordination (MC) design as a sustainable design practice is encouraged since MC design will reduce material wastage through standard dimensioning, pre-fabrication, repetitive, modular construction and components. However, MC design involves a complex process of rules and dimensions. Therefore, a tool is needed to make this process easier. Since the parameters in BIM can easily be manipulated to follow MC rules and dimensioning, thus, the integration of BIM software with MC design is proposed for architects during the design stage. With this tool, there will be an improvement in acceptance and practice in the application of MC design effectively. Consequently, this study will analyse and explore the function and customization of BIM objects and the capability of BIM software to expedite the application of MC design during the design stage for architects. With this application, architects will be able to create building models and locate objects within reference modular grids that adhere to MC rules and dimensions. The parametric modeling capabilities of BIM will also act as a visual tool that will further enhance the automation of the 3-Dimensional space planning modeling process. (Method) The study will first analyze and explore the parametric modeling capabilities of rule-based BIM objects, which eventually customize a reference grid within the rules and dimensioning of MC. Eventually, the approach will further enhance the architect's overall design process and enable architects to automate complex modeling, which was nearly impossible before. A prototype using a residential quarter will be modeled. A set of reference grids guided by specific MC rules and dimensions will be used to develop a variety of space planning and configuration. With the use of the design, the tool will expedite the design process and encourage the use of MC Design in the construction industry.

Keywords: building information modeling, modular coordination, space planning, customization, BIM application, MC space planning

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10313 Comparison of Analytical Method and Software for Analysis of Flat Slab Subjected to Various Parametric Loadings

Authors: Hema V. Vanar, R. K. Soni, N. D. Shah


Slabs supported directly on columns without beams are known as Flat slabs. Flat slabs are highly versatile elements widely used in construction, providing minimum depth, fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. The main objective of this thesis is comparison of analytical method and soft ware for analysis of flat slab subjected to various parametric loadings. Study presents analysis of flat slab is performed under different types of gravity.

Keywords: fat slab, parametric load, analysis, software

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
10312 Parametric Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining Process Using Taguchi's Method and Grey Relation Analysis

Authors: Pushpendra S. Bharti


Process yield of electric discharge machining (EDM) is directly related to optimal combination(s) of process parameters. Optimization of process parameters of EDM is a multi-objective optimization problem owing to the contradictory behavior of performance measures. This paper employs Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) method as a multi-objective optimization technique for the optimal selection of process parameters combination. In GRA, multi-response optimization is converted into optimization of a single response grey relation grade which ultimately gives the optimal combination of process parameters. Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM by taking D2 steel as work piece and copper as electrode material. Taguchi's orthogonal array L36 was used for the design of experiments. On the experimental values, GRA was employed for the parametric optimization. A significant improvement has been observed and reported in the process yield by taking the parametric combination(s) obtained through GRA.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, grey relation analysis, material removal rate, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
10311 A Parametric Study on the Backwater Level Due to a Bridge Constriction

Authors: S. Atabay, T. A. Ali, Md. M. Mortula


This paper presents the results and findings from a parametric study on the water surface elevation at upstream of bridge constriction for subcritical flow. In this study, the influence of Manning's Roughness Coefficient of main channel (nmc) and of floodplain (nfp), and bridge opening (b) flow rate (Q), contraction (kcon), and expansion coefficients (kexp) were investigated on backwater level. The DECK bridge models with different span widths and without any pier were investigated within the two stage channel having various roughness conditions. One of the most commonly used commercial one-dimensional HEC-RAS model was used in this parametric study. This study showed that the effects of main channel roughness (nmc) and flow rate (Q) on the backwater level are much higher than those of the floodplain roughness (nfp). Bridge opening (b) with contraction (kcon) and expansion coefficients (kexp) have very little effect on the backwater level within this range of parameters.

Keywords: bridge backwater, parametric study, waterways, HEC-RAS model

Procedia PDF Downloads 211