Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: bifunctional

15 Expression of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase in Escherichia coli

Authors: Waranya Imprasittichai, Patsarawadee Paojinda, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai

Abstract:

Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. In this study, we constructed gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT (1,836 bp) in pTrcHisA vector and expressed as an 6xHis-tag bifunctional protein in three Escherichia coli strains (BL21, Rosetta, TOP10) at 18 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. The recombinant bifunctional protein was partially purified by Ni-Nitrilotriacetic acid-affinity chromatography. Specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in the bifunctional enzyme expressed in E. coli TOP10 cells were approximately 3-4-fold higher than those in BL21 cells. There were no enzymatic activities when the construct vector expressed in Rosetta cells. Maximal expression of the fused gene was observed at 18 °C and the bifunctional enzyme had specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in a ratio of 1:2. These results provide greater yields and better catalytic activities of the bifunctional OMPDC-OPRT enzyme for further purification and kinetic study.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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14 Bifunctional Activity and Stability of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

Authors: Patsarawadee Paojinda, Waranya Imprasittichai, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai

Abstract:

Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. Here, we produced gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT and expressed the bifunctional protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using affinity and anion-exchange chromatography, exhibited enzymatic activities and functioned as a dimer. The activities, although unstable, can be stabilized by its substrate and product during purification and long-term storage. Furthermore, the enzyme expressed a perfect catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). The kcat was selectively enhanced up to 3 orders of magnitude, while the Km was not much affected and remained at low µM levels when compared to the monofunctional enzymes. The fusion of the two enzymes, creating a “super-enzyme” with perfect catalytic power and more flexibility, reflects cryptic relationship of enzymatic reactivaties and metabolic functions on molecular evolution.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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13 The Study and the Use of the Bifunctional Catalyst Pt/Re for Obtaining High Octane Number of the Gasoline

Authors: Menouar Hanafi

Abstract:

The original function of the process of platforming is to develop heavy naphtha (HSRN), coming from the atmospheric unit of distillation with a weak octane number (NO=44), to obtain a mixture of fuels â number octane raised by catalytically supporting specific groups of chemical reactions. The installation is divided into two sections: Section hydrobon. Section platforming. The rafinat coming from the bottom of column 12C2 to feed the section platforming, is divided into two parts whose flows are controlled and mixed with gas rich in hydrogen. Bottom of the column, we obtain stabilized reformat which is aspired by there pump to ensure the heating of the column whereas a part is sent towards storage after being cooled by the air cooler and the condenser. In catalytic catalyst of reforming, there is voluntarily associated a hydrogenating function-dehydrogenating, brought by platinum deposited, with an acid function brought by the alumina support (Al 2 0 3). The mechanism of action of this bifunctional catalyst depends on the severity of the operation, of the quality of the load and the type of catalyst. The catalyst used in the catalytic process of reforming is a very elaborate bifunctional catalyst whose performances are constantly improved thanks to the experimental research supported on an increasingly large comprehension of the phenomena. The American company Universel 0i1 petroleum (UOP) marketed several series of bimetallic catalysts such as R16, R20, R30, and R62 consisted Platinum/Rhenium on an acid support consisted the alumina added with a halogenous compound (chlorine).

Keywords: platforming, amelioration, octane number, catalyst

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12 Synthesis and Performance Study of Co3O4 as a Bi-Functional Next Generation Material

Authors: Shrikaant Kulkarni, Akshata Naik Nimbalkar

Abstract:

In this worki a method protocol has been developed for the synthesis of innovative Co3O4 material by using a method of chemical synthesis followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature on the morphology, structure and catalytic performance on material in question is investigated by using characterization tools like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The SEM images reveal that the morphology of the Co3O4 material undergoes a change from the rod to a beadlike shape on calcination at temperature of 700 °C. The XRD image shows that although the morphology of synthesized Co3O4 material exhibits a cubic phase but it differs in crystallinity depending upon morphology. Similarly spherical beadlike Co3O4 material has exhibited better activity than its rodlike counterpart which is reflected from electrochemical findings. Further, its performance in terms of bifunctional nature and hlods a lot much of promise as a excellent electrode material in the next generation batteries and fuel cells.

Keywords: bifunctional, next generation material, Co3O4, XRD

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11 Impact of Zn/Cr Ratio on ZnCrOx-SAPO-34 Bifunctional Catalyst for Direct Conversion of Syngas to Light Olefins

Authors: Yuxuan Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Light olefins are important building blocks for chemical industry. Direct conversion of syngas to light olefins has been investigated for decades. Meanwhile, the limit for light olefins selectivity described by Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) distribution model is still a great challenge to conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The emerging strategy called oxide-zeolite concept (OX-ZEO) is a promising way to get rid of this limit. ZnCrOx was prepared by co-precipitation method and (NH4)2CO3 was used as precipitant. SAPO-34 was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and Tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH) was used as template, while silica sol, pseudo-boehmite, and phosphoric acid were Al, Si and P source, respectively. The bifunctional catalyst was prepared by mechanical mixing of ZnCrOx and SAPO-34. Catalytic reactions were carried out under H2/CO=2, 380 ℃, 1 MPa and 6000 mL·gcat-1·h-1 in a fixed-bed reactor with a quartz lining. Catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, and CO-TPD. The addition of Al as structure promoter enhances CO conversion and selectivity to light olefins. Zn/Cr ratio, which decides the active component content and chemisorption property of the catalyst, influences CO conversion and selectivity to light olefins at the same time. C2-4= distribution of 86% among hydrocarbons at CO conversion of 14% was reached when Zn/Cr=1.5.

Keywords: light olefins, OX-ZEO, Syngas, ZnCrOₓ

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10 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S-Triazine Vinyl Sulphone Reactive Dyes

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Chindo Istifanus

Abstract:

A series of ten bi functional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on H-acid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were examined in various solvents and results shows positive and negative salvatochromism as the solvent polarity; changes, melting point, percentage yield and molar extinction co-efficient of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyeing.

Keywords: bifunctional, characterization, reactive dyes, synthesis

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Modified ZnO Incorporated into Mesoporous MCM-22 Catalysts and Their Catalytic Performances of Crude Jatropha Oil to Biodiesel

Authors: Bashir Abubakar Abdulkadir, Anita Ramli, Lim Jun Wei, Yoshimitsu Uemura

Abstract:

In this study, the ZnO/MCM-22 catalyst with different ZnO loading were prepared using conventional wet impregnation process and the catalyst activity was tested for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. The effects of reaction parameters with regards to catalyst activity were investigated. The synthesized catalysts samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal phase, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for surface area, pore volume and pore size, Field Emission Scanning electron microscope attached to energy dispersive x-ray (FESEM/EDX) for morphology and elemental composition and TPD (NH3 and CO2) for basic and acidic properties of the catalyst. The XRD spectra couple with the EDX result shows the presence of ZnO in the catalyst confirming the positive intercalation of the metal oxide into the mesoporous MCM-22. The synthesized catalyst was confirmed to be mesoporous according to BET findings. Also, the catalysts can be considered as a bifunctional catalyst based on TPD outcomes. Transesterification results showed that the synthesized catalyst was highly efficient and effective to be used for biodiesel production from low grade oil such as Jatropha oil and other industrial application where the high fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) yield was achieved at moderate reaction conditions. It was also discovered that the catalyst can be used more than five (5) runs with little deactivation confirming the catalyst to be highly active and stable to the heat of reaction.

Keywords: MCM-22, synthesis, transesterification, ZnO

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8 A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats

Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: alkaline serine protease, bifunctional thrombolytic activity, fibrinolytic activity, ischemic stroke, lug worms

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7 Advanced Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Materials towards Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Epoxy Thermosets

Authors: Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Corneliu Hamciuc

Abstract:

Nowadays, epoxy materials are extensively used in ever more areas and under ever more demanding environmental conditions due to their remarkable combination of properties, light weight and ease of processing. However, these materials greatly increase the fire risk due to their flammability and possible release of toxic by-products as a result of their chemical composition which consists mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Therefore, improving the fire retardant behaviour to prevent the loss of life and property is of particular concern among government regulatory bodies, consumers and manufacturers alike. Modification of epoxy resins with organophosphorus compounds, as reactive flame retardants or additives, is the key to achieving non-flammable advanced epoxy materials. Herein, a detailed characterization of fire behaviour for a series of phosphorus-containing epoxy thermosets is reported. A carefully designed phosphorus flame retardant additive was simply blended with a bifunctional bisphenol-A based epoxy resin. Further thermal cross-linking in the presence of various aminic hardeners led to eco-friendly flame retardant epoxy resins. The type of hardener, concentration of flame retardant additive, compatibility between the components of the mixture, char formation and morphology, thermal stability, flame retardant mechanisms were investigated. It was found that even a very low content of phosphorus introduced into the epoxy matrix increased the limiting oxygen index value to about 30%. In addition, the peak of the heat release rate value decreased up to 45% as compared to the one of the neat epoxy system. The main flame retardant mechanism was the condensed-phase one as revealed by SEM and XPS measurements.

Keywords: condensed-phase mechanism, eco-friendly phosphorus flame retardant, epoxy resin, thermal stability

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6 An Organocatalytic Construction of Vicinal Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters via Mannich Reaction of 2-Substituted Benzofuran-3-One with Isatin-Derived Ketimine

Authors: Koilpitchai Sivamuthuraman, Venkitasamy Kesavan

Abstract:

3-substituted 3-amino-2-oxindole skeleton bearing adjacent tetrasubstituted stereogenic centers is of great importance because of these heterocyclic motifs possess a wide range of pharmacological activity. The catalytic asymmetric construction of multi functionalised heterocyclic compound with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters is one of the most difficult tasks in organic synthesis. To date, the most straightforward methodologies have been developed for synthesis of chiral 3-substituted 3-amino-2-oxindoles through the addition of carbon nucleophiles to isatin-derived ketimines. However, only a few successful examples have been described for the assembly of vicinal tetrasubstituted stereocenters using isatin derived ketimines as electrophiles. On the other hand, 2,2-Disubstituted benzofuran-3(2H)-ones and related frameworks are characteristic of a quaternary stereogenic center at C2 position present in quite a number of natural products and bioactive Molecules.Despite the intensive efforts devoted for the construction of 2,2-Disubstituted Benzofuran-3[2H]-one, there are only a few asymmetric methods such as organocatalytic Michael addition and enantioselective halogenations were reported till now. Due to the biological importance of oxindole and benzofuran-3-one, it is proposed here with the synthesis of hybrid molecule containing tetrasubstituted stereo centers through asymmetric organocatalysis. The addition of 2-substituted Benzofuran-3-one(1a) to isatin-derived ketimines(2a) using a bifunctional organocatalyst(catalyst IV or V), leading to chiral heterocyclic compounds containing both 3-amino 2-oxindole and benzofurn-3-one bearing vicinal quaternary stereocenters with good yields and excellent enantioselectivity. The present study extends the scope of the catalytic asymmetric Mannich reaction with isatin-derived ketimines, providing a new class of amino oxindole derivatives having benzofuran-3-one.

Keywords: asymmetric synthesis, benzofuran-3-one, isatin-derived ketimines, quaternary stereocenters

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5 Copolymers of Epsilon-Caprolactam Received via Anionic Polymerization in the Presence of Polypropylene Glycol Based Polymeric Activators

Authors: Krasimira N. Zhilkova, Mariya K. Kyulavska, Roza P. Mateva

Abstract:

The anionic polymerization of -caprolactam (CL) with bifunctional activators has been extensively studied as an effective and beneficial method of improving chemical and impact resistances, elasticity and other mechanical properties of polyamide (PA6). In presence of activators or macroactivators (MAs) also called polymeric activators (PACs) the anionic polymerization of lactams proceeds rapidly at a temperature range of 130-180C, well below the melting point of PA-6 (220C) permitting thus the direct manufacturing of copolymer product together with desired modifications of polyamide properties. Copolymers of PA6 with an elastic polypropylene glycol (PPG) middle block into main chain were successfully synthesized via activated anionic ring opening polymerization (ROP) of CL. Using novel PACs based on PPG polyols (with differ molecular weight) the anionic ROP of CL was realized and investigated in the presence of a basic initiator sodium salt of CL (NaCL). The PACs were synthesized as N-carbamoyllactam derivatives of hydroxyl terminated PPG functionalized with isophorone diisocyanate [IPh, 5-Isocyanato-1-(isocyanatomethyl)-1,3,3-trimethylcyclohexane] and blocked then with CL units via an addition reaction. The block copolymers were analyzed and proved with 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of the CL/PACs ratio in feed, the length of the PPG segments and polymerization conditions on the kinetics of anionic ROP, on average molecular weight, and on the structure of the obtained block copolymers were investigated. The structure and phase behaviour of the copolymers were explored with differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The crystallinity dependence of PPG content incorporated into copolymers main backbone was estimate. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the obtained copolymers were studied by notched impact test. From the performed investigation in this study could be concluded that using PPG based PACs at the chosen ROP conditions leads to obtaining well-defined PA6-b-PPG-b-PA6 copolymers with improved impact resistance.

Keywords: anionic ring opening polymerization, caprolactam, polyamide copolymers, polypropylene glycol

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4 Targeted Delivery of Sustained Release Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Jamboor K. Vishwanatha

Abstract:

Among the potent anti-cancer agents, curcumin has been found to be very efficacious against various cancer cells. Despite multiple medicinal benefits of curcumin, poor water solubility, poor physiochemical properties and low bioavailability continue to pose major challenges in developing a formulation for clinical efficacy. To improve its potential application in the clinical area, we formulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were formulated using solid-oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method and then characterized for percent yield, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, drug distribution within nanoparticles and drug polymer interaction. Our studies showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a high percent yield of about 92.01±0.13% and an encapsulation efficiency of 90.88±0.14%. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 145nm. The in vitro drug release profile showed 55-60% drug release from the nanoparticles over a period of 24 hours with continued sustained release over a period of 8 days. Exposure to curcumin loaded nanoparticles resulted in reduced cell viability of cancer cells compared to normal cells. We used a novel non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional spacer for targeted delivery of curcumin to various cancer cells. Functionalized nanoparticles for antibody/targeting agent conjugation was prepared using a cross-linking ligand, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3), which has reactive carboxyl group to conjugate efficiently to the primary amino groups of the targeting agents. In our studies, we demonstrated successful conjugation of antibodies, Annexin A2 or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), to curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles for targeting to prostate and breast cancer cells. The percent antibody attachment to PLGA nanoparticles was found to be 92.8%. Efficient intra-cellular uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was observed in the cancer cells. These results have emphasized the potential of our multifunctional curcumin nanoparticles to improve the clinical efficacy of curcumin therapy in patients with cancer.

Keywords: polymeric nanoparticles, cancer therapy, sustained release, curcumin

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3 Hybrid Materials Obtained via Sol-Gel Way, by the Action of Teraethylorthosilicate with 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole 2,5-Bifunctional Compounds

Authors: Afifa Hafidh, Fathi Touati, Ahmed Hichem Hamzaoui, Sayda Somrani

Abstract:

The objective of the present study has been to synthesize and to characterize silica hybrid materials using sol-gel technic and to investigate their properties. Silica materials were successfully fabricated using various bi-functional 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as co-precursors via a facile one-pot sol-gel pathway. TEOS was introduced at room temperature with 1,3,4-thiadiazole 2,5-difunctiunal adducts, in ethanol as solvent and using HCl acid as catalyst. The sol-gel process lead to the formation of monolithic, coloured and transparent gels. TEOS was used as a principal network forming agent. The incorporation of 1,3,4-thiadiazole molecules was realized by attachment of these later onto a silica matrix. This allowed covalent linkage between organic and inorganic phases and lead to the formation of Si-N and Si-S bonds. The prepared hybrid materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, NMR ²⁹Si and ¹³C, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen absorption-desorption measurements. The optic and magnetic properties of hybrids are studied respectively by ultra violet-visible spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance. It was shown in this work, that heterocyclic moieties were successfully attached in the hybrid skeleton. The formation of the Si-network composed of cyclic units (Q3 structures) connected by oxygen bridges (Q4 structures) was proved by ²⁹Si NMR spectroscopy. The Brunauer-Elmet-Teller nitrogen adsorption-desorption method shows that all the prepared xerogels have isotherms type IV and are mesoporous solids. The specific surface area and pore volume of these materials are important. The obtained results show that all materials are paramagnetic semiconductors. The data obtained by Nuclear magnetic resonance ²⁹Si and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, show that Si-OH and Si-NH groups existing in silica hybrids can participate in adsorption interactions. The obtained materials containing reactive centers could exhibit adsorption properties of metal ions due to the presence of OH and NH functionality in the mesoporous frame work. Our design of a simple method to prepare hybrid materials may give interest of the development of mesoporous hybrid systems and their use within the domain of environment in the future.

Keywords: hybrid materials, sol-gel process, 1, 3, 4-thiadaizole, TEOS

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2 Characterization of Dota-Girentuximab Conjugates for Radioimmunotherapy

Authors: Tais Basaco, Stefanie Pektor, Josue A. Moreno, Matthias Miederer, Andreas Türler

Abstract:

Radiopharmaceuticals based in monoclonal anti-body (mAb) via chemical linkers have become a potential tool in nuclear medicine because of their specificity and the large variability and availability of therapeutic radiometals. It is important to identify the conjugation sites and number of attached chelator to mAb to obtain radioimmunoconjugates with required immunoreactivity and radiostability. Girentuximab antibody (G250) is a potential candidate for radioimmunotherapy of clear cell carcinomas (RCCs) because it is reactive with CAIX antigen, a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed on the cell surface of most ( > 90%) (RCCs). G250 was conjugated with the bifunctional chelating agent DOTA (1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetraacetic acid) via a benzyl-thiocyano group as a linker (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA). DOTA-G250 conjugates were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SE-HPLC) and by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The potential site-specific conjugation was identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and the number of linkers per molecule of mAb was calculated using the molecular weight (MW) measured by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The average number obtained in the conjugates in non-reduced conditions was between 8-10 molecules of DOTA per molecule of mAb. The average number obtained in the conjugates in reduced conditions was between 1-2 and 3-4 molecules of DOTA per molecule of mAb in the light chain (LC) and heavy chain (HC) respectively. Potential DOTA modification sites of the chelator were identified in lysine residues. The biological activity of the conjugates was evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) using CAIX negative (SKRC-18) and CAIX positive (SKRC-52). The DOTA-G250 conjugates were labelled with 177Lu with a radiochemical yield > 95% reaching specific activities of 12 MBq/µg. The stability in vitro of different types of radioconstructs was analyzed in human serum albumin (HSA). The radiostability of 177Lu-DOTA-G250 at high specific activity was increased by addition of sodium ascorbate after the labelling. The immunoreactivity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Binding to CAIX positive cells (SK-RC-52) at different specific activities was higher for conjugates with less DOTA content. Protein dose was optimized in mice with subcutaneously growing SK-RC-52 tumors using different amounts of 177Lu- DOTA-G250.

Keywords: mass spectrometry, monoclonal antibody, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunotheray, renal cancer

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1 Selective Conversion of Biodiesel Derived Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol over Highly Efficient γ-Al2O3 Supported Bimetallic Cu-Ni Catalyst

Authors: Smita Mondal, Dinesh Kumar Pandey, Prakash Biswas

Abstract:

During past two decades, considerable attention has been given to the value addition of biodiesel derived glycerol (~10wt.%) to make the biodiesel industry economically viable. Among the various glycerol value-addition methods, hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol is one of the attractive and promising routes. In this study, highly active and selective γ-Al₂O₃ supported bimetallic Cu-Ni catalyst was developed for selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol in the liquid phase. The catalytic performance was evaluated in a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The formation of mixed oxide indicated the strong interaction of Cu, Ni with the alumina support. Experimental results demonstrated that bimetallic copper-nickel catalyst was more active and selective to 1,2-PDO as compared to monometallic catalysts due to bifunctional behavior. To verify the effect of calcination temperature on the formation of Cu-Ni mixed oxide phase, the calcination temperature of 20wt.% Cu:Ni(1:1)/Al₂O₃ catalyst was varied from 300°C-550°C. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as specific surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction study (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The BET surface area and pore volume of the catalysts were in the range of 71-78 m²g⁻¹, and 0.12-0.15 cm³g⁻¹, respectively. The peaks at the 2θ range of 43.3°-45.5° and 50.4°-52°, was corresponded to the copper-nickel mixed oxidephase [JCPDS: 78-1602]. The formation of mixed oxide indicated the strong interaction of Cu, Ni with the alumina support. The crystallite size decreased with increasing the calcination temperature up to 450°C. Further, the crystallite size was increased due to agglomeration. Smaller crystallite size of 16.5 nm was obtained for the catalyst calcined at 400°C. Total acidic sites of the catalysts were determined by NH₃-TPD, and the maximum total acidic of 0.609 mmol NH₃ gcat⁻¹ was obtained over the catalyst calcined at 400°C. TPR data suggested the maximum of 75% degree of reduction of catalyst calcined at 400°C among all others. Further, 20wt.%Cu:Ni(1:1)/γ-Al₂O₃ catalyst calcined at 400°C exhibited highest catalytic activity ( > 70%) and 1,2-PDO selectivity ( > 85%) at mild reaction condition due to highest acidity, highest degree of reduction, smallest crystallite size. Further, the modified Power law kinetic model was developed to understand the true kinetic behaviour of hydrogenolysis of glycerol over 20wt.%Cu:Ni(1:1)/γ-Al₂O₃ catalyst. Rate equations obtained from the model was solved by ode23 using MATLAB coupled with Genetic Algorithm. Results demonstrated that the model predicted data were very well fitted with the experimental data. The activation energy of the formation of 1,2-PDO was found to be 45 kJ mol⁻¹.

Keywords: glycerol, 1, 2-PDO, calcination, kinetic

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