Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: nanowires

61 Templating Copper on Polymer/DNA Hybrid Nanowires

Authors: Mahdi Almaky, Reda Hassanin, Benjamin Horrocks, Andrew Houlton

Abstract:

DNA-templated poly(N-substituted pyrrole)bipyridinium nanowires were synthesised at room temperature using the chemical oxidation method. The resulting CPs/DNA hybrids have been characterised using electronic and vibrational spectroscopic methods especially Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscpy. The nanowires morphology was characterised using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The electrical properties of the prepared nanowires were characterised using Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM), and measured using conductive AFM (c-AFM) and two terminal I/V technique, where the temperature dependence of the conductivity was probed. The conductivities of the prepared CPs/DNA nanowires are generally lower than PPy/DNA nanowires showingthe large effect on N-alkylation in decreasing the conductivity of the polymer, butthese are higher than the conductivity of their corresponding bulk films.This enhancement in conductivity could be attributed to the ordering of the polymer chains on DNA during the templating process. The prepared CPs/DNA nanowires were used as templates for the growth of copper nanowires at room temperature using aqueous solution of Cu(NO3)2as a source of Cu2+ and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. AFM images showed that these nanowires were uniform and continuous compared to copper nanowires prepared using the templating method directly onto DNA. Electrical characterization of the nanowires by c AFM revealed slight improvement in conductivity of these nanowires (Cu-CPs/DNA) compared to CPs/DNA nanowires before metallisation.

Keywords: templating, copper nanowires, polymer/DNA hybrid, chemical oxidation method

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60 Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires for Biotechnology Application

Authors: Ahmad Sabry Mohamad, Kai F. Hoettges, Michael Pycraft Hughes

Abstract:

This study investigates nanowires using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in non-aqueous suspension of Tin (IV) Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimenthylformamide (DMF). The self assembly of nanowires in DEP impedance spectroscopy can be determined. In this work, dielectrophoretic method was used to measure non-organic molecules for estimating the permittivity and conductivity characteristic of the nanowires. As in aqueous such as salt solution has been dominating the transport of SnO2, which are the wire growth threshold, depend on applied voltage. While DEP assembly of nanowires depend on applied frequency, the applications of dielectrophoretic collection are measured using impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: dielectrophoresis, impedance spectroscopy, nanowires, N, N-dimenthylformamide, SnO2

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59 Zinc Oxide Nanowires: Device Fabrication and Optical Properties

Authors: Igori Wallace

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with hexagonal structure were successfully synthesized by the chemical bath deposition technique. The obtained nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The SEM micrographs revealed the morphology of ZnO nanowires with the diameter between 170.3 and 481nm and showed that the normal pH of the bath solution, 8.1 is the optimized value to form ZnO nanowires with the hexagonal shape. The compositional (EDX) analysis revealed the elemental compositions of samples and confirmed the presence of Zn and O.

Keywords: crystallite, chemical bath deposition technique, hexagonal, morphology, nanowire

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58 Investigation of Length Effect on Power Conversion Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells Composed of ZnO Nanowires

Authors: W. S. Li, S. T. Yang, H. C. Cheng

Abstract:

The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells has been achieved by inserting vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) between the cathode and the active layer and shows better solar cells performance. Perovskite solar cells have drawn significant attention due to the superb efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this experiment, ZnO nanowires are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) due to its low temperature process. The main idea of this thesis is utilizing the 3D structures of the hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires to increase the junction area to improve the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells. The infiltration and the surface coverage of the perovskite precursor solution changed as tuning the length of the ZnO nanowires. It is revealed that the devices with ZnO nanowires of 150 nm demonstrated the best PCE of 8.46 % under the AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm2).

Keywords: hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires, perovskite solar cells, low temperature process, pinholes

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57 Solution Growth of Titanium Nitride Nanowires for Implantation Application

Authors: Roaa Sait, Richard Cross

Abstract:

The synthesis and characterization of one dimensional nanostructure such as nanowires has received considerable attention. Much effort has concentrated on TiN material especially in the biological field due to its useful and unique properties in this field. Therefore, for the purpose of this project, synthesis of Titanium Nitride (TiN) nanowires (NWs) will be presented. They will be synthesised by growing titanium dioxide (Ti) NWs in an aqueous solution at low temperatures under atmospheric pressure. Then the grown nanowires will undergo a 'Nitrodation process' in which results in the formation of TiN NWs. The structure, morphology and composition of the grown nanowires will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Obtaining TiN NWs is a challenging task since it has not been formulated before, as far as we acknowledge. This might be due to the fact that nitriding Ti NWs can be difficult in terms of optimizing experimental parameters.

Keywords: nanowires, dissolution-growth, nucleation, PECVD, deposition, spin coating, scanning electron microscopic analysis, cyclic voltammetry analysis

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56 Electrospun Zinc Oxide Nanowires as Highly Sensitive Piezoelectric Transduction Elements for Nano-Scale Devices

Authors: K. Brince Paul, Nagendra Pratap Singh, Shiv Govind Singh, Siva Rama Krishna Vanjari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report optimized procedure for synthesizing highly oriented, horizontally aligned, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires targeted towards developing highly sensitive piezoelectric transduction elements. The synthesis was carried out using Electrospinning technique, a facile, robust, low cost technique for producing nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).The Piezoelectric behavior of these nanowires was characterized using Peizoelectric Force microscopy (PFM). A very high d33 coefficient of 23.1 pm/V obtained through the PFM measurements is an indicative of its potential application towards developing miniaturized piezoelectric transduction elements for nanoscale devices.

Keywords: electrospinning, piezoelectric, technique, zinc oxide

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55 Bio-Electrochemical Process Coupled with MnO2 Nanowires for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: A. Giwa, S. M. Jung, W. Fang, J. Kong, S. W. Hasan

Abstract:

MnO2 nanowires were developed as filtration media for wastewater treatment that uniquely combines several advantages. The resulting material demonstrated strong capability to remove the pollution of heavy metal ions and organic contents in water. In addition, the manufacture process of such material is practical and economical. In this work, MnO2 nanowires were integrated with the state-of-art bio-electrochemical system for wastewater treatment, to overcome problems currently encountered with organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and microbe removal, and to minimize the unit footprint (land/space occupation) at low cost. Results showed that coupling the bio-electrochemical with MnO2 resulted in very encouraging results with higher removal efficiencies of such pollutants.

Keywords: bio-electrochemical, nanowires, novel, wastewater

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54 Fabrication and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanowires on Aluminum Oxide Template

Authors: Malik Imran Afzal

Abstract:

Cadmium supplied nanowires have unique electrical and optical properties and applications. To obtain cadmium supplied nanowires with regular and good aspect ratio, they can be synthesized by template synthesis method. Porous anodized aluminum oxide is the most promising template with regular hexagonal shapes. Their aspect ratio can be controlled by controlling the pores’ depth and diameter which greatly depend on anodization voltage and temperature of the electrolyte. In this research, high purity aluminium was used to prepare nanotemplates at 5-6°C in 1M phosphoric acid and cadmium supplied was deposited electrochemically using a co-solution of thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium acetate. pH was maintained at 11 in a heat bath at 75°C with the help of aqueous ammonia solution. Both porous anodized alumina and cadmium supplied nanowires were characterized suing SEM. A good quality Nanowires were obtained in bunches with reasonably high aspect ratio.

Keywords: bunches, electrodeposition, hexagonal, thiourea

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53 TiO2 Nanowires as Efficient Heterogeneous Photocatalysts for Waste-Water Treatment

Authors: Gul Afreen, Sreedevi Upadhyayula, Mahendra K. Sunkara

Abstract:

One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures like nanowires, nanotubes, and nanorods find variety of practical application owing to their unique physico-chemical properties. In this work, TiO2 nanowires were synthesized by direct oxidation of titanium particles in a unique microwave plasma jet reactor. The prepared TiO2 nanowires manifested the flexible features, and were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, UV-Visible and FTIR spectrophotometers, Scanning electron microscope, and Transmission electron microscope. Further, the photodegradation efficiency of these nanowires were tested against toxic organic dye like methylene blue (MB) and the results were compared with the commercial TiO2. It was found that TiO2 nanowires exhibited superior photocatalytic performance (89%) as compared to commercial TiO2 (75%) after 60 min of reaction. This is attributed to the lower recombination rate and increased interfacial charge transfer in TiO2 nanowire. Pseudo-first order kinetic modelling performed with the experimental results revealed that the rate constant of photodegradation in case of TiO2 nanowire was 1.3 times higher than that of commercial TiO2. Superoxide radical (O2˙) was found to be the major contributor in the photodegradation mechanism. Based on the trapping experiments, a plausible mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction is discussed.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, photodegradation, reactive oxygen species, TiO₂ nanowires

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52 Role of NaCl and Temperature in Glycerol Mediated Rapid Growth of Silver Nanostructures

Authors: L. R. Shobin, S. Manivannan

Abstract:

One dimensional silver nanowires and nanoparticles gained more interest in developing transparent conducting films, catalysis, biological and chemical sensors. Silver nanostructures can be synthesized by varying reaction conditions such as the precursor concentration, molar ratio of the surfactant, injection speed of silver ions, etc. in the polyol process. However, the reaction proceeds for greater than 2 hours for the formation of silver nanowires. The introduction of etchant in the medium promotes the growth of silver nanowires from silver nanoparticles along the [100] direction. Rapid growth of silver nanowires is accomplished using the Cl- ions from NaCl and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant. The role of Cl- ion was investigated in the growth of the nanostructured silver. Silver nanoparticles (<100 nm) were harvested from glycerol medium in the absence of Cl- ions. Trace amount of Cl- ions (2.5 mM -NaCl) produced the edge joined nanowires of length upto 2 μm and width ranging from 40 to 65 nm. Formation and rapid growth (within 25 minutes) of long, uniform silver nanowires (upto 5 μm) with good yield were realized in the presence of 5 mM NaCl at 200ºC. The growth of nanostructures was monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopes reveal the morphology of the silver nano harvests. The role of temperature in the reduction of silver ions, growth mechanism for nanoparticles, edge joined and straight nanowires will be discussed.

Keywords: silver nanowires, glycerol mediated polyol process, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis- NIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy

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51 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Mahendran Samykano, Ram Mohan, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors-external magnetic field and applied current density during the template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size, and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: anodic alumina oxide, electrodeposition, nanowires, nickel

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50 Surface and Bulk Magnetization Behavior of Isolated Ferromagnetic NiFe Nanowires

Authors: Musaab Salman Sultan

Abstract:

The surface and bulk magnetization behavior of template released isolated ferromagnetic Ni60Fe40 nanowires of relatively thick diameters (~200 nm), deposited from a dilute suspension onto pre-patterned insulating chips have been investigated experimentally, using a highly sensitive Magneto-Optical Ker Effect (MOKE) magnetometry and Magneto-Resistance (MR) measurements, respectively. The MR data were consistent with the theoretical predictions of the anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR) effect. The MR measurements, in all the angles of investigations, showed large features and a series of nonmonotonic "continuous small features" in the resistance profiles. The extracted switching fields from these features and from MOKE loops were compared with each other and with the switching fields reported in the literature that adopted the same analytical techniques on the similar compositions and dimensions of nanowires. A large difference between MOKE and MR measurments was noticed. The disparate between MOKE and MR results is attributed to the variance in the micro-magnetic structure of the surface and the bulk of such ferromagnetic nanowires. This result was ascertained using micro-magnetic simulations on an individual: cylindrical and rectangular cross sections NiFe nanowires, with the same diameter/thickness of the experimental wires, using the Object Oriented Micro-magnetic Framework (OOMMF) package where the simulated loops showed different switching events, indicating that such wires have different magnetic states in the reversal process and the micro-magnetic spin structures during switching behavior was complicated. These results further supported the difference between surface and bulk magnetization behavior in these nanowires. This work suggests that a combination of MOKE and MR measurements is required to fully understand the magnetization behavior of such relatively thick isolated cylindrical ferromagnetic nanowires.

Keywords: MOKE magnetometry, MR measurements, OOMMF package, micromagnetic simulations, ferromagnetic nanowires, surface magnetic properties

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49 Streptavidin-Biotin Attachment on Modified Silicon Nanowires

Authors: Shalini Singh, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Govind, Mukhtar. A. Khan, P. K. Singh

Abstract:

Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the development of biosensors. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication technologies are increasingly being used to design novel biosensors. Sensitivity and other attributes of biosensors can be improved by using nanomaterials with unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties in their construction. Silicon is a promising biomaterial that is non-toxic and biodegradable and can be exploited in chemical and biological sensing. Present study demonstrated the streptavidin–biotin interaction on silicon surfaces with different topographies such as flat and nanostructured silicon (nanowires) surfaces. Silicon nanowires with wide range of surface to volume ratio were prepared by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer. The large specific surface of silicon nanowires can be chemically modified to link different molecular probes (DNA strands, enzymes, proteins and so on), which recognize the target analytes, in order to enhance the selectivity and specificity of the sensor device. The interaction of streptavidin with biotin was carried out on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) functionalized silicon surfaces. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been performed to characterize the surface characteristics to ensure the protein attachment. Silicon nanowires showed the enhance protein attachment, as compared to flat silicon surface due to its large surface area and good molecular penetration to its surface. The methodology developed herein could be generalized to a wide range of protein-ligand interactions, since it is relatively easy to conjugate biotin with diverse biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, peptides, and nucleotides.

Keywords: FTIR, silicon nanowires, streptavidin-biotin, XPS

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48 Experimental Uniaxial Tensile Characterization of One-Dimensional Nickel Nanowires

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

Metallic nanowires with sub-micron and hundreds of nanometer diameter have a diversity of applications in nano/micro-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS). Characterizing the mechanical properties of such sub-micron and nano-scale metallic nanowires are tedious; require sophisticated and careful experimentation to be performed within high-powered microscopy systems (scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM)). Also, needed are nanoscale devices for placing the nanowires; loading them with the intended conditions; obtaining the data for load–deflection during the deformation within the high-powered microscopy environment poses significant challenges. Even picking the grown nanowires and placing them correctly within a nanoscale loading device is not an easy task. Mechanical characterizations through experimental methods for such nanowires are still very limited. Various techniques at different levels of fidelity, resolution, and induced errors have been attempted by material science and nanomaterial researchers. The methods for determining the load, deflection within the nanoscale devices also pose a significant problem. The state of the art is thus still at its infancy. All these factors result and is seen in the wide differences in the characterization curves and the reported properties in the current literature. In this paper, we discuss and present our experimental method, results, and discussions of uniaxial tensile loading and the development of subsequent stress–strain characteristics curves for Nickel nanowires. Nickel nanowires in the diameter range of 220–270 nm were obtained in our laboratory via an electrodeposition method, which is a solution based, template method followed in our present work for growing 1-D Nickel nanowires. Process variables such as the presence of magnetic field, its intensity; and varying electrical current density during the electrodeposition process were found to influence the morphological and physical characteristics including crystal orientation, size of the grown nanowires1. To further understand the correlation and influence of electrodeposition process variables, associated formed structural features of our grown Nickel nanowires to their mechanical properties, careful experiments within scanning electron microscope (SEM) were conducted. Details of the uniaxial tensile characterization, testing methodology, nanoscale testing device, load–deflection characteristics, microscopy images of failure progression, and the subsequent stress–strain curves are discussed and presented.

Keywords: uniaxial tensile characterization, nanowires, electrodeposition, stress-strain, nickel

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47 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane

Abstract:

Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: elastic properties, nanowires, semiconductors, theoretical model, ZnO

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46 High Frequency Nanomechanical Oscillators Based on Synthetic Nanowires

Authors: Minjin Kim, Jihwan Kim, Bongsoo Kim, Junho Suh

Abstract:

We demonstrate nanomechanical resonators constructed with synthetic nanowires (NWs) and study their electro-mechanical properties at millikelvin temperatures. Nanomechanical resonators are fabricated using single-crystalline Au NWs and InAs NWs. The mechanical resonance signals are acquired by either magnetomotive or capacitive detection methods. The Au NWs are synthesized by chemical vapor transport method at 1100 °C, and they exhibit clean surface and single-crystallinity with little defects. Due to pristine surface quality, these Au NW mechanical resonators could provide an ideal model system for studying surface-related effects on the mechanical systems. The InAs NWs are synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy or metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. The InAs NWs show electronic conductance modulation resembling Coulomb blockade, which also manifests in the mechanical resonance signals in the form of damping and resonance frequency shift. Our result provides an evidence of strong electro-mechanical coupling in synthetic NW nanomechanical resonators.

Keywords: Au nanowire, InAs nanowire, nanomechanical resonator, synthetic nanowires

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45 Preparation, Characterisation and Electrical Properties of Metal/polymer-DNA Nanohybrids

Authors: Mahdi Almaky

Abstract:

Conducting polymer of N-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-propyl)-2,2`-bipyridinium hexafluoro-phosphate (PPBH) was prepared via chemical and electrochemical polymerization methods. The bulk polymer showed conductivity in the order of 10-12 S cm-1. DNA-templated polymer nano wires of PPBH (PolyPPBH-DNA) have been chemically prepared then used as templates to direct the formation of metal nanowires (Cu) in order to enhance the electrical properties of the polymer/DNA wires. The chemical structures, morphology and the electrical characterisation of the as obtained structures have been characterized through spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis and XPS), single-crystal X-ray diffraction and microscopic (AFM, EFM and c-AFM) techniques. The morphology of the nanomaterials has been observed by AFM; showing the nanowires are uniform and continuous. The polymer conductivity was slightly improved after metallization. The conductivity of Cu-PolyPPBH-DNA nanowires was estimated to be 7.1x10-2 S cm-1. This conductivity is slightly higher than the conductivity of PolyPPBH-DNA nano wires (2.0 x 10-2 S cm-1), but it is lower than the measurements for PPy/DNA nano wires (2.1 x 10-1 S cm-1) prepared and measured by using c-AFM probe. These results reflect the large effect of the chemical structure (N-substitution) on the electrical properties of these polymers by reducing the extended conjugation.

Keywords: DNA, template, nano wires, N-Alkylatedpyrrole, copper

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44 Study of Electro-Chemical Properties of ZnO Nanowires for Various Application

Authors: Meera A. Albloushi, Adel B. Gougam

Abstract:

The development in the field of piezoelectrics has led to a renewed interest in ZnO nanowires (NWs) as a promising material in the nanogenerator devices category. It can be used as a power source for self-powered electronic systems with higher density, higher efficiency, longer lifetime, as well as lower cost of fabrication. Highly aligned ZnO nanowires seem to exhibit a higher performance compared with nonaligned ones. The purpose of this study was to develop ZnO nanowires and to investigate their electrical and chemical properties for various applications. They were grown on silicon (100) and glass substrates. We have used a low temperature and non-hazardous method: aqueous chemical growth (ACG). ZnO (non-doped) and AZO (Aluminum doped) seed layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputteringunder Argon pressure of 3 mTorr and deposition power of 180 W, the times of growth were selected to obtain thicknesses in the range of 30 to 125 nm. Some of the films were subsequently annealed. The substrates were immersed tilted in an equimolar solution composed of zinc nitrate and hexamine (HMTA) of 0.02 M and 0.05 M in the temperature range of 80 to 90 ᵒC for 1.5 to 2 hours. The X-ray diffractometer shows strong peaks at 2Ө = 34.2ᵒ of ZnO films which indicates that the films have a preferred c-axis wurtzite hexagonal (002) orientation. The surface morphology of the films is investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) which proved the uniformity of the film since the roughness is within 5 nm range. The scanning electron microscopes(SEM) (Quanta FEG 250, Quanta 3D FEG, Nova NanoSEM 650) are used to characterize both ZnO film and NWs. SEM images show forest of ZnO NWs grown vertically and have a range of length up to 2000 nm and diameter of 20-300 nm. The SEM images prove that the role of the seed layer is to enhance the vertical alignment of ZnO NWs at the pH solution of 5-6. Also electrical and optical properties of the NWs are carried out using Electrical Force Microscopy (EFM). After growing the ZnO NWs, developing the nano-generator is the second step of this study in order to determine the energy conversion efficiency and the power output.

Keywords: ZnO nanowires(NWs), aqueous chemical growth (ACG), piezoelectric NWs, harvesting enery

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43 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró

Abstract:

The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: photovoltaics, perovskite, nanowire, photodetector

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42 Hydrothermally Fabricated 3-D Nanostructure Metal Oxide Sensors

Authors: Mohammad Alenezi

Abstract:

Hierarchical nanostructures with higher dimensionality, consisting of nanostructure building blocks such as nanowires, nanotubes, or nanosheets are very attractive. They hold great properties like the high surface-to-volume ratio and well-ordered porous structures, which can be very challenging to attain for other mono-morphological nanostructures. Well-ordered hierarchical nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios facilitate gas diffusion into their surfaces as well as scattering of light. Therefore, hierarchical nanostructures are expected to perform highly as gas sensors. A multistage controlled hydrothermal synthesis method to fabricate high-performance single ZnO brushlike hierarchical nanostructure gas sensor from initial nanowires is reported. The performance of the sensor based on brush-like hierarchical nanostructure is analyzed and compared to that of a nanowire gas sensor. The hierarchical gas sensor demonstrated high sensitivity toward low concentration of acetone at high speed of response. The enhancement in the hierarchical sensor performance is attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio, reduction in dimensionality of the nanowire building blocks, formation of junctions between the initial nanowire and the secondary nanowires, and enhanced gas diffusion into the surfaces of the hierarchical nanostructures.

Keywords: metal oxide, nanostructure, hydrothermal, sensor

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41 Generation of Charged Nanoparticles and Their Contribution to the Thin Film and Nanowire Growth during Chemical Vapour Deposition

Authors: Seung-Min Yang, Seong-Han Park, Sang-Hoon Lee, Seung-Wan Yoo, Chan-Soo Kim, Nong-Moon Hwang

Abstract:

The theory of charged nanoparticles suggested that in many Chemical Vapour Depositions (CVD) processes, Charged Nanoparticles (CNPs) are generated in the gas-phase and become a building block of thin films and nanowires. Recently, the nanoparticle-based crystallization has become a big issue since the growth of nanorods or crystals by the building block of nanoparticles was directly observed by transmission electron microscopy observations in the liquid cell. In an effort to confirm charged gas-phase nuclei, that might be generated under conventional processing conditions of thin films and nanowires during CVD, we performed an in-situ measurement using differential mobility analyser and particle beam mass spectrometer. The size distribution and number density of CNPs were affected by process parameters such as precursor flow rate and working temperature. It was shown that many films and nanostructures, which have been believed to grow by individual atoms or molecules, actually grow by the building blocks of such charged nuclei. The electrostatic interaction between CNPs and the growing surface induces the self-assembly into films and nanowires. In addition, the charge-enhanced atomic diffusion makes CNPs liquid-like quasi solid. As a result, CNPs tend to land epitaxial on the growing surface, which results in the growth of single crystalline nanowires with a smooth surface.

Keywords: chemical vapour deposition, charged nanoparticle, electrostatic force, nanostructure evolution, differential mobility analyser, particle beam mass spectrometer

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40 Ultrasonic Irradiation Synthesis of High-Performance [email protected] Nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Electrocatalyst by Galvanic Replacement toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Amir Shafiee Kisomi, Parisa Jahani

Abstract:

The direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are contemplated as a promising energy source because, In addition to being used in portable electronic devices, it is also used for electric vehicles. The synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures due to their novel optical, catalytic and electronic characteristic which is precisely in contrast to their monometallic counterparts is attracting extensive attention. Galvanic replacement (sometimes is named to as cementation or immersion plating) is an uncomplicated and effective technique for making nanostructures (such as core-shell) of different metals, semiconductors, and their application in DEFCs. The replacement of galvanic does not need any external power supply compared to electrodeposition. In addition, it is different from electroless deposition because there is no need for a reducing agent to replace galvanizing. In this paper, a fast method for the palladium (Pd) wire nanostructures synthesis with the great surface area through galvanic replacement reaction utilizing copper nanowires (CuNWS) as a template by the assistance of ultrasound under room temperature condition is proposed. To evaluate the morphology and composition of [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan, emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were applied. In order to measure the phase structure of the electrocatalysts were performed via room temperature X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) applying an X-ray diffractometer. Various electrochemical techniques including chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were utilized for the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol electrooxidation and durability in basic solution. [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst demonstrated substantially enhanced performance and long-term stability for ethanol electrooxidation in the basic solution in comparison to commercial Pd/C that demonstrated the potential in utilizing [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan as efficient catalysts towards ethanol oxidation. Noticeably, the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan presented excellent catalytic activities with a peak current density of 320.73 mAcm² which was 9.5 times more than in comparison to Pd/C (34.2133 mAcm²). Additionally, activation energy thermodynamic and kinetic evaluations revealed that the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst has lower compared to Pd/C which leads to a lower energy barrier and an excellent charge transfer rate towards ethanol oxidation.

Keywords: core-shell structure, electrocatalyst, ethanol oxidation, galvanic replacement reaction

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39 Silicon Nanostructure Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: B. Bouktif, M. Gaidi, M. Benrabha

Abstract:

Metal-nano particle-assisted chemical etching is an extraordinary developed wet etching method of producing uniform semiconductor nanostructure (nanowires) from the patterned metallic film on the crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and optoelectronic properties was investigated. Combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and optoelectronic properties are presented in this paper.

Keywords: semiconductor nanostructure, chemical etching, optoelectronic property, silicon surface

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38 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells

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37 Development of Composite Materials for CO2 Reduction and Organic Compound Decomposition

Authors: H. F. Shi, C. L. Zhang

Abstract:

Visible-light-responsive g-C3N4/NaNbO3 nanowires photocatalysts were fabricated by introducing polymeric g-C3N4 on NaNbO3 nanowires. The microscopic mechanisms of interface interaction, charge transfer and separation, as well as the influence on the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 composite were systematic investigated. The HR-TEM revealed that an intimate interface between C3N4 and NaNbO3 nanowires formed in the g-C3N4/NaNbO3 heterojunctions. The photocatalytic performance of photocatalysts was evaluated for CO2 reduction under visible-light illumination. Significantly, the activity of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 composite photocatalyst for photoreduction of CO2 was higher than that of either single-phase g-C3N4 or NaNbO3. Such a remarkable enhancement of photocatalytic activity was mainly ascribed to the improved separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the intimate interface of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 heterojunctions, which originated from the well-aligned overlapping band structures of C3N4 and NaNbO3. Pt loaded NaNbO3-xNx (Pt-NNON), a visible-light-sensitive photocatalyst, was synthesized by an in situ photodeposition method from H2PtCl6•6H2O onto NaNbO3-xNx (NNON) sample. Pt-NNON exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for gaseous 2-propanol (IPA) degradation under visible-light irradiation in contrast to NNON. The apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of Pt-NNON sample for IPA photodegradation achieved up to 8.6% at the wavelength of 419 nm. The notably enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the promoted charge separation and transfer capability in the Pt-NNON system. This work suggests that surface nanosteps possibly play an important role as an electron transfer at high way, which facilitates to the charge carrier collection onto Pt rich zones and thus suppresses recombination between photogenerated electrons and holes. This method can thus be considered as an excellent strategy to enhance photocatalytic activity of organic decomposition in addition to the commonly applied noble metal doping method.

Keywords: CO2 reduction, NaNbO3, nanowires, g-C3N4

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36 Optimizing the Field Emission Performance of SiNWs-Based Heterostructures: Controllable Synthesis, Core-Shell Structure, 3D ZnO/Si Nanotrees and Graphene/SiNWs

Authors: Shasha Lv, Zhengcao Li

Abstract:

Due to the CMOS compatibility, silicon-based field emission (FE) devices as potential electron sources have attracted much attention. The geometrical arrangement and dimensional features of aligned silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have a determining influence on the FE properties. We discuss a multistep template replication process of Ag-assisted chemical etching combined with polystyrene (PS) spheres to fabricate highly periodic and well-aligned silicon nanowires, then their diameter, aspect ratio and density were further controlled via dry oxidation and post chemical treatment. The FE properties related to proximity and aspect ratio were systematically studied. A remarkable improvement of FE propertiy was observed with the average nanowires tip interspace increasing from 80 to 820 nm. On the basis of adjusting SiNWs dimensions and morphology, addition of a secondary material whose properties complement the SiNWs could yield a combined characteristic. Three different nanoheterostructures were fabricated to control the FE performance, they are: NiSi/Si core-shell structures, ZnO/Si nanotrees, and Graphene/SiNWs. We successfully fabricated the high-quality NiSi/Si heterostructured nanowires with excellent conformality. First, nickle nanoparticles were deposited onto SiNWs, then rapid thermal annealing process were utilized to form NiSi shell. In addition, we demonstrate a new and simple method for creating 3D nanotree-like ZnO/Si nanocomposites with a spatially branched hierarchical structure. Compared with the as-prepared SiNRs and ZnO NWs, the high-density ZnO NWs on SiNRs have exhibited predominant FE characteristics, and the FE enhancement factors were attributed to band bending effect and geometrical morphology. The FE efficiency from flat sheet structure of graphene is low. We discussed an effective approach towards full control over the diameter of uniform SiNWs to adjust the protrusions of large-scale graphene sheet deposited on SiNWs. The FE performance regarding the uniformity and dimensional control of graphene protrusions supported on SiNWs was systematically clarified. Therefore, the hybrid SiNWs/graphene structures with protrusions provide a promising class of field emission cathodes.

Keywords: field emission, silicon nanowires, heterostructures, controllable synthesis

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35 Oxalate Method for Assessing the Electrochemical Surface Area for Ni-Based Nanoelectrodes Used in Formaldehyde Sensing Applications

Authors: S. Trafela, X. Xua, K. Zuzek Rozmana

Abstract:

In this study, we used an accurate and precise method to measure the electrochemically active surface areas (Aecsa) of nickel electrodes. Calculated Aecsa is really important for the evaluation of an electro-catalyst’s activity in electrochemical reaction of different organic compounds. The method involves the electrochemical formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH in the presence of adsorbed oxalate in alkaline media. The studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry with polycrystalline nickel as a reference material and electrodeposited nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films. From cyclic voltammograms, the charge (Q) values for the formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH surface oxides were calculated under various conditions. At sufficiently fast potential scan rates (200 mV s⁻¹), the adsorbed oxalate limits the growth of the surface hydroxides to a monolayer. Although the Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH oxidation peak overlaps with the oxygen evolution reaction, in the reverse scan, the NiOOH/ Ni(OH)₂ reduction peak is well-separated from other electrochemical processes and can be easily integrated. The values of these integrals were used to correlate experimentally measured charge density with an electrochemically active surface layer. The Aecsa of the nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were calculated to be Aecsa-NiNWs = 4.2066 ± 0.0472 cm², Aecsa-homNi = 1.7175 ± 0.0503 cm² and Aecsa-hetNi = 2.1862 ± 0.0154 cm². These valuable results were expanded and used in electrochemical studies of formaldehyde oxidation. As mentioned nickel nanowires, heterogeneous and homogeneous nickel films were used as simple and efficient sensor for formaldehyde detection. For this purpose, electrodeposited nickel electrodes were modified in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ solution of KOH in order to expect electrochemical activity towards formaldehyde. The investigation of the electrochemical behavior of formaldehyde oxidation in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ NaOH solution at the surface of modified nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were carried out by means of electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric methods. From investigations of effect of different formaldehyde concentrations (from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L⁻¹) on electrochemical signal - current we provided catalysis mechanism of formaldehyde oxidation, detection limit and sensitivity of nickel electrodes. The results indicated that nickel electrodes participate directly in the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde. In the overall reaction, formaldehyde in alkaline aqueous solution exists predominantly in form of CH₂(OH)O⁻, which is oxidized to CH₂(O)O⁻. Taking into account the determined (Aecsa) values we have been able to calculate the sensitivities: 7 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for nickel nanowires, 3.5 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film and 2 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film. The detection limit was 0.2 mM for nickel nanowires, 0.5 mM for porous Ni film and 0.8 mM for homogeneous Ni film. All of these results make nickel electrodes capable for further applications.

Keywords: electrochemically active surface areas, nickel electrodes, formaldehyde, electrocatalytic oxidation

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34 Controlled Growth of Charge Transfer Complex Nanowire by Physical Vapor Deposition Method Using Dielectrophoretic Force

Authors: Rabaya Basori, Arup K. Raychaudhuri

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In recent years, a variety of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been synthesized and used as basic building blocks for the development of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely investigated as a scalable technique to trap and manipulate polarizable objects. This includes biological cells, nanoparticles, DNA molecules, organic or inorganic NWs and proteins using electric field gradients. In this article, we have used DEP force to localize nanowire growth by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method as well as control of NW diameter on field assisted growth of the NWs of CuTCNQ (Cu-tetracyanoquinodimethane); a metal-organic charge transfer complex material which is well known of resistive switching. We report a versatile analysis platform, based on a set of nanogap electrodes, for the controlled growth of nanowire. Non-uniform electric field and dielectrophoretic force is created in between two metal electrodes, patterned by electron beam lithography process. Suspended CuTCNQ nanowires have been grown laterally between two electrodes in the vicinity of electric field and dielectric force by applying external bias. Growth and diameter dependence of the nanowires on external bias has been investigated in the framework of these two forces by COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. This report will help successful in-situ nanodevice fabrication with constrained number of NW and diameter without any post treatment.

Keywords: nanowire, dielectrophoretic force, confined growth, controlled diameter, comsol multiphysics simulation

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33 Silicon Surface Treatment Effect on the Structural, Optical, and Optoelectronic Properties for Solar Cell Applications

Authors: Lotfi Hedi Khezami, Mohamed Ben Rabha, N. Sboui, Mounir Gaidi, B. Bessais

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Metal-nano particle-assisted Chemical Etching is an extraordinary developed wet etching method of producing uniform semiconductor nano structure (nano wires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and opto electronic properties was investigated. Combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and opto electronic properties are presented in this paper.

Keywords: stain etching, porous silicon, silicon nanowires, reflectivity, lifetime, solar cells

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32 Synthesis of [email protected] Cu Core−Shell Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement of Cu by Pd²⁺ Ions as a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Determination of Dihydroxybenzene Isomers Speciation

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Parisa Jahani, Amir Shafiee, Mehrdad Mofidi

Abstract:

The dihydroxybenzene isomers, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) have been widely recognized as important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and low degradability in the ecological environment. Speciation of HQ, CC and RS is very important for environmental analysis because they co-exist of these isomers in environmental samples and are too difficult to degrade as an environmental contaminant with high toxicity. There are many analytical methods have been reported for detecting these isomers, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical methods. These methods have attractive advantages such as simple and fast response, low maintenance costs, wide linear analysis range, high efficiency, excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. A novel modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with [email protected] Cu/CNTs core−shell nanowires for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) is described. A detailed investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry was performed in order to elucidate the preparation process and properties of the GCE/ Pd/CuNWs-CNTs. The electrochemical response characteristic of the modified GPE/LFOR toward HQ, CC and RS were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and Chronoamperometry. Under optimum conditions, the calibrations curves were linear up to 228 µM for each with detection limits of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 µM for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. The diffusion coefficient for the oxidation of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode was calculated as 6.5×10⁻⁵, 1.6 ×10⁻⁵ and 8.5 ×10⁻⁵ cm² s⁻¹, respectively. DPV was used for the simultaneous determination of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode and the relative standard deviations were 2.1%, 1.9% and 1.7% for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. Moreover, GCE/Pd/CuNWs-CNTs was successfully used for determination of HQ, CC and RS in real samples.

Keywords: dihydroxybenzene isomers, galvanized copper nanowires, electrochemical sensor, Palladium, speciation

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