Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 141

Search results for: Yahya Zakari Abdullahi

141 Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from WAIFEM Member Countries

Authors: Nasiru Inuwa, Haruna Usman Modibbo, Yahya Zakari Abdullahi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth on carbon emissions in context of WAIFEM member countries. The Im-Pesaran-Shin panel unit root test, Kao residual based test panel cointegration technique and panel Granger causality tests over the period 1980-2012 within a multivariate framework were applied. The results of cointegration test revealed a long run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions, economic growth and foreign direct investment. The results of Granger causality tests revealed a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries at the 5% level. Also, Granger causality runs from economic growth to foreign direct investment without feedback. However, no causality relationship between foreign direct investment and CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries was observed. The study therefore, suggest that policy makers from WAIFEM member countries should design policies aim at attracting more foreign direct investments inflow as well the adoption of cleaner production technologies in order to reduce CO2 emissions.

Keywords: economic growth, CO2 emissions, causality, WAIFEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
140 Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems

Authors: Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi, Zainab Suleiman Abdullahi, Nuhu Alhaji Muhammad

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In this paper, a thorough review of photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems is done on the basis of its performance based on electrical as well as thermal output. Photovoltaic systems are classified according to their use, i.e., electricity production, and thermal, Photovoltaic systems behave in an extraordinary and useful way, they react to light by transforming part of it into electricity useful way and unique, since photovoltaic and thermal applications along with the electricity production. The application of various photovoltaic systems is also discussed in detail. The performance analysis including all aspects, e.g., electrical, thermal, energy, and energy efficiency are also discussed. A case study for PV and PV/T system based on energetic analysis is presented.

Keywords: photovoltaic, renewable, performance, efficiency, energy

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139 The Fadama Initiative: Implications for Human Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, Yahya M. Abdullahi

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The impact of poverty on individual and society is grave, hence the efforts by the government to eradicate or alleviate. In Nigeria the various efforts to reduce rural poverty by empowering them and making the process of their development self-sustaining have ended dismally. That notwithstanding, government determination to conquer poverty has not diminish as in the early 1990s the government with financial collaboration from the World Bank and African Development Bank introduced the fadama project. It is against this backdrop that this paper uses the documentary and analytical research methods to examine the implication the fadama development project has for community capacity development and human security in Nigeria. From the analysis it was discovered the fadama project improved household income of fadama farmers, community empowerment, participatory development planning and support for demand driven productive investment in farm and non-farm activities including community infrastructures. Despite this impressive result the fadama project is challenged by conflict especially in northern Nigeria and late delivery of necessary farm consumables that aid improved productivity. It was therefore recommended that the government should strengthen her various state security institutions to proactively mitigate conflicts and to ensure that farm consumables and other support services reach farmers timely.

Keywords: capacity development, empowerment, fadama, human security, poverty reduction, theory of change, sustainable development

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138 Democracy Leadership and Good Governance in Nigerias Fourth Republic

Authors: Salisu Adamu Abdullahi, Yusuf Abdullahi Manu

Abstract:

Nigeria returned to a democratically elected government on May 29, 1999. This signaled the beginning of the journey into the Fourth Republic. The return has received popular endorsement by the electorates as the level of enthusiasm was high due to the yearnings and expectations by the electorate that democracy will bring about the much-desired change required by the general mass. As democracy would allow for popular participation through periodic elections and so on. The paper examines democracy, leadership, and challenges of good governance in Nigerias Fourth Republic. It utilizes secondary source of data and content analysis as a methodology. It argues that Nigerias practice of democracy over the years is marred by flagrant abuse of the principles of good governance by the ruling elite. This has posed threats to the survival of democracy due to non-adherence to one of the cardinal principles of democracy which is good governance. The paper recommends among others that the anti-corruption law is amended in such a way that death penalties be issued to those found wanting by the law.

Keywords: democracy, democratic consolidation, challenges, good governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
137 Attendance Management System Implementation Using Face Recognition

Authors: Zainab S. Abdullahi, Zakariyya H. Abdullahi, Sahnun Dahiru

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Student attendance in schools is a very important aspect in school management record. In recent years, security systems have become one of the most demanding systems in school. Every institute have its own method of taking attendance, many schools in Nigeria use the old fashion way of taking attendance. That is writing the students name and registration number in a paper and submitting it to the lecturer at the end of the lecture which is time-consuming and insecure, because some students can write for their friends without the lecturer’s knowledge. In this paper, we propose a system that takes attendance using face recognition. There are many automatic methods available for this purpose i.e. biometric attendance, but they all waste time, because the students have to follow a queue to put their thumbs on a scanner which is time-consuming. This attendance is recorded by using a camera attached in front of the class room and capturing the student images, detect the faces in the image and compare the detected faces with database and mark the attendance. The principle component analysis was used to recognize the faces detected with a high accuracy rate. The paper reviews the related work in the field of attendance system, then describe the system architecture, software algorithm and result.

Keywords: attendance system, face detection, face recognition, PCA

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136 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: CuAlS2, evaporation, sulfurisation, thickness, resistivity, crystalline

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135 Diversity: Understanding Multicultural Concerns in Counseling

Authors: Zuwaira Abdullahi

Abstract:

In this increasing changing world, it is important to be aware of the needs of clients when it comes to race and ethnic diversities. These diversities create difficulties for multicultural counselling: the counsellor’s own culture, attitudes, and theoretical perspective; the client's culture; and the multiplicity of variables comprising an individual's identity. This paper examines the level of realization, sensitization and attitude of counsellors towards individuals that come from different cultural, social and economic background.

Keywords: multicultural, diversities, counselling, needs

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134 Examination of Occupational Health and Safety Practices in Ghana

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinto Aigbavboa, Wellinton Didi Thwala

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Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) issues has been a major challenge to the Ghanaian government. The purpose of the study was to examine OHS practices in Ghana. The study looked at various views from different scholars about OHS practices in order to achieve the objective of the study. Literature review was conducted on OHS in Ghana. Findings from the study shows Ministry of Roads and Transport (MRT) and Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH) are two government ministries in charge of construction and implementation of the construction sector policy. The Factories, Offices and Shops Act 1970, Act 328 and the Mining Regulations 1970 LI 665 are the two major edicts. The study presents a strong background on OHS practices in Ghana and contribute to the body of knowledge on the solution to the current trends and challenges of OHS in the construction sector.

Keywords: ILO convention, OHS challenges, OHS practices, OHS improvement

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133 Enhancing English Language Learning through Learners Cultural Background

Authors: A. Attahiru, Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Bint

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Language and culture are two concepts which are closely related that one affects the other. This paper attempts to examine the definition of language and culture by discussing the relationship between them. The paper further presents some instructional strategies for the teaching of language and culture as well as the influence of culture on language. It also looks at its implication to language education and finally some recommendation and conclusion were drawn.

Keywords: culture, language, relationship, strategies, teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
132 A Study on Weddernburn – Artin Theorem for Rings

Authors: Fahad Suleiman, Sammani Abdullahi

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The study depicts that a Wedderburn Artin – theorem for rings is considered to be a semisimple ring R which is isomorphic to a product of finitely many mi by mi matrix rings over division rings Di, for some integers n_i, both of which are uniquely determined up to permutation of the index i. It has been concluded that when R is simple the Wedderburn – Artin theorem is known as Wedderburn’s theorem.

Keywords: Commutativity, Wedderburn theorem, Semisimple ring, R module

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131 Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) for Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Bello Ibrahim, M. Auwal Zakari, Aliyu Usman

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Hybrid concrete construction (HCC) combines all the benefits of pre-casting with the advantages of cast in-situ construction. Merging the two, as a hybrid structure, results in even greater construction speed, value, and the overall economy. Its variety of uses has gained popularity in the United States and in Europe due to its distinctive benefits. However, the increase of its application in some countries (including Nigeria) has been relatively slow. Several researches have shown that hybrid construction offers an ultra-high performance concrete that offers superior strength, durability and aesthetics with design flexibility and within sustainability credentials, based on the available and economically visible technologies. This paper examines and documents the criterion that will help inform the process of deciding whether or not to adopt hybrid concrete construction (HCC) technology rather than more traditional alternatives. It also the present situation of design, construction and research on hybrid structures.

Keywords: hybrid concrete construction, Nigeria, sustainable infrastructure development, design flexibility

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130 Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside Isolated from Combretum molle R.

Authors: Abdu Zakari, Sai’d Jibril, Adoum A. Omar

Abstract:

The leaves of Combretum molle was selected on the basis of its uses in folk medicine as insecticides. The leave extracts of Combretum molle was tested against the larvae of Artemia salina, i.e. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Filaria disease vector) i.e. Larvicidal Test, using crude ethanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts. The methanolic extract proved to be the most effective in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses both in the BST and the Larvicidal activity test. The LC50¬ values obtained are 24.85 µg/ml and 0.4µg/ml respectively. The bioactivity-guided column chromatography afforded the pure compound ACM–3. ACM-3 was not active in the BST with LC50 value >1000µg/ml, but was active in the Larvicidal activity test with LC50 value 4.0µg/ml. ACM-3 was proposed to have the structure I, (Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside).

Keywords: toxicity, larvicidal, Combretum molle, Artemia salina, Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

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129 Effects of Different Processing Methods of Typha Grass on Feed Intake Milk Yield/Composition and Blood Parameters of Diry Cows

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Lawan, Aminu Maidala

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Abstract 16 healthy lactating cows will be randomly selected for the trial and will be randomly divided in to 4 groups with 4 cows in each. They will be kept under similar management condition (conventional management system). Animals of relatively same weight and age will be used. After 11days for adaptation, feed intake and performance of the experimental animals will be determine. Milk sample will be collected at each milking in the morning and afternoon to determine; Milk yield, Milk fat percentage, Solid not fat percentage, Total solid percentage of milk. Cows dung will be observe to determine; Score 1 very loose watery stool, Score 2 semi solid with undigested raw material, Score 3 semi solid with less undigested raw material, Score 4 solid with very less undigested raw material, Score 5 good dung no undigested raw material. At the end of the experiment, blood samples will be analyzed for full blood counts and differentials {White Blood Cells (WBC), Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Platelets (PLT), Lymphocytes (LYM), Basophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes Proportion (MXD) and Neutrophils (NEUT)} using automated hematology analyzer. Serum samples will be analyzed for heat shock transcription factors, heat shock proteins and hormones (Serum glucocorticoid, prolactin and cortisol). Moreover, biochemical analysis will also be conducted to check for Total protein (TP), Albumen (ALB), Globulin (GBL), Total cholesterol (TCH), glucose (G), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and pH. Keywords: Lactating cows, milk composition, dung score and blood parameters.

Keywords: Lactating cows , Milk yield , Dung score , Blood parameters

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128 Effect of Feeding Camel Rumen Content on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Broiler Chickens under Semi-Arid Condition

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Adamu, Aminu Maidala

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One hundred and fifty (150) day old chicks were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments birds and each treatment where replicated twice in groups of fifteen birds in each replicate. Camel rumen content (CRC) was included in the diets of broiler at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to replace maize and groundnut cake to evaluate the effect on the performance and hematological parameters at the starter and finisher phase. A completely randomized design was used and 600g of feed was given daily and water was given ad libitum. At the starter phase, the daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by the test ingredients, although T1(0% CRC) which serve as a control, were similar with T2(5% CRC), T3(10% CRC), and T4(15% CRC), while the lowest value was recorded in T5(20% CRC). The result indicates that up to 15% (CRC) level can be included in the starter diet to replace maize and groundnut cake without any effect on the performance. However, at the finisher phase, the daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio show no significant (F>0.05) difference among the dietary treatments. Similarly, Packed cell volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) also did not differ significantly (F>0.05) among the dietary treatments while hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) differs significantly. The differential counts of eosinophils, heterophils, and lymphocytes differ significantly among the treatment groups, while that of basophils and monocytes shows no significant difference among the treatment groups. This means up to 20% CRC inclusion level can be used to replaced maize and groundnut cake in the finisher diet without any adverse effect on the performance and hematological parameters of the chickens.

Keywords: camel, rumen content, growth, hematology

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127 Classroom Discourse and English Language Teaching: Issues, Importance, and Implications

Authors: Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Binta Attahir

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Classroom discourse is important, and it is worth examining what the phenomena is and how it helps both the teacher and students in a classroom situation. This paper looks at the classroom as a traditional social setting which has its own norms and values. The paper also explains what discourse is, as extended communication in speech or writing often interactively dealing with some particular topics. It also discusses classroom discourse as the language which teachers and students use to communicate with each other in a classroom situation. The paper also looks at some strategies for effective classroom discourse. Finally, implications and recommendations were drawn.

Keywords: classroom, discourse, learning, student, strategies, communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
126 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: Musa Momoh, A. U. Moreh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku

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In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: zinc oxide, spray pyrolysis, rf sputtering, optical properties, electrical properties

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125 Socio-Religious Mythology of the Igala of Central Nigeria Area

Authors: Abdullahi Musa Yusuf

Abstract:

Culture and traditions are an embodiment of every society. In Africa, people are socialized into believing that the world is full of mysteries. Mysteries that can only be explain through the interpretation of some forces which are ordinarily beyond the comprehension of Man. These forces have the power and capability of influencing the lives of the living either benevolently or malevolently. To decipher these mysteries various religious and cultural practices were evolved. This paper is therefore an attempt to explain the traditional religious belief system and the relationship existing between the forces of the living and dead among the Igala people of the Central Nigeria Region.

Keywords: culture, tradition, mythology, Nigeria

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124 Insiders’ Perspectives of Countering Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria: Identifying and Targeting Its Nature, Characteristics and Fundamental Causes

Authors: Musa Bala Zakari, Mark Button

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This paper explores the extent, nature, and characteristics of public sector corruption in Nigeria and the enhancement of the major anti-corruption initiatives (reforms), thereby providing insight into the types, forms and causes of corruption in Nigeria. This paper argues that attempts to devise and suggest effective anti-corruption reforms to control systemic corruption in Nigeria require identifying the most prevalent types of corruption targeted and tackling the fundamental country specific causes. It analyses two types of public sector corruption as it relates to Nigeria and the workings of its inefficient governance system. This paper concludes with the imperative of a collective action against corruption supported by considerable amount of domestic political will existing in a favourable policy context. In undertaking this, the paper draws upon publicly available documents, case laws review and semi-structured interviews conducted with various personnel working in the field of corruption in the dedicated anticorruption agencies, academics, and practitioners from other relevant institutions of accountability.

Keywords: corruption, development, good governance, public sector

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123 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Some Acid Dyes Derived from 1-Amino-4 Bromo-Anthraquine-2-Sulphonic Acid

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Istifanus Chindo, Nurudeen Ayeni

Abstract:

Ten acid dyes were synthesized from 1-amino-4-bromo anthraghinone-2 sulphuric acid by condensation with different substituted amilines. These dyes were characterized by IR Spectroscopy and the results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. Application of these dyes were carried out on Nylon and wool fabrics using standard procedure melting point, percentage yield, molar extinction coefficient, wash, light and staining of adjacent fibre, of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyes.

Keywords: acid dyes, dyeing, exhaustion, extinction co-efficient

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122 Comparative Outlook of Teacher Education in Nigeria and India

Authors: Muhammad Badamasi Abdullahi

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Teacher education, both pre- and in-service programs, is offered in many countries of the world by different teacher education institutions as declared in the Policies on Education of the countries. However, differences exist from one country to another as a result of some factors peculiar to them. Notwithstanding, there also exist similarities among them in regard to teacher education. This paper is expected to dig into teacher education programs in Nigeria and India so that areas of similarities and differences would be highlighted as well as provide a venue for possible recommendation of both countries to learn from one another. All this is directed towards providing a no -border approach in enhancing effective teaching and learning.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching and learning, pre-service, in-service

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121 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S-Triazine Vinyl Sulphone Reactive Dyes

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Chindo Istifanus

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A series of ten bi functional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on H-acid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were examined in various solvents and results shows positive and negative salvatochromism as the solvent polarity; changes, melting point, percentage yield and molar extinction co-efficient of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyeing.

Keywords: bifunctional, characterization, reactive dyes, synthesis

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120 Exploring Counting Methods for the Vertices of Certain Polyhedra with Uncertainties

Authors: Sammani Danwawu Abdullahi

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Vertex Enumeration Algorithms explore the methods and procedures of generating the vertices of general polyhedra formed by system of equations or inequalities. These problems of enumerating the extreme points (vertices) of general polyhedra are shown to be NP-Hard. This lead to exploring how to count the vertices of general polyhedra without listing them. This is also shown to be #P-Complete. Some fully polynomial randomized approximation schemes (fpras) of counting the vertices of some special classes of polyhedra associated with Down-Sets, Independent Sets, 2-Knapsack problems and 2 x n transportation problems are presented together with some discovered open problems.

Keywords: counting with uncertainties, mathematical programming, optimization, vertex enumeration

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119 A Survey of Some Technology Enhanced Teaching and Learning Techniques: Implication to Educational Development in Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Bn Umar

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Over the years curriculum planners and researchers in education have continued to seek for ways to improve teaching and learning by way of varying approaches to curriculum and instruction in line with dynamic nature of knowledge. In this regards various innovative strategies to teaching and learning have been adopted to match with the technological advancement in education particularly in the aspect of instructional delivery through Information Communication Technology (ICT) as a tools. This paper reviews some innovative strategies and how they impact on learner’s achievement and educational development in Nigeria. The paper concludes by recommending innovative approach appropriate for use in Nigerian context.

Keywords: innovation, instructional delivery, virtual laboratory, educational design

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118 Assessment of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in Construction Accident Prevention

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Didi Thwala

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Majority of the incidents and accidents in complex high-risk systems that exist in the construction industry and other sectors have been attributed to unsafe acts of workers. The purpose of this paper was to asses Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in construction accident prevention. The study was conducted through the use of secondary data from journals, books and internet to achieve the objective of the study. The review of literature looked into details of different views from different scholars about HFACS framework in accidents investigations. It further highlighted on various sections or disciplines of accident occurrences in human performance within the construction. The findings from literature review showed that unsafe acts of a worker and unsafe working conditions are the two major causes of accident in the construction industry.Most significant factor in the cause of site accident in the construction industry is unsafe acts of a worker. The findings also show how the application of HFACS framework in the investigation of accident will lead to the identification of common trends. Further findings show that provision for the prevention of accident will be made based on past accident records to identify and prioritize where intervention is needed within the construction industry.

Keywords: accident, construction, HFACS, unsafe acts

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117 Mathematical Model for Defection between Two Political Parties

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed Auwal

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Formation and change or decamping from one political party to another have now become a common trend in Nigeria. Many of the parties’ members who could not secure positions and or win elections in their parties or are not very much satisfied with the trends occurring in the party’s internal democratic principles and mechanisms, change their respective parties. This paper developed/presented and analyzed the used of non linear mathematical model for defections between two political parties using epidemiological approach. The whole population was assumed to be a constant and homogeneously mixed. Equilibria have been analytically obtained and their local and global stability discussed. Conditions for the co-existence of both the political parties have been determined, in the study of defections between People Democratic Party (PDP) and All Progressive Congress (APC) in Nigeria using numerical simulations to support the analytical results.

Keywords: model, political parties, deffection, stability, equilibrium, epidemiology

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116 An Application of Graph Theory to The Electrical Circuit Using Matrix Method

Authors: Samai'la Abdullahi

Abstract:

A graph is a pair of two set and so that a graph is a pictorial representation of a system using two basic element nodes and edges. A node is represented by a circle (either hallo shade) and edge is represented by a line segment connecting two nodes together. In this paper, we present a circuit network in the concept of graph theory application and also circuit models of graph are represented in logical connection method were we formulate matrix method of adjacency and incidence of matrix and application of truth table.

Keywords: euler circuit and path, graph representation of circuit networks, representation of graph models, representation of circuit network using logical truth table

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115 Effect of Boric Acid Content on the Structural and Optical Properties of In2O3 Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Authors: Mustafa Öztas, Metin Bedir, Yahya Özdemir

Abstract:

Boron doped of In2O3 films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at 350 °C substrate temperature, which is a low cost and large area technique to be well-suited for the manufacture of solar cells, using boric acid (H3BO3) as dopant source, and their properties were investigated as a function of doping concentration. X-ray analysis showed that the films were polycrystalline fitting well with a hexagonal structure and have preferred orientation in (220) direction. The changes observed in the energy band gap and structural properties of the films related to the boric acid concentration are discussed in detail.

Keywords: spray pyrolysis, In2O3, boron, optical properties, boric acid

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114 A New Spell-Out Mechanism

Authors: Yusra Yahya

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In this paper, a new spell-out mechanism is developed and defended. This mechanism builds on the role of phase heads as both the loci of spell-out features and the transfer triggers via either Phase Impenetrability Condition 1 (PIC1) and/or Phase Impenetrability Condition 2 (PIC2). The assumption here is that phase heads, mainly v*, can regulate the spell-out process by deciding both the type of spell-out applying and the timing of spell-out relevant. This paper also proposes a new form of the constraint Wrap call it Wrap-XP’ and it is assumed to apply to IP as a functional maximal projection. This extension is shown to fall as a natural result once we assume the new theory of phases and multiple spell-out. Moreover, it is proposed in this work that some forms of XP movement are not motivated by an EPP feature of a strong phase head mainly v*, but they are rather motivated by a last resort strategy to accomplish the spell-out instruction of this phase head.

Keywords: linguistics, syntax, phonology, phase theory, optimality theory

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113 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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112 Perception, Awareness and Attitude of Muslim Academicians on Islamic Banking Products in Kano State of Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Abdullahi Mago

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Islamic Banking began in Nigeria last three years and the sector has shown the sign of bright future for the sector and the Nigerian economy, within this very short time it is important to know the perception of the customers particularly learned or educated individuals for immediate evaluation and adjustment. This study investigates into the perception, awareness and attitudes of the academicians in the most populous state/place in Nigeria with more than 90% muslims, and the results has shown a relatively low levels results in all the variables of the study.The study recommends aggressive marketing strategy for the Banks operating within the sector.

Keywords: Islamic Banking Products, Islamic Financial Products, academicians, Islamic finance industry, perception, awareness and attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 329