Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21540

Search results for: conceptual paper

21540 Performance-Based Quality Evaluation of Database Conceptual Schemas

Authors: Janusz Getta, Zhaoxi Pan

Abstract:

Performance-based quality evaluation of database conceptual schemas is an important aspect of database design process. It is evident that different conceptual schemas provide different logical schemas and performance of user applications strongly depends on logical and physical database structures. This work presents the entire process of performance-based quality evaluation of conceptual schemas. First, we show format. Then, the paper proposes a new specification of object algebra for representation of conceptual level database applications. Transformation of conceptual schemas and expression of object algebra into implementation schema and implementation in a particular database system allows for precise estimation of the processing costs of database applications and as a consequence for precise evaluation of performance-based quality of conceptual schemas. Then we describe an experiment as a proof of concept for the evaluation procedure presented in the paper.

Keywords: conceptual schema, implementation schema, logical schema, object algebra, performance evaluation, query processing

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21539 'Gender' and 'Gender Equalities': Conceptual Issues

Authors: Moustafa Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss and question some of the widely accepted concepts within the conceptual framework of gender from terminological, scientific, and Muslim cultural perspectives, and to introduce a new definition and a model of gender in the Arab and Muslim societies. This paper, therefore, uses a generic methodology and document analysis and comes in three sections and a conclusion. The first section discusses some of the terminological issues in the conceptual framework of gender. The second section highlights scientific issues, introduces a definition and a model of gender, whereas the third section offers Muslim cultural perspectives on some issues related to gender in the Muslim world. The paper, then, concludes with findings and recommendations reached so far.

Keywords: gender definition, gender equalities, sex-gender separability, fairness-based model of gender

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21538 The Capability of Organizational Leadership: Development of Conceptual Framework

Authors: Kurmet Kivipõld, Maaja Vadi

Abstract:

Current paper develops the conceptual framework for organizational leadership capability. Organizational leadership here is understood as collective multi-level phenomenon which has been embedded into organizational processes as a capability at the level of the entire organization. The paper analyses and systematises the theo¬retical approaches to multi-level leadership in existing literature. This analysis marks the foundation of collective leadership at the organizational level, which forms the basis for the development of the conceptual framework of organi¬zational leadership capability. The developed conceptual framework of organiza¬tional leadership capability is formed from the synthesis of the three groups of base theories – traditional leadership theories, the resource-based view from strategic management and complexity theory from system theories. These conceptual sources present the main characteristics that determine the nature of organizational leadership capability and are the basis for its mea¬surement.

Keywords: leadership, organizational capability, organizational leadership, resource-based view, system theory

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21537 Expert Review on Conceptual Design Model of Assistive Courseware for Low Vision (AC4LV) Learners

Authors: Nurulnadwan Aziz, Ariffin Abdul Mutalib, Siti Mahfuzah Sarif

Abstract:

This paper reports an ongoing project regarding the development of Conceptual Design Model of Assistive Courseware for Low Vision (AC4LV) learners. Having developed the intended model, it has to be validated prior to producing it as guidance for the developers to develop an AC4LV. This study requires two phases of validation process which are through expert review and prototyping method. This paper presents a part of the validation process which is findings from experts review on Conceptual Design Model of AC4LV which has been carried out through a questionnaire. Results from 12 international and local experts from various respectable fields in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were discussed and justified. In a nutshell, reviewed Conceptual Design Model of AC4LV was formed. Future works of this study are to validate the reviewed model through prototyping method prior to testing it to the targeted users.

Keywords: assistive courseware, conceptual design model, expert review, low vision learners

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21536 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: architecture, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze, philosophy, Toyo Ito

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21535 Expert and Novice Problem-Solvers Differences: A Discourse for Effective Teaching Delivery in Physics Classrooms

Authors: Abubakar Sa’adatu Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper reports on a study of problem solving differences between expert and novice Problem solvers for effective physics teaching. Significant differences were found both at the conceptual level and at the level of critical thinking, creative thinking and reasoning. It is suggested for a successful solution of a problem, conceptual knowledge alone may not be sufficient. There is the need of the knowledge of how the conceptual knowledge should be applied (problem solving skills). It is hoped that this research might contribute to efforts of exploring ways for students to acquire a powerful conceptual toolkit based on experts like problem solvers approach for effective teaching delivery.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, critical thinking, creative thinking, reasoning ability

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21534 Conceptual Perimeter Model for Estimating Building Envelope Quantities

Authors: Ka C. Lam, Oluwafunmibi S. Idowu

Abstract:

Building girth is important in building economics and mostly used in quantities take-off of various cost items. Literature suggests that the use of conceptual quantities can improve the accuracy of cost models. Girth or perimeter of a building can be used to estimate conceptual quantities. Hence, the current paper aims to model the perimeter-area function of buildings shapes for use at the conceptual design stage. A detailed literature review on existing building shape indexes was carried out. An empirical approach was used to study the relationship between area and the shortest length of a four-sided orthogonal polygon. Finally, a mathematical approach was used to establish the observed relationships. The empirical results obtained were in agreement with the mathematical model developed. A new equation termed “conceptual perimeter equation” is proposed. The equation can be used to estimate building envelope quantities such as external wall area, external finishing area and scaffolding area before sketch or detailed drawings are prepared.

Keywords: building envelope, building shape index, conceptual quantities, cost modelling, girth

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21533 Temporal Axis in Japanese: The Paradox of a Metaphorical Orientation in Time

Authors: Tomoko Usui

Abstract:

In the field of linguistics, it has been said that concepts associated with space and motion systematically contribute structure to the temporal concept. This is the conceptual metaphor theory. conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept (time) as their target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source (space). This paper will examine two major temporal conceptual metaphors: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor and Time-RP Metaphor. Moving time generally receives a front-back orientation, however, Japanese shows a different orientation given to time. By means of Ego perspective, this paper will illustrate the paradox of a metaphorical orientation in time.

Keywords: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor, Japanese saki, temporal metaphors, Time RP Metaphor

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21532 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Representations of Heat and Temperature

Authors: Abdeljalil Métioui

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research on the conceptual representations of 128 Quebec (Canada) pre-service teachers enrolled in their third year of university in a program to train elementary teachers about heat and temperature. To identify their conceptual representations about heat and temperature, we constructed a multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of five questions. For each question, they had to explain their choice of an answer. At the methodological level, this step is essential to be able to identify the student conceptual representations. It should be noted that the selected questions were based: (1) on the works have done worldwide on primary and secondary students’ misconceptions about heat and temperature; (2) on the notions prescribed in the curriculum related to the physical world and (3) on student’s everyday contexts. As illustrations, the following are the erroneous conceptual representations identified in our analysis of the data collected: (1) The change of state of the matter does not require a constant temperature, (2) The temperature is a measure in degrees to indicate the level of heat of an object or person, (3) The mercury contained in a thermometer expands when it is heated so that the particles which constitute it expand and (4) The sensation of cold (or warm) is related to the difference in temperature. In conclusion, we will see that it is possible to develop situations of conflict, dealing specifically with the limits of the analogy between heat and temperature. These situations must consider the conceptual representations of the pre-service teachers, as well as the relevant scientific understanding of the concept of heat and temperature.

Keywords: conceptual representation, heat, temperature, pre-service teachers

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21531 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Difficulties about Gravitational Force: The Case of the Free Fall Bodies

Authors: A. Metioui

Abstract:

Research related to the student’s conceptual difficulties in sciences, particularly in the field of physics, are relatively numerous. In this work, we will analyze the results of qualitative research conducted with 80 elementary preservice teachers from Quebec in Canada on their understandings after studying the free fall bodies. First, we will illustrate the paper-pencil questionnaire built for this purpose. Then we will give the analysis of the experimental data. The results show that, even though there is a continuing physics education, many misconceptions persist despite the teaching provided.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, elementary school, conceptual difficulties, free fall bodies

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21530 [Keynote Speech]: Conceptual Design of a Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) Light Sport Aircraft

Authors: Zamri Omar, Alifi Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Although flying machines have made their tremendous technological advancement since the first successfully flight of the heavier-than-air aircraft, its benefits to the greater community are still belittled. One of the reasons for this drawback is due to the relatively high cost needed to fly on the typical light aircraft. A smaller and lighter plane, widely known as Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) has the potential to attract more people to actively participate in numerous flying activities, such as for recreational, business trips or other personal purposes. In this paper, we propose a new LSA design with some simple, yet important analysis required in the aircraft conceptual design stage.

Keywords: light sport aircraft, conceptual design, aircraft layout, aircraft

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21529 The Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory to the Treatment of Depression

Authors: Uma Kanth, Amy Cook

Abstract:

Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) proposes that metaphor is fundamental to human thought. CMT utilizes embodied cognition, in that emotions are conceptualized as effects on the body because of a coupling of one’s bodily experiences and one’s somatosensory system. Time perception is a function of embodied cognition and conceptual metaphor in that one’s experience of time is inextricably dependent on one’s perception of the world around them. A hallmark of depressive disorders is the distortion in one’s perception of time, such as neurological dysfunction and psychomotor retardation, and yet, to the author’s best knowledge, previous studies have not before linked CMT, embodied cognition, and depressive disorders. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the investigation of how the applications of CMT and embodied cognition (especially regarding time perception) have promise in improving current techniques to treat depressive disorders. This paper aimed to extend, through a thorough review of literature, the theoretical basis required to further research into CMT and embodied cognition’s application in treating time distortion related symptoms of depressive disorders. Future research could include the development of brain training technologies that capitalize on the principles of CMT, with the aim of promoting cognitive remediation and cognitive activation to mitigate symptoms of depressive disorder.

Keywords: depression, conceptual metaphor theory, embodied cognition, time

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21528 Intertextuality as a Dialogue Between Postmodern Writer J. Fowles and Mid-English Writer J. Donne

Authors: Isahakyan Heghine

Abstract:

Intertextuality, being in the centre of attention of both linguists and literary critics, is vividly expressed in the outstanding British novelist and philosopher J. Fowles' works. 'The Magus’ is a deep psychological and philosophical novel with vivid intertextual links with the Greek mythology and authors from different epochs. The aim of the paper is to show how intertextuality might serve as a dialogue between two authors (J. Fowles and J. Donne) disguised in the dialogue of two protagonists of the novel : Conchis and Nicholas. Contrastive viewpoints concerning man's isolation, loneliness are stated in the dialogue. Due to the conceptual analysis of the text it becomes possible both to decode the conceptual information of the text and find out its intertextual links.

Keywords: dialogue, conceptual analysis, isolation, intertextuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
21527 From Conceptual Metaphor Theory to Generative Conceptual Metaphor Theory

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, generative metaphor theory, metaphorical inference pattern transfer, analogical reasoning

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21526 Wisdom Can Be the Expression of the Self

Authors: Jaypraksh Show, Pooja Rawat

Abstract:

Experiences are the fundamental aspects of understanding of ourslves and the world around, leading to wisdom. In the path of wisdom, explorative reflection is the process through which we integrate our experiences, weave them into autobiographical narratives. Further, Neisser, a psychologist, and philosopher, thinks ‘ourselves’ is the wide web of different concepts which help us to understand the world, he called it the conceptual self. The conceptual self, as the storehouse of experiences and different concepts, develops a wiser individual narrative. Thus, Wisdom can be conceived as the expression of the Self. Drawing from this, the current work explores the autobiographies of young adults, focusing on their narrative self and foundations of wisdom through narrative analysis. Using the corresponding interview data, we will shed light on the way they exploratively reflect on challenging situations and use their narrative experiences and conceptual understanding. The aim of this study is to understand the ‘conceptual wiser-self’.

Keywords: wisdom, self, conceptual self, narrative self, autobiography, narrative analysis

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21525 Contemporary Visual Art and Shariah: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Ishak Ramli, Mohamad Noorman Masrek, Muhamad Abdul Aziz Ab Gani

Abstract:

Islam places restrictions and limitation to the creation and ownership of visual art. Not all forms of visual arts are permissible in Islam. However, guidance on the creation and ownership of visual arts is not made plain and clear not only to the Islamic followers but also to the art community. Given this gap, this study attempts to develop a conceptual framework that will guide artist and art collectors on what constitute to valid and acceptable through the Islamic perspective. Based on this framework, several research checklist are proposed. It is highly useful especially for the researchers who are interested to study the topic. Qualitative research is the best choice to test run the paper work to attempt all the checklist which are formed.

Keywords: contemporary visual art, Shariah, conceptual framework, Islam

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21524 Translation and Legal Terminology: Techniques for Coping with the Untranslatability of Legal Terms between Arabic and English

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

Abstract:

Technical lexicon is witnessing a large upsurge in the use of new terminologies whose emergence is an inevitable result of the spread of high-quality technology, the existence of scientific paradigms and the fast growth of research in different disciplines. One important subfield of terminology is legal terminology, which forms a crucial part of legal studies, and whose translation from one legal system into another is deemed a formidable and arduous task that needs to be properly performed by legal translators. Indeed, the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, particularly between originally unrelated languages, like legal Arabic and legal English, has long been a real challenge in legal translation. It stems from the conceptual incongruency between legal terms of different legal languages, which are derived from different legal cultures and legal systems. Such conceptual asymmetry is owing to the fact that law has no universal reference and that legal language is what determines the degree of difference in conceptual correspondence. The present paper argues that although conceptual asymmetry, which is the main reason for the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, cannot be denied in legal translation, there exist certain translation techniques which, if properly adopted, would resolve the issue of untranslatability of legal terms and therefore achieve acceptable legal translation. Hence, the question of untranslatability of legal terms should no longer exist within the context of legal translation.

Keywords: conceptual incongruency, Legal terms, translation techniques, untranslatability

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
21523 Towards a Generative Theory of Conceptual Metaphor

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, inference pattern transfer, metaphorical mapping, generative metaphor theory, analogical reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
21522 Motivational Interviewing as a Framework for Coaching Physicians through ACGME Milestones

Authors: Michael Olson

Abstract:

The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in the U.S. has established core competencies and milestones for family physicians in residency training programs. These competencies are intended to guide preceptors as they work with physician trainees toward independent practice. This conceptual paper describes a framework for coaching trainees toward these milestones using motivational interviewing as an evidence-based approach. The main objective of applying the motivational interviewing framework to the residency training setting is to facilitate clinical behavior change that meets higher level competencies/rubric. This is a work in progress and there is no manuscript/paper prepared to date. A conceptual paper/framework will be completed by the conference deadline. This is based on a separate but related development of work we have completed and published elsewhere.

Keywords: coaching, motivational interviewing, physicians, competencies

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21521 The Social Model of Disability and Disability Rights: Defending a Conceptual Alignment between the Social Model’s Concept of Disability and the Nature of Rights and Duties

Authors: Adi Goldiner

Abstract:

Historically, the social model of disability has played a pivotal role in bringing rights discourse into the disability debate. Against this backdrop, the paper explores the conceptual alignment between the social model’s account of disability and the nature of rights. Specifically, the paper examines the possibility that the social model conceptualizes disability in a way that aligns with the nature of rights and thus motivates the invocation of disability rights. Methodologically, the paper juxtaposes the literature on the social model of disability, primarily the work of the Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation in the UK and related scholarship, with theories of moral rights. By focusing on the interplay between the social model of disability and rights, the paper provides a conceptual explanation for the rise of disability rights. In addition, the paper sheds light on the nature of rights, their function and limitations, in the context of disability rights. The paper concludes that the social model’s conceptualization of disability is hospitable to rights, because it opens up the possibility that there are duties that correlate with disability rights. Under the social model, disability is a condition that can be eliminated by the removal of social, structural, and attitudinal barriers. Accordingly, the social model dispels the idea that the actions of others towards disabled people will have a marginal impact on their interests in not being disabled. Equally important, the social model refutes the idea that in order to significantly serve people's interest in not being disabled, it is necessary to cure bodily impairments, which is not always possible. As rights correlate with duties that are possible to comply with, as well as those that significantly serve the interests of the right holders, the social model’s conceptualization of disability invites the reframing of problems related to disability in terms of infringements of disability rights. A possible objection to the paper’s argument is raised, according to which the social model is at odds with the invocation of disability rights because disability rights are ineffective in realizing the social model's goal of improving the lives of disabled by eliminating disability. The paper responds to this objection by drawing a distinction between ‘moral rights,’ which, conceptually, are not subject to criticism of ineffectiveness, and ‘legal rights’ which are.

Keywords: disability rights, duties, moral rights, social model

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21520 A Conceptual Analysis of Teams’ Climate Role in the Intrapreneurial Process

Authors: Georgia C. Kosta, Christos S. Nicolaidis

Abstract:

The present paper discusses the role of teams’ climate in the intrapreneurial process. Intrapreneurship, which corresponds for entrepreneurship in existing organizations, puts special emphasis on climate as an influential factor of the intrapreneurial behavior. Although climate exists at every level and in every subgroup of the organizational structure, research focuses mainly on the study of climate that characterizes organization as a whole. However, the climate of a work team may differ radically from the organizational climate, and in fact it can be far more influential. The paper provides a conceptual analysis of organizational climate from the intrapreneurial point of view, and sheds light upon teams’ climate role in the intrapreneurial posture.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovation, intrapreneurship, organizational climate, teams’ climate

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21519 JREM: An Approach for Formalising Models in the Requirements Phase with JSON and NoSQL Databases

Authors: Aitana Alonso-Nogueira, Helia Estévez-Fernández, Isaías García

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach to reduce some of its current flaws in the requirements phase inside the software development process. It takes the software requirements of an application, makes a conceptual modeling about it and formalizes it within JSON documents. This formal model is lodged in a NoSQL database which is document-oriented, that is, MongoDB, because of its advantages in flexibility and efficiency. In addition, this paper underlines the contributions of the detailed approach and shows some applications and benefits for the future work in the field of automatic code generation using model-driven engineering tools.

Keywords: conceptual modelling, JSON, NoSQL databases, requirements engineering, software development

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21518 The Universal Cultural Associations in the Conceptual Metaphors Used in the Headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers: A Critical Cognitive Study

Authors: Hind Hassan Arruwaite

Abstract:

Conceptual metaphor is a cognitive semantic tool that provides access to people's conceptual systems. The correlation in the human conceptual system surpasses limited time and specific cultures. The universal associations provide universal schemas that organize people's conceptualization of the world. The study aims to explore how the cultural associations used in conceptual metaphors create commonalities and harmony between people of the world. In the research methodology, the researcher implemented Critical Metaphor Analysis, Metaphor Candidate Identification and Metaphor Identification Procedure models to deliver qualitative and descriptive findings. The semantic tension was the key criterion in identifying metaphorically used words in the headlines. The research materials are the oil trade conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers. The data will be uploaded to the self-constructed corpus to examine electronic lists for identifying conceptual metaphors. The study investigates the types of conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of the newspapers, the cultural associations identified in the conceptual metaphors, and whether the identified cultural associations in conceptual metaphors create universal conceptual schemas. The study aligned with previous seminal works on conceptual metaphor theory in emphasizing the distinctive power of conceptual metaphors in exposing the cultural associations that unify people's perceptions. The correlation of people conceptualization provides universal schemas that involve elements of human sensorimotor experiences. The study contributes to exposing the shared cultural associations that ensure the commonality of all humankind's thinking mechanism.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical metaphor analysis, conceptual metaphor theory, primary and specific metaphors, corpus-driven approach, universal associations, image schema, sensorimotor experience, oil trade

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21517 Search for the Sacred: A conceptual Analysis of Divine Relationship

Authors: Monir Ahmed

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to analyze existing conceptual papers on the divine relationship. The primary objective of the paper is to illustrate cognitive orientation as a determinant of divine relationship. A further aim of the paper is to establish whether spiritual or religious practices, rituals, or acts alone could confirm a relationship with the sacred or the divine. Searching for the sacred or the divine is known to be a novel way of understanding the meaning and purpose of human existence, including the existence of everything around us. Inevitably, searching for the sacred provides an opportunity for human beings to form a relationship with the divine. Research suggests that discovering meaning and purpose through searching for the sacred or forming relationship with the divine enhances psychological well-being and eventually helps individuals to flourish. The search for the sacred and the discovery of the divine relationship thus have become interesting areas of study in Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. The existing conceptual papers on the relationship with the transcendent source, i.e., the divine creator, were systematically reviewed and analyzed. The outcome of the review reveals that the existing understanding of the relationship with the divine source is inadequate and that such understanding is unable to indicate or confirm a relationship with psychological well-being, including spiritual well-being. The importance of cognitive orientation, including cognitive processes as well as ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine in searching for the sacred, is indicated. The author of this paper proposes that cognitive-theological understanding involving faith and belief about the creation and the divine source, the transcendent God is likely to offer a comprehensive understanding of the divine relationship.

Keywords: divine, well-being, analysis, cognitive orientation, ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine

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21516 Social Innovation Rediscovered: An Analysis of Empirical Research

Authors: Imen Douzi, Karim Ben Kahla

Abstract:

In spite of the growing attention for social innovation, it is still considered to be in a stage of infancy with minimal progress in theory development. Upon examining the field of study, one would have to conclude that, over the past two decades, academic research has focused primarily on establishing a conceptual foundation. This has resulted in a considerable stream of conceptual papers which have outnumbered empirical articles. Nevertheless, despite its growing popularity, scholars and practitioners are far from reaching a consensus as to what social innovation actually means which resulted in competing definitions and approaches within the field of social innovation and lack of unifying conceptual framework. This paper reviews empirical research studies on social innovation, classifies them along three dimensions and summarizes research findings for each of these dimensions. Preliminary to the analysis of empirical researches, an overview of different perspectives of social innovation is presented.

Keywords: analysis of empirical research, definition, empirical research, social innovation perspectives

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21515 A Conceptual Framework of Scheduled Waste Management in Highway Industry

Authors: Nurul Nadhirah Anuar, Muhammad Fauzi Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

Scheduled waste management is very important in environmental and health aspects. Despite it is very important, the research study on schedule waste management is very little in the highway industry even though there is a rapid growth of highway operation in the Asian region. It should be noted that there are many unnoticeable wastes in highway industry that should be managed properly. This paper aims to define the scheduled waste, to provide a conceptual framework of the scheduled waste management in highway industry, to highlight the effect of improper management of scheduled waste and to encourage future researchers to identify and share the present practice of scheduled management in their country. The understanding on effective management of scheduled waste will help the operators of highway industry, the academicians, future researchers, and encourage a friendly environment around the world. The study on scheduled waste management in highway industry is very crucial as compared to factories in which the factories are located on specified areas whereas, highway transverse and run along kilometers crossing the various type of environment, residential and schools. Using Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations, 2005 as a guide, this conceptual paper highlight several scheduled wastes produced by highway industry in Malaysia and provide a conceptual framework of scheduled waste management that focused on the highway industry. Understanding on schedule waste management is vital in order to preserve the environment. Besides that, the waste substances are hazardous to human being. Many diseases have been associated with the improper management of scheduled waste such as cancer, throat irritation and respiration problem.

Keywords: Asia region, environment, highway industry, scheduled waste

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21514 The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, primary school teachers, procedural knowledge, rational numbers

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21513 A Constructive Analysis of the Formation of LGBTQ Families: Where Utopia and Reality Meet

Authors: Panagiotis Pentaris

Abstract:

The issue of social and legal recognition of LGBTQ families is of high importance when exploring the possibility of a family. Of equal importance is the fact that both society and the individual contribute to the overall recognition of LGBTQ families. This paper is a conceptual discussion, by methodology, of both sides; it uses a method of constructive analysis to expound on this issue. This method’s aim is to broaden conceptual theory, and introduce a new relationship between concepts that were previously not associated by evidence. This exploration has found that LGBTQ realities from an international perspective may differ and both legal and social rights are critical toward self-consciousness and the formation of a family. This paper asserts that internalised and historic oppression of LGBTQ individuals, places them, not always and not in all places, in a disadvantageous position as far as engaging with the potential of forming a family goes. The paper concludes that lack of social recognition and internalised oppression are key barriers regarding LGBTQ families.

Keywords: family, gay, self-worth, LGBTQ, social rights

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21512 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers and Its Effects on Pupils Achievement of Rational Numbers

Authors: Raliatu Mohammed Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers to determine how it effects on pupil’s achievement on rational number. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual and procedural knowledge about rational number and its effects on their pupils understanding of rational number in primary school was explored. The study was carried out in Bauchi state of Nigeria, Using a multistage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test post-test only quasi experiment design. The population of the study comprises of six mathematics teachers holding the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and their two hundred and ten pupils in intact class. Two instrument namely Conceptual and Procedural knowledge Test (CPKT) and Rational number Achievement Test (RAT) were used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using ANCOVA and Scheffe’s Test. The result revealed a significant differences between pupils taught by teachers with high conceptual and procedural knowledge and those target by teachers with low conceptual and procedural knowledge.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, rational numbers, multistage design

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21511 A Preliminary Conceptual Scale to Discretize the Distributed Manufacturing Continuum

Authors: Ijaz Ul Haq, Fiorenzo Franceschini

Abstract:

The distributed manufacturing methodology brings a new concept of decentralized manufacturing operations close to the proximity of end users. A preliminary scale, to measure distributed capacity and evaluate positioning of firms, is developed in this research. In the first part of the paper, a literature review has been performed which highlights the explorative nature of the studies conducted to present definitions and classifications due to novelty of this topic. From literature, five dimensions of distributed manufacturing development stages have been identified: localization, manufacturing technologies, customization and personalization, digitalization and democratization of design. Based on these determinants a conceptual scale is proposed to measure the status of distributed manufacturing of a generic firm. A multiple case study is then conducted in two steps to test the conceptual scale and to identify the corresponding level of distributed potential in each case study firm.

Keywords: distributed manufacturing, distributed capacity, localized production, ordinal scale

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