Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 369

Search results for: Semisimple ring

369 A Study on Weddernburn – Artin Theorem for Rings

Authors: Fahad Suleiman, Sammani Abdullahi


The study depicts that a Wedderburn Artin – theorem for rings is considered to be a semisimple ring R which is isomorphic to a product of finitely many mi by mi matrix rings over division rings Di, for some integers n_i, both of which are uniquely determined up to permutation of the index i. It has been concluded that when R is simple the Wedderburn – Artin theorem is known as Wedderburn’s theorem.

Keywords: Commutativity, Wedderburn theorem, Semisimple ring, R module

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
368 Rings Characterized by Classes of Rad-plus-Supplemented Modules

Authors: Manoj Kumar Patel


In this paper, we introduce and give various properties of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented and cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented modules over some special kinds of rings, in particular, artinian serial ring and semiperfect ring. Also prove that ring R is artinian serial if and only if every right and left R-module is weak* Rad-plus-supplemented. We provide the counter example which proves that weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module is the generalization of plus-supplemented and Rad-plus-supplemented modules. Furthermore, as an application of above finding results of this research article, our main focus is to characterized the semisimple ring, artinian principal ideal ring, semilocal ring, semiperfect ring, perfect ring, commutative noetherian ring and Dedekind domain in terms of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module.

Keywords: cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module , Dedekind domain, Rad-plus-supplemented module, semiperfect ring

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
367 Jacobson Semisimple Skew Inverse Laurent Series Rings

Authors: Ahmad Moussavi


In this paper, we are concerned with the Jacobson semisimple skew inverse Laurent series rings R((x−1; α, δ)) and the skew Laurent power series rings R[[x, x−1; α]], where R is an associative ring equipped with an automorphism α and an α-derivation δ. Examples to illustrate and delimit the theory are provided.

Keywords: skew polynomial rings, Laurent series, skew inverse Laurent series rings

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
366 Second Representation of Modules over Commutative Rings

Authors: Jawad Abuhlail, Hamza Hroub


Let R be a commutative ring. Representation theory studies the representation of R-modules as (possibly finite) sums of special types of R-submodules. Here we are interested in a class of R-modules between the class of semisimple R-modules and the class of R-modules that can be written as (possibly finite) sums of secondary R-submodules (we know that every simple R-submodule is secondary). We investigate R-modules which can be written as (possibly finite) sums of second R-submodules (we call those modules second representable). Moreover, we investigate the class of (main) second attached prime ideals related to a module with such representation. We provide sufficient conditions for an R-module M to get a (minimal) second representation. We also found the collection of second attached prime ideals for some types of second representable R-modules, in particular within the class of injective R-modules. As we know that every simple R-submodule is second and every second R-submodule is secondary, we can see the importance of the second representable R-module.

Keywords: lifting modules, second attached prime ideals, second representations, secondary representations, semisimple modules, second submodules

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
365 Simulation Analysis of Optical Add Drop Multiplexer in a Ring Network

Authors: Surinder Singh, Meenakshi


In this paper MZI-FBG based optical add drop multiplexer is designed and its performance is analyzed in the ring network. In the ring network nodes are composed of optical add drop multiplexer, transmitter and receiver. OADM is used to add or drop any frequency at intermediate nodes without affecting other channels. In this paper the performance of the ring network is carried out by varying various kinds of fiber with or without amplifiers.

Keywords: OADM, ring network, MZI-FBG, transmitter

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
364 On the Girth of the Regular Digraph of Ideals of a ‎Commutative ‎Ring

Authors: Masoud Karimi


‎Let R be a commutative ring‎. ‎The regular digraph of ideals of R, which is denoted by‎ Γ(R)‎, ‎is a digraph whose vertex-set is the set of all ‎non-‎trivial ideals of R and‎, ‎for every‎ two distinct vertices I and J‎, ‎there is an arc from I to J‎, ‎whenever I contains‎ a non-zero-divisor on J. In this article, ‎we ‎show ‎that an indecomposable ‎Noetherian ring ‎‎‎R ‎is ‎Artinian ‎local ‎if ‎and ‎only ‎if Z(I)=Z(R) ‎for ‎every ‎non-nilpotent ‎ideal ‎‎‎I‎. ‎Then ‎we ‎conclude ‎that ‎‎the ‎girth ‎of‎ Γ(R)‎ ‎is ‎not ‎equal ‎to ‎four.

Keywords: commutative ring‎, ‎girth‎, regular digraph‎, zero-divisor

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
363 On Modules over Dedekind Prime Rings

Authors: Elvira Kusniyanti, Hanni Garminia, Pudji Astuti


This research studies an interconnection between finitely generated uniform modules and Dedekind prime rings. The characterization of modules over Dedekind prime rings that will be investigated is an adoption of Noetherian and hereditary concept. Dedekind prime rings are Noetherian and hereditary rings. This property of Dedekind prime rings is a background of the idea of adopting arises. In Noetherian area, it was known that a ring R is Noetherian ring if and only if every finitely generated R-module is a Noetherian module. Similar to that result, a characterization of the hereditary ring is related to its projective modules. That is, a ring R is hereditary ring if and only if every projective R-module is a hereditary module. Due to the above two results, we suppose that characterization of a Dedekind prime ring can be analyzed from finitely generated modules over it. We propose a conjecture: a ring R is a Dedekind prime ring if and only if every finitely generated uniform R-module is a Dedekind module. In this article, we will generalize a concept of the Dedekind module for non-commutative ring case and present a part of the above conjecture.

Keywords: dedekind domains, dedekind prime rings, dedekind modules, uniform modules

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
362 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Spiral Casing and Stay Ring Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Pooja Rani, Vinod Kumar


In hydro power plant spiral casing and Stay ring is meant to guide the water flow to guide vane and runner. Spiral casing and Stay ring is subjected to static i.e. pressure load as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure due to water hammer effect in water conductor system. Finite element method has been used to calculate stresses on spiral casing and stay ring. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. The design load is reached for the spiral casing and stay ring during the emergency closure of the guide apparatus "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. During this operation the forces from the head cover to the stay ring also reach their maximum.

Keywords: hydro-turbine, spiral casing, stay ring, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
361 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: Abdelhakim Chillali, Abdelhamid Tadmori, Muhammed Ziane


In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: elliptic curves, finite ring, cryptography, study

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
360 Heterocyclic Ring Extension of Estrone: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Fused Pyrin, Pyrimidine and Thiazole Derivatives

Authors: Rafat M. Mohareb


Several D-ring alkylated estrone analogues display exceptionally high affinity for estrogen receptors. In particular, compounds in which an E-ring is formed are known to be involved in the inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes. Such compounds also have an effect on steroid dehydrogenase activity and the ability to inhibit the detrimental action of the steroid sulfatase enzyme. Generally, E-ring extended steroids have been accessed by modification of the C17-ketone in the D-ring by either arylimine or oximino formation, addition of a carbon nucleophile or hydrazone formation. Other approaches have included ketone reduction, silyl enol ether formation or ring-closing metathesis (giving five- or six-membered E-rings). Chemical modification of the steroid D-ring provides a way to alter the functional groups, sizes and stereochemistry of the D-ring, and numerous structure-activity relationships have been established by such synthetic alterations. Steroids bearing heterocycles fused to the D-ring of the steroid nucleus have been of pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, we report on the efficient synthesis of estrone possessing pyran, pyrimidine and thiazole ring systems. This study focused on the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds which were then subjected through inhibitory evaluations towards human cancer and normal cell lines.

Keywords: estrone, heterocyclization, cytotoxicity, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
359 Highly Conductive Polycrystalline Metallic Ring in a Magnetic Field

Authors: Isao Tomita


Electrical conduction in a quasi-one-dimensional polycrystalline metallic ring with a long electron phase coherence length realized at low temperature is investigated. In this situation, the wave nature of electrons is important in the ring, where the electrical current I can be induced by a vector potential that arises from a static magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the ring’s area. It is shown that if the average grain size of the polycrystalline ring becomes large (or comparable to the Fermi wavelength), the electrical current I increases to ~I0, where I0 is a current in a disorder-free ring. The cause of this increasing effect is examined, and this takes place if the electron localization length in the polycrystalline potential increases with increasing grain size, which gives rise to coherent connection of tails of a localized electron wave function in the ring and thus provides highly coherent electrical conduction.

Keywords: electrical conduction, electron phase coherence, polycrystalline metal, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
358 Development of Forging Technology of Cam Ring Gear for Truck Using Small Bar

Authors: D. H. Park, Y. H. Tak, H. H. Kwon, G. J. Kwon, H. G. Kim


This study focused on developing forging technology of a large-diameter cam ring gear from the small bar. The analyses of temperature variation and deformation behavior of the material are important to obtain the optimal forging products. The hot compression test was carried out to know formability at high temperature. In order to define the optimum forging conditions including material temperature, strain and forging load, the finite element method was used to simulate the forging process of cam ring gear parts. Test results were in good agreement with the simulations. An existing cam ring gear is presented the chips generated by cutting the rod material and the durability issues, but this would be to develop a large-diameter cam ring gear forging parts for truck in order to solve the durability problem and the material waste.

Keywords: forging technology, cam ring, gear, truck, small bar

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357 Analysis of Road Network Vulnerability Due to Merapi Volcano Eruption

Authors: Imam Muthohar, Budi Hartono, Sigit Priyanto, Hardiansyah Hardiansyah


The eruption of Merapi Volcano in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2010 caused many casualties due to minimum preparedness in facing disaster. Increasing population capacity and evacuating to safe places become very important to minimize casualties. Regional government through the Regional Disaster Management Agency has divided disaster-prone areas into three parts, namely ring 1 at a distance of 10 km, ring 2 at a distance of 15 km and ring 3 at a distance of 20 km from the center of Mount Merapi. The success of the evacuation is fully supported by road network infrastructure as a way to rescue in an emergency. This research attempts to model evacuation process based on the rise of refugees in ring 1, expanded to ring 2 and finally expanded to ring 3. The model was developed using SATURN (Simulation and Assignment of Traffic to Urban Road Networks) program version 11.3. 12W, involving 140 centroid, 449 buffer nodes, and 851 links across Yogyakarta Special Region, which was aimed at making a preliminary identification of road networks considered vulnerable to disaster. An assumption made to identify vulnerability was the improvement of road network performance in the form of flow and travel times on the coverage of ring 1, ring 2, ring 3, Sleman outside the ring, Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul. The research results indicated that the performance increase in the road networks existing in the area of ring 2, ring 3, and Sleman outside the ring. The road network in ring 1 started to increase when the evacuation was expanded to ring 2 and ring 3. Meanwhile, the performance of road networks in Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul during the evacuation period simultaneously decreased in when the evacuation areas were expanded. The results of preliminary identification of the vulnerability have determined that the road networks existing in ring 1, ring 2, ring 3 and Sleman outside the ring were considered vulnerable to the evacuation of Mount Merapi eruption. Therefore, it is necessary to pay a great deal of attention in order to face the disasters that potentially occur at anytime.

Keywords: model, evacuation, SATURN, vulnerability

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356 Parameters Affecting Load Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Ring Deep Beams

Authors: Atef Ahmad Bleibel


Most codes of practice, like ACI 318-14, require the use of strut-and-tie modeling to analyze and design reinforced concrete deep beams. Though, investigations that conducted on deep beams do not include ring deep beams of influential parameters. This work presents an analytical parametric study using strut-and-tie modeling stated by ACI 318-14 to predict load capacity of 20 reinforced concrete ring deep beam specimens with different parameters. The parameters that were under consideration in the current work are ring diameter (Dc), number of supports (NS), width of ring beam (bw), concrete compressive strength (f'c) and width of bearing plate (Bp). It is found that the load capacity decreases by about 14-36% when ring diameter increases by about 25-75%. It is also found that load capacity increases by about 62-189% when number of supports increases by about 33-100%, while the load capacity increases by about 25-75% when the beam ring width increases by about 25-75%. Finally, it is found that load capacity increases by about 24-76% when compressive strength increases by about 24-76%, while the load capacity increases by about 5-16% when Bp increases by about 25-75%.

Keywords: load parameters, reinforced concrete, ring deep beam, strut and tie

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
355 Material Detection by Phase Shift Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

Authors: Rana Muhammad Armaghan Ayaz, Yigit Uysallı, Nima Bavili, Berna Morova, Alper Kiraz


Traditional optical methods for example resonance wavelength shift and cavity ring-down spectroscopy used for material detection and sensing have disadvantages, for example, less resistance to laser noise, temperature fluctuations and extraction of the required information can be a difficult task like ring downtime in case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy is not only easy to use but is also capable of overcoming the said problems. This technique compares the phase difference between the signal coming out of the cavity with the reference signal. Detection of any material is made by the phase difference between them. By using this technique, air, water, and isopropyl alcohol can be recognized easily. This Methodology has far-reaching applications and can be used in air pollution detection, human breath analysis and many more.

Keywords: materials, noise, phase shift, resonance wavelength, sensitivity, time domain approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
354 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen


We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
353 Upsetting of Tri-Metallic St-Cu-Al and St-Cu60Zn-Al Cylindrical Billets

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can


This work investigates upsetting of the tri-metallic cylindrical billets both experimentally and analytically with a reduction ratio 30%. Steel, brass, and copper are used for the outer and outmost rings and aluminum for the inner core. Two different models have been designed to show material flow and the cavity took place over the two interfaces during forming after this reduction ratio. Each model has an outmost ring material as steel. Model 1 has an outer ring between the outmost ring and the solid core material as copper and Model 2 has a material as brass. Solid core is aluminum for each model. Billets were upset in press machine by using parallel flat dies. Upsetting load was recorded and compared for models and single billets. To extend the tests and compare with experimental procedure to a wider range of inner core and outer ring geometries, finite element model was performed. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. The aim is to show how contact between outmost ring, outer ring and the inner core are carried on throughout the upsetting process. Results have shown that, with changing in height, between outmost ring, outer ring and inner core, the Model 1 and Model 2 had very good interaction, and the contact surfaces of models had various interface behaviour. It is also observed that tri-metallic materials have lower weight but better mechanical properties than single materials. This can give an idea for using and producing these new materials for different purposes.

Keywords: tri-metallic, upsetting, copper, brass, steel, aluminum

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352 Assessment of Residual Stress on HDPE Pipe Wall Thickness

Authors: D. Sersab, M. Aberkane


Residual stresses, in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes, result from a nonhomogeneous cooling rate that occurs between the inner and outer surfaces during the extrusion process in manufacture. Most known methods of measurements to determine the magnitude and profile of the residual stresses in the pipe wall thickness are layer removal and ring slitting method. The combined layer removal and ring slitting methods described in this paper involves measurement of the circumferential residual stresses with minimal local disturbance. The existing methods used for pipe geometry (ring slitting method) gives a single residual stress value at the bore. The layer removal method which is used more in flat plate specimen is implemented with ring slitting method. The method permits stress measurements to be made directly at different depth in the pipe wall and a well-defined residual stress profile was consequently obtained.

Keywords: residual stress, layer removal, ring splitting, HDPE, wall thickness

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351 Sensitivity Improvement of Optical Ring Resonator for Strain Analysis with the Direction of Strain Recognition Possibility

Authors: Tayebeh Sahraeibelverdi, Ahmad Shirazi Hadi Veladi, Mazdak Radmalekshah


Optical sensors became attractive due to preciseness, low power consumption, and intrinsic electromagnetic interference-free characteristic. Among the waveguide optical sensors, cavity-based ones attended for the high Q-factor. Micro ring resonators as a potential platform have been investigated for various applications as biosensors to pressure sensors thanks to their sensitive ring structure responding to any small change in the refractive index. Furthermore, these small micron size structures can come in an array, bringing the opportunity to have any of the resonance in a specific wavelength and be addressed in this way. Another exciting application is applying a strain to the ring and making them an optical strain gauge where the traditional ones are based on the piezoelectric material. Making them in arrays needs electrical wiring and about fifty times bigger in size. Any physical element that impacts the waveguide cross-section, Waveguide elastic-optic property change, or ring circumference can play a role. In comparison, ring size change has a larger effect than others. Here an engineered ring structure is investigated to study the strain effect on the ring resonance wavelength shift and its potential for more sensitive strain devices. At the same time, these devices can measure any strain by mounting on the surface of interest. The idea is to change the" O" shape ring to a "C" shape ring with a small opening starting from 2π/360 or one degree. We used the Mode solution of Lumbrical software to investigate the effect of changing the ring's opening and the shift induced by applied strain. The designed ring radius is a three Micron silicon on isolator ring which can be fabricated by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micromachining. The measured wavelength shifts from1-degree opening of the ring to a 6-degree opening have been investigated. Opening the ring for 1-degree affects the ring's quality factor from 3000 to 300, showing an order of magnitude Q-factor reduction. Assuming a strain making the ring-opening from 1 degree to 6 degrees, our simulation results showing negligible Q-factor reduction from 300 to 280. A ring resonator quality factor can reach up to 108 where an order of magnitude reduction is negligible. The resonance wavelength shift showed a blue shift and was obtained to be 1581, 1579,1578,1575nm for 1-, 2-, 4- and 6-degree ring-opening, respectively. This design can find the direction of the strain-induced by applying the opening on different parts of the ring. Moreover, by addressing the specified wavelength, we can precisely find the direction. We can open a significant opportunity to find cracks and any surface mechanical property very specifically and precisely. This idea can be implemented on polymer ring resonators while they can come with a flexible substrate and can be very sensitive to any strain making the two ends of the ring in the slit part come closer or further.

Keywords: optical ring resonator, strain gauge, strain sensor, surface mechanical property analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
350 Potential of High Performance Ring Spinning Based on Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

Authors: M. Hossain, A. Abdkader, C. Cherif, A. Berger, M. Sparing, R. Hühne, L. Schultz, K. Nielsch


Due to the best quality of yarn and the flexibility of the machine, the ring spinning process is the most widely used spinning method for short staple yarn production. However, the productivity of these machines is still much lower in comparison to other spinning systems such as rotor or air-jet spinning process. The main reason for this limitation lies on the twisting mechanism of the ring spinning process. In the ring/traveler twisting system, each rotation of the traveler along with the ring inserts twist in the yarn. The rotation of the traveler at higher speed includes strong frictional forces, which in turn generates heat. Different ring/traveler systems concerning with its geometries, material combinations and coatings have already been implemented to solve the frictional problem. However, such developments can neither completely solve the frictional problem nor increase the productivity. The friction free superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) system can be a right alternative replacing the existing ring/traveler system. The unique concept of SMB bearings is that they possess a self-stabilizing behavior, i.e. they remain fully passive without any necessity for expensive position sensing and control. Within the framework of a research project funded by German research foundation (DFG), suitable concepts of the SMB-system have been designed, developed, and integrated as a twisting device of ring spinning replacing the existing ring/traveler system. With the help of the developed mathematical model and experimental investigation, the physical limitations of this innovative twisting device in the spinning process have been determined. The interaction among the parameters of the spinning process and the superconducting twisting element has been further evaluated, which derives the concrete information regarding the new spinning process. Moreover, the influence of the implemented SMB twisting system on the yarn quality has been analyzed with respect to different process parameters. The presented work reveals the enormous potential of the innovative twisting mechanism, so that the productivity of the ring spinning process especially in case of thermoplastic materials can be at least doubled for the first time in a hundred years. The SMB ring spinning tester has also been presented in the international fair “International Textile Machinery Association (ITMA) 2015”.

Keywords: ring spinning, superconducting magnetic bearing, yarn properties, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
349 Application of Soft Sets to Non-Associative Rings

Authors: Inayatur Rehman


Molodtstove developed the theory of soft sets which can be seen as an effective tool to deal with uncertainties. Since the introduction of this concept, the application of soft sets has been restricted to associative algebraic structures (groups, semi groups, associative rings, semi-rings etc.). Acceptably, though the study of soft sets, where the base set of parameters is a commutative structure, has attracted the attention of many researchers for more than one decade. But on the other hand there are many sets which are naturally endowed by two compatible binary operations forming a non-associative ring and we may dig out examples which investigate a non-associative structure in the context of soft sets. Thus it seems natural to apply the concept of soft sets to non-commutative and non-associative structures. In present paper, we make a new approach to apply Molodtsoves notion of soft sets to LA-ring (a class of non-associative ring). We extend the study of soft commutative rings from theoretical aspect.

Keywords: soft sets, LA-rings, soft LA-rings, soft ideals, soft prime ideals, idealistic soft LA-rings, LA-ring homomorphism

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348 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz


Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology

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347 Proximity-Inset Fed Triple Band Antenna for Global Position System with High Gain

Authors: The Nan Chang, Ping-Tang Yu, Jyun-Ming Lin


A triple band circularly polarized antenna covering 1.17, 1.22, and 1.57 GHz is presented. To extend to the triple-band operation, we need to add one more ring while maintaining the mechanism to independently control each ring. The inset-part in the feeding scheme is used to excite the band at 1.22 GHz, while the proximate-part of the feeding scheme is used to excite not only the band at 1.57 GHz but also the band at 1.17 GHz. This is achieved by up-vertically coupled with one ring to radiate at 1.57 GHz and down-vertically coupled another ring to radiate at 1.17 GHz. It is also noted that the inset-part in our feeding scheme is by horizontal coupling. Furthermore, to increase the gain at all three bands, three air-layers are added to make the total height of the antenna be 7.8 mm. The total thickness of the three air-layers is 3 mm. The gains of the three bands are all greater than 5 dBiC after adding the air-layers.

Keywords: circular polarization, global position system, high gain, triband antenna

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346 Iron Yoke Dipole with High Quality Field for Collector Ring FAIR

Authors: Tatyana Rybitskaya, Alexandr Starostenko, Kseniya Ryabchenko


Collector ring (CR) of FAIR project is a large acceptance storage ring and field quality plays a major role in the magnet design. The CR will use normal conducting dipole magnets. There will be 24 H-type sector magnets with a maximum field value of 1.6 T. The integrated over the length of the magnet field quality as a function of radius is ∆B.l/B.l = ±1x10⁻⁴. Below 1.6 T the value ∆B.l/B.l can be higher with a linear approximation up to ±2.5x10⁻⁴ at the field level of 0.8 T. An iron-dominated magnet with required field quality is produced with standard technology as the quality is dominated by the yoke geometry.

Keywords: conventional magnet, iron yoke dipole, harmonic terms, particle accelerators

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345 The Tadpole-Shaped Polypeptides with Two Regulable (Alkyl Chain) Tails

Authors: Hua Jin, Il Kim


The biocompatible tadpole-shaped polypeptides with one cyclic polypeptides ring and two alkyl chain tails were synthesized by N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC)-mediated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs). First, the NHC precursor, denoted as [NHC(H)][HCO₃], with two alkyl chains at the nitrogen was prepared by a simple anion metathesis of imidazole(in)ium chlorides with KHCO₃. Then NHC releasing from the [NHC(H)][HCO₃] directly initiated the ROP of NCA to produce the cyclic polypeptides. Finally, the tadpole-shaped polypeptides with two regulable tails were obtained. The target polypeptides were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF MS). This pioneering approach simplifies the synthesis procedures of tadpole-shaped polypeptides compared to other methods, which usually requires specific intramolecular ring-closure reaction.

Keywords: cyclic polypeptides, α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides, N-heterocyclic carbene, ring-opening polymerization, tadpole-shaped

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
344 Diagnostic and Analysis of the Performance of Freight Transportation on Urban Logistics System in the City of Sfax

Authors: Tarak Barhoumi, Younes Boujelbene


Nowadays, the problems of freight transport pose logistical constraints on the urban system in the city. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of the interactions between local traffic and interurban traffic on the one hand and between the location system and the transport system on the other hand. Thus, in a simulation and analysis approach cannot be restricted to the only transport system. The proposed approach is based on an assessment of the impact of freight transport, which is closely linked to the diagnostic method, based on two surveys carried out on the territory of the urban community of Sfax. These surveys are based on two main components 'establishment component' first and 'driver component' second. The results propose a reorganization of freight transport in the city of Sfax. First, an orientation of the heavy goods vehicles traffic towards the major axes of transport namely the ring roads (ring road N° 2, ring road N° 4 and ring road N° 11) and the penetrating news of the city. Then, the implementation of a retail goods delivery policy and the strengthening of logistics in the city. The creation of a logistics zone at the ring road N° 11 where various modes of freight transport meet, in order to decongest the roads of heavy goods traffic, reduce the cost of transport and thus improve the competitiveness of the economy regional.

Keywords: urban logistics systems, transport freight, diagnostics, evaluation

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343 Determination of the Friction Coefficient of AL5754 Alloy by Ring Compression Test: Experimental and Numerical Survey

Authors: P. M. Keshtiban, M. Zadshakoyan


One of the important factors that alter different process and geometrical parameters on metal forming processes is friction between contacting surfaces. Some important factors that effected directly by friction are: stress, strain, required load, wear of surfaces and then geometrical parameters. In order to control friction effects permanent lubrication is necessary. In this article, the friction coefficient is elicited by the most effective method, ring compression tests. The tests were done by both finite element method and practical tests. Different friction curves that extracted by finite element simulations and has good conformity with published results, used for obtaining final friction coefficient. In this study Mos2 is used as the lubricant and Al5754 alloy used as the specimens material.

Keywords: experiment, FEM, friction coefficient, ring compression

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342 Experimental Measurement of Equatorial Ring Current Generated by Magnetoplasma Sail in Three-Dimensional Spatial Coordinate

Authors: Masato Koizumi, Yuya Oshio, Ikkoh Funaki


Magnetoplasma Sail (MPS) is a future spacecraft propulsion that generates high levels of thrust by inducing an artificial magnetosphere to capture and deflect solar wind charged particles in order to transfer momentum to the spacecraft. By injecting plasma in the spacecraft’s magnetic field region, the ring current azimuthally drifts on the equatorial plane about the dipole magnetic field generated by the current flowing through the solenoid attached on board the spacecraft. This ring current results in magnetosphere inflation which improves the thrust performance of MPS spacecraft. In this present study, the ring current was experimentally measured using three Rogowski Current Probes positioned in a circular array about the laboratory model of MPS spacecraft. This investigation aims to determine the detailed structure of ring current through physical experimentation performed under two different magnetic field strengths engendered by varying the applied voltage on the solenoid with 300 V and 600 V. The expected outcome was that the three current probes would detect the same current since all three probes were positioned at equal radial distance of 63 mm from the center of the solenoid. Although experimental results were numerically implausible due to probable procedural error, the trends of the results revealed three pieces of perceptive evidence of the ring current behavior. The first aspect is that the drift direction of the ring current depended on the strength of the applied magnetic field. The second aspect is that the diamagnetic current developed at a radial distance not occupied by the three current probes under the presence of solar wind. The third aspect is that the ring current distribution varied along the circumferential path about the spacecraft’s magnetic field. Although this study yielded experimental evidence that differed from the original hypothesis, the three key findings of this study have informed two critical MPS design solutions that will potentially improve thrust performance. The first design solution is the positioning of the plasma injection point. Based on the implication of the first of the three aspects of ring current behavior, the plasma injection point must be located at a distance instead of at close proximity from the MPS Solenoid for the ring current to drift in the direction that will result in magnetosphere inflation. The second design solution, predicated by the third aspect of ring current behavior, is the symmetrical configuration of plasma injection points. In this study, an asymmetrical configuration of plasma injection points using one plasma source resulted in a non-uniform distribution of ring current along the azimuthal path. This distorts the geometry of the inflated magnetosphere which minimizes the deflection area for the solar wind. Therefore, to realize a ring current that best provides the maximum possible inflated magnetosphere, multiple plasma sources must be spaced evenly apart for the plasma to be injected evenly along its azimuthal path.

Keywords: Magnetoplasma Sail, magnetosphere inflation, ring current, spacecraft propulsion

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341 Improving Radiation Efficiency Using Metamaterial in Pyramidal Horn Antenna

Authors: Amit Kumar Baghel, Sisir Kumar Nayak


The proposed metamaterial design help to increase the radiation efficiency at 2.9 GHz by reducing the side and back lobes by making the phase difference of the waves emerging from the phase center of the horn antenna same after passing through metamaterial array. The unit cell of the metamaterial is having concentric ring structure made of copper of 0.035 mm thickness on both sides of FR4 sheet. The inner ring diameter is kept as 3 mm, and the outer ring diameters are changed according to the path and tramission phase difference of the unit cell from the phase center of the antenna in both the horizontal and vertical direction, i.e., in x- and y-axis. In this case, the ring radius varies from 3.19 mm to 6.99 mm with the respective S21 phase difference of -62.25° to -124.64°. The total phase difference can be calculated by adding the path difference of the respective unit cell in the array to the phase difference of S21. Taking one of the unit cell as the reference, the total phase difference between the reference unit cell and other cells must be integer multiple of 360°. The variation of transmission coefficient S21 with the ring radius is greater than -6 dB. The array having 5 x 5 unit cell is kept inside the pyramidal horn antenna (L X B X H = 295.451 x 384.233 x 298.66 mm3) at a distance of 36.68 mm from the waveguide throat. There is an improvement in side lobe level in E-plane by 14.6 dB when the array is used. The front to back lobe ration is increased by 1 dB by using the array. The proposed antenna with metamaterial array can be used in beam shaping for wireless power transfer applications.

Keywords: metamaterial, side lobe level, front to back ratio, beam forming

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340 Dual Reconfigurable Antenna Using Capacitive Coupling Slot and Parasitic Square Ring

Authors: M. Abou Al-alaa, H. A. Elsadek, E. A. Abdallah, E. A. Hashish


A square patch antenna with both frequency and polarization reconfigurability is presented. The antenna consists of a square patch with coplanar feed on the ground plane. On the patch side, there is a parasitic square ring that is responsible for changing the antenna polarization. On the ground plane, there is a rectangular slot. By changing of length of this slot, the antenna resonance frequency can be changed. The antenna operates at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz that used in GPS and Bluetooth applications, respectively. The length of the slot in the proposed antenna is 40 mm, and the antenna operates at the lower frequency (1.57 GHz). By using switches in the ground plane the slot length can be adjust to 24 mm, so the antenna operates at upper frequency (2.45 GHz). Two switches are mounted on the parasitic ring at optimized positions. By switching between the different states of these two switches, the proposed antenna operates with linear polarization (LP) and circular polarization (CP) at each operating frequency. The antenna gain at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz are 5.9 and 7.64 dBi, respectively. The antenna is analyzed using the CST Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna was fabricated and measured. Results comparison shows good agreement. The antenna has applications in several wireless communication systems.

Keywords: microstrip patch antenna, reconfigurable antenna, frequency reconfigurability, polarization reconfigurability, parasitic square ring, linear polarization, circular polarization

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