Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: M. Auwal Zakari

18 Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) for Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Bello Ibrahim, M. Auwal Zakari, Aliyu Usman

Abstract:

Hybrid concrete construction (HCC) combines all the benefits of pre-casting with the advantages of cast in-situ construction. Merging the two, as a hybrid structure, results in even greater construction speed, value, and the overall economy. Its variety of uses has gained popularity in the United States and in Europe due to its distinctive benefits. However, the increase of its application in some countries (including Nigeria) has been relatively slow. Several researches have shown that hybrid construction offers an ultra-high performance concrete that offers superior strength, durability and aesthetics with design flexibility and within sustainability credentials, based on the available and economically visible technologies. This paper examines and documents the criterion that will help inform the process of deciding whether or not to adopt hybrid concrete construction (HCC) technology rather than more traditional alternatives. It also the present situation of design, construction and research on hybrid structures.

Keywords: hybrid concrete construction, Nigeria, sustainable infrastructure development, design flexibility

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17 Mathematical Model for Defection between Two Political Parties

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed Auwal

Abstract:

Formation and change or decamping from one political party to another have now become a common trend in Nigeria. Many of the parties’ members who could not secure positions and or win elections in their parties or are not very much satisfied with the trends occurring in the party’s internal democratic principles and mechanisms, change their respective parties. This paper developed/presented and analyzed the used of non linear mathematical model for defections between two political parties using epidemiological approach. The whole population was assumed to be a constant and homogeneously mixed. Equilibria have been analytically obtained and their local and global stability discussed. Conditions for the co-existence of both the political parties have been determined, in the study of defections between People Democratic Party (PDP) and All Progressive Congress (APC) in Nigeria using numerical simulations to support the analytical results.

Keywords: model, political parties, deffection, stability, equilibrium, epidemiology

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16 Examining Cyber Crime and Its Impacts on E-Banking in Nigeria

Authors: Auwal Nata'ala

Abstract:

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has had impacts in almost every area human endeavor. From business, industries, banks to none profit organizations. ICT has simplified business process such as sorting, summarizing, coding, updating and generating a report in a real-time processing mode. However, the use of these ICT facilities such as computer and internet has also brought unintended consequences of criminal activities such as spamming, credit card frauds, ATM frauds, phishing, identity theft, denial of services and other related cyber crimes. This study sought to examined cyber-crime and its impact on the banking institution in Nigeria. It also examined the existing policy framework and assessed the success of the institutional countermeasures in combating cyber crime in the banking industry. This paper X-ray’s cyber crimes, policies issues and provides insight from a Nigeria perspective.

Keywords: cyber crimes, e-banking, policies, ICT

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15 Examination of Occupational Health and Safety Practices in Ghana

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinto Aigbavboa, Wellinton Didi Thwala

Abstract:

Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) issues has been a major challenge to the Ghanaian government. The purpose of the study was to examine OHS practices in Ghana. The study looked at various views from different scholars about OHS practices in order to achieve the objective of the study. Literature review was conducted on OHS in Ghana. Findings from the study shows Ministry of Roads and Transport (MRT) and Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH) are two government ministries in charge of construction and implementation of the construction sector policy. The Factories, Offices and Shops Act 1970, Act 328 and the Mining Regulations 1970 LI 665 are the two major edicts. The study presents a strong background on OHS practices in Ghana and contribute to the body of knowledge on the solution to the current trends and challenges of OHS in the construction sector.

Keywords: ILO convention, OHS challenges, OHS practices, OHS improvement

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14 Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside Isolated from Combretum molle R.

Authors: Abdu Zakari, Sai’d Jibril, Adoum A. Omar

Abstract:

The leaves of Combretum molle was selected on the basis of its uses in folk medicine as insecticides. The leave extracts of Combretum molle was tested against the larvae of Artemia salina, i.e. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Filaria disease vector) i.e. Larvicidal Test, using crude ethanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts. The methanolic extract proved to be the most effective in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses both in the BST and the Larvicidal activity test. The LC50¬ values obtained are 24.85 µg/ml and 0.4µg/ml respectively. The bioactivity-guided column chromatography afforded the pure compound ACM–3. ACM-3 was not active in the BST with LC50 value >1000µg/ml, but was active in the Larvicidal activity test with LC50 value 4.0µg/ml. ACM-3 was proposed to have the structure I, (Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside).

Keywords: toxicity, larvicidal, Combretum molle, Artemia salina, Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

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13 Antitrypanosomal Activity of Stigmasterol: An in silico Approach

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Aminu Mohammed

Abstract:

Stigmasterol has previously been reported to possess antitrypanosomal activity using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism of antitrypanosomal activity is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, molecular docking was used to decipher the mode of interaction and binding affinity of stigmasterol to three known antitrypanosomal drug targets viz; adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase and triose phosphate isomerase. Stigmasterol was found to bind to the selected trypanosomal enzymes with minimum binding energy of -4.2, -6.5 and -6.6 kcal/mol for adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase, and triose phosphate isomerase respectively. However, hydrogen bond was not involved in the interaction of stigmasterol with all the three enzymes, but hydrophobic interaction seemed to play a vital role in the binding phenomenon which was predicted to be non-competitive like type of inhibition. It was concluded that binding to the three selected enzymes, especially triose phosphate isomerase, might be involved in the antitrypanosomal activity of stigmasterol but not mediated via a hydrogen bond interaction.

Keywords: antitrypanosomal, in silico, molecular docking, stigmasterol

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12 Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammed Auwal Umar, M. Saleh

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, and proactiveness) and SME's growth in Bauchi metropolis. The study is quantitative in nature using a cross-sectional survey. The population of the study was 364 SMEs. Using simple random sampling, 183 questionnaires were personally distributed, out of which 165 (90%) were found valid for the analysis. Kregcie and Morgan (1970) table was used to determine the sample size. Pearson correlation was used to test the hypotheses. The analysis was conducted with the aid of IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The results established that innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, and proactiveness have significant positive relationship with SME's growth. It is therefore recommended that SMEs’ owners/managers should change their attitude by changing their product and mode of operation in line with customer demand, being proactive ahead of other competitors in trying a better way of doing things, and taking calculated risks in anticipation of high return in order for their businesses to survive and grow.

Keywords: SMEs growth, innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, proactiveness

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11 Insiders’ Perspectives of Countering Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria: Identifying and Targeting Its Nature, Characteristics and Fundamental Causes

Authors: Musa Bala Zakari, Mark Button

Abstract:

This paper explores the extent, nature, and characteristics of public sector corruption in Nigeria and the enhancement of the major anti-corruption initiatives (reforms), thereby providing insight into the types, forms and causes of corruption in Nigeria. This paper argues that attempts to devise and suggest effective anti-corruption reforms to control systemic corruption in Nigeria require identifying the most prevalent types of corruption targeted and tackling the fundamental country specific causes. It analyses two types of public sector corruption as it relates to Nigeria and the workings of its inefficient governance system. This paper concludes with the imperative of a collective action against corruption supported by considerable amount of domestic political will existing in a favourable policy context. In undertaking this, the paper draws upon publicly available documents, case laws review and semi-structured interviews conducted with various personnel working in the field of corruption in the dedicated anticorruption agencies, academics, and practitioners from other relevant institutions of accountability.

Keywords: corruption, development, good governance, public sector

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10 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

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9 Application of GeoGebra into Teaching and Learning of Linear and Quadratic Equations amongst Senior Secondary School Students in Fagge Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Musa Auwal Mamman, S. G. Isa

Abstract:

This study was carried out in order to investigate the effectiveness of GeoGebra software in teaching and learning of linear and quadratic equations amongst senior secondary school students in Fagge Local Government Area, Kano State–Nigeria. Five research items were raised in objectives, research questions and hypotheses respectively. A random sampling method was used in selecting 398 students from a population of 2098 of SS2 students. The experimental group was taught using the GeoGebra software while the control group was taught using the conventional teaching method. The instrument used for the study was the mathematics performance test (MPT) which was administered at the beginning and at the end of the study. The results of the study revealed that students taught with GeoGebra software (experimental group) performed better than students taught with traditional teaching method. The t- test was used to analyze the data obtained from the study.

Keywords: GeoGebra Software, mathematics performance, random sampling, mathematics teaching

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8 Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from WAIFEM Member Countries

Authors: Nasiru Inuwa, Haruna Usman Modibbo, Yahya Zakari Abdullahi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth on carbon emissions in context of WAIFEM member countries. The Im-Pesaran-Shin panel unit root test, Kao residual based test panel cointegration technique and panel Granger causality tests over the period 1980-2012 within a multivariate framework were applied. The results of cointegration test revealed a long run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions, economic growth and foreign direct investment. The results of Granger causality tests revealed a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries at the 5% level. Also, Granger causality runs from economic growth to foreign direct investment without feedback. However, no causality relationship between foreign direct investment and CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries was observed. The study therefore, suggest that policy makers from WAIFEM member countries should design policies aim at attracting more foreign direct investments inflow as well the adoption of cleaner production technologies in order to reduce CO2 emissions.

Keywords: economic growth, CO2 emissions, causality, WAIFEM

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7 Assessment of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in Construction Accident Prevention

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Didi Thwala

Abstract:

Majority of the incidents and accidents in complex high-risk systems that exist in the construction industry and other sectors have been attributed to unsafe acts of workers. The purpose of this paper was to asses Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in construction accident prevention. The study was conducted through the use of secondary data from journals, books and internet to achieve the objective of the study. The review of literature looked into details of different views from different scholars about HFACS framework in accidents investigations. It further highlighted on various sections or disciplines of accident occurrences in human performance within the construction. The findings from literature review showed that unsafe acts of a worker and unsafe working conditions are the two major causes of accident in the construction industry.Most significant factor in the cause of site accident in the construction industry is unsafe acts of a worker. The findings also show how the application of HFACS framework in the investigation of accident will lead to the identification of common trends. Further findings show that provision for the prevention of accident will be made based on past accident records to identify and prioritize where intervention is needed within the construction industry.

Keywords: accident, construction, HFACS, unsafe acts

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6 Structural Investigation and Hyperfine Interactions of BaBiₓLaₓFe₁₂₋₂ₓO₁₉ (0.0 ≤ X ≤ 0.5) Hexaferrites

Authors: Hakan Gungunes, Ismail A. Auwal, Abdulhadi Baykal, Sagar E. Shirsath

Abstract:

Barium hexaferrite, BaFe₁₂O₁₉, substituted by Bi³⁺ and La³⁺ (BaBiₓLaₓFe₁₂₋₂ₓO₁₉ where 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The effect of substituted Bi³⁺ and La³⁺ ions on the structure, morphology, magnetic and cation distributions of barium hexaferrite were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. XRD powder patterns were refined by the Rietveld analysis method which confirmed the formation of single phase magneto-plumbite structure and the substitution of La³⁺ and Bi³⁺ ions into the lattice of barium ferrite. These results show that both La³⁺ and Bi³⁺ ions completely enter into barium hexaferrite lattice without disturbing the hexagonal ferrite structure. The EDX spectra confirmed the presence of all the constituents in expected elemental percentage. From 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data, the variation in line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine magnetic field values on Bi and La substitutions have been determined. Cation distribution in the presently investigated hexaferrite system was estimated using the relative area of Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Keywords: hexaferrite, mössbauer, cation distribution, solid state synthesis

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5 Application of Basic Principles of Educational Administration for the Enhancement of Senior Secondary School Principals in Kano State Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Auwal

Abstract:

This study focuses on senior secondary education towards the development of younger generation in general terms, and specifically for the enhancement of senior secondary school principals. Investigation was made to correlate between principals’ application of basic principles of educational administration and principals’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Kano State. The instrument used to collect relevant data was self designed Observation Inventory for School Principals (OISP). The observation inventory items were scrutinized by experts from the School of Education Federal College of Education Kano to ascertain the contents validity, and the reliability coefficient was 0.83. Using purposive sampling technique, 30 schools were chosen from 85 senior secondary schools in Kano state and 30 principals were deliberately sampled due to their small number. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) Coefficient was used to test the hypothesis generated for the study. The results of the analysis showed that principals’ application of basic principles of educational administration was significantly correlated with principals’ productivity and it promote the performance of the students. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, government should in as much as possible encourage school principals to obtain degrees in relevant and specialized areas in education specifically educational administration and planning so as to get all the necessary knowledge and skills of leader ship procedures that will definitely promote teachers morale, improve students’ academic performance and enhances principals’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Kano State.

Keywords: principles of educational administration, principals of senior secondary schools, Kano, educational sciences

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4 Free Raducal Scavenging Activity of Fractionated Extract and Structural Elucidation of Isolated Compounds from Hydrocotyl Bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam Leaves

Authors: Emmanuel O Ajani, Sabiu S, Mariam Zakari, Fisayo A Bamisaye

Abstract:

Hydrocotyl bonariensis is a plant which anticataractogenic potentials have been reported. In the present study an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fractionates of the leaves extract and also characterize some of its chemical constituents. DPPH, H₂O₂, OH and NO free radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the crude extract fractionates. Fresh leaves of Hydrocotyl bonariensis leaves were extracted in 70% methanol. The extract was partitioned with different solvent system of increasing polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate methanol and water). Compounds were isolated from the aqueous practitionate using accelerated gradient chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC and conventional column chromatography. The presence of the chemical groups was established with HPLC and Fourier Transform Infra Red. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic study and chemical shifts. Data from the study indicates that all the fractionates contain compounds with free radical scavenging activity. This activity was more pronounced in the aqueous fractionate (DPPH IC₅₀, 0025 ± 0.011 mg/ml, metal chelating capacity 27.5%, OH- scavenging IC₅₀, 0.846 ± 0.037 mg/ml, H₂O₂ scavenging IC₅₀ 0.521 ± 0.015 mg/ml, reducing power IC₅₀ 0.248 ± 0.025 mg/ml and NO scavenging IC₅₀ 0.537 ± 0.038 mg/ml). Two compounds were isolated and when compared with data from the literature; the structures were suggestive of polyphenolic flavonoid, quercetin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol. The result indicates that H. bonariensis leaves contain bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, cataract, free radical, flavonoids, hydrocotyl bonariensis

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3 Climate Variability and Its Impacts on Rice (Oryza sativa) Productivity in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Auwal Garba, Rabiu Maijama’a, Abdullahi Muhammad Jalam

Abstract:

Variability in climate has affected the agricultural production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate variability is believed to have declining effects towards rice production in Nigeria. This study examined climate variability and its impact on rice productivity in Dass Local Government Area, Bauchi State, by employing Linear Trend Model (LTM), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables for temperature (min. and max), rainfall, and solar radiation from 1990 to 2015 were used. Results confirmed that 74.4% of the total variation in rice yield in the study area was explained by the changes in the independent variables. That is to say, temperature (minimum and maximum), rainfall, and solar radiation explained rice yield with 74.4% in the study area. Rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while moderate increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production, and the persistent rise in the mean maximum temperature, in the long run, will have more negatively affect rice production in the future. It is, therefore, important to promote agro-meteorological advisory services, which will be useful in farm planning and yield sustainability. Closer collaboration among the meteorologist and agricultural scientist is needed to increase the awareness about the existing database, crop weather models among others, with a view to reaping the full benefits of research on specific problems and sustainable yield management and also there should be a special initiative by the ADPs (State Agricultural Development Programme) towards promoting best agricultural practices that are resilient to climate variability in rice production and yield sustainability.

Keywords: climate variability, impact, productivity, rice

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2 Determination of Some Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Vegetable and Soil Samples from Alau Dam and Gongulong Agricultural Sites, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Clement Akan, Lami Jafiya, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Zakari Mohammed, Fanna Inna Abdulrahman

Abstract:

Five vegetables (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, and onion) were freshly harvested from the Alau Dam and Gongulong agricultural areas for the determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, metoxichlor, lindane, endosulfan dieldrin, and aldrin.) Soil samples were also collected at different depths for the determination of the above pesticides. Samples collection and preparation were conducted using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil and vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The highest concentration was that of p,p’-DDD (132.4±13.45µg/g) which was observed in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (2.34µg/g) was observed in the root of spinach. Similar trends were observed at the Gongulong agricultural area, with p,p’-DDD having the highest concentration of 153.23µg/g in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (12.45µg/g) which was observed in the root of spinach. α-BHC, γ-BHC, Methoxychlor, and lindane were detected in all the vegetable samples studied. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil samples were observed to be higher at a depth of 21-30cm, while the lowest concentrations were observed at a depth of 0-10cm. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the vegetables and soil samples from the two agricultural sites were observed to be at alarming levels, much higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) .The levels of the pesticides observed in the vegetables and soil samples investigated, are of such a magnitude that calls for special attention and laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in these study areas is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution, so as to minimize health risks.

Keywords: Alau Dam, gongulong, organochlorine, pesticide residues, soil, vegetables

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1 Genetic Variability Studies of Some Quantitative Traits in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. [Walp.] ) under Water Stress

Authors: Auwal Ibrahim Magashi, Lawan Dan Larai Fagwalawa, Muhammad Bello Ibrahim

Abstract:

A research was conducted to study genetic variability of some quantitative traits in varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. [Walp]) under water stressed from Zaria, Nigeria. Seeds of seven varieties of cowpea (Sampea 1, Sampea 2, IAR1074, Sampea 7, Sampea 8, Sampea 10 and Sampea 12) collected from Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru, Zaria were screened for water stressed tolerance. The seeds were then sown in poly bags containing sandy-loam arranged in Completely Randomized Design with three replications for quantitative traits evaluation. The nutritional composition of the seeds obtained from the water stress tolerant varieties of cowpea were analyzed. The result obtained revealed highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in the effects of water stress on the number of wilted and dead plants at 40 days after sowing (DAS) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) 34 DAS. However, sampea 10 has the highest mean performance in terms of number of wilted plants at 34 DAS while sampea 2 and IAR 1074 has the lowest mean performance. However, sampea 7 was found to have the highest mean performance for the number of wilted plants at 40 DAS and sampea 2 is lowest. The result for quantitative traits study indicated highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in the plant height, number of days to 50% flowering, number of days to maturity, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant and 100 seed weight; and significant (P ≤ 0.05) at seedling height and number of branches per plant. Similarly, IAR1074 was found to have high performance in terms of most of the quantitative traits under study. However, sampea 8 has the highest mean performance at nutritional level. It was therefore concluded that, all the seven cowpea genotypes were water stress tolerant and produced considerable yield that contained significant nutrients. It was recommended that IAR1074 should be grown for yield while sampea 8 should be grown for protein supplements.

Keywords: cowpea, genetic variability, quantitative traits, water stress

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