Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 348

Search results for: tradition

348 Azan in Funeral: A Local Islamic Tradition in Indonesia

Authors: Muhajirin Gafar

Abstract:

In Indonesia, Azan not only used as a reminder or call to prayer, its also used at the birth of a child, as the direction of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, but also become part of a 'tradition’ to echoed in obsequies or the funeral, even there is a tradition in which the Azan echoed in the four corners of the grave. This tradition has become a necessity and has become part of the local Islamic culture preserved from time to time, although it certainly can not be known legal basis underlying the tradition. Based on the phenomenon, this paper proposed three research objective, namely: 1) To described the history about tradition Azan in funeral, 2) To analyze some of the postulates supporting the occurrence of the tradition, 3) To find out the postulates/ hadist which has been arranged in accordance with the instructions of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH about the rules of funeral. To reconstruct the history of the emergence of events azan tradition in the funeral this research used historical method, while the second and third objective used library research. Data and facts systematically processed and analyzed so as to be able to answer the questions of what, who, where, when, how, and why an event occurred. Finally, this research used Takhrij al-hadith a method to look at the validity of the arguments of the hadith. Result found that tradition of Azan in funeral has been around since the presence of Islam in Indonesia. This tradition continued and became a local Islamic culture which spread almost all over Indonesia, even considered part of religious guidance. While there are no decisive postulates which can be accounted for this tradition, except ‘qiyas’ postulates which are not appropriate. Most Indonesian Muslim put Azan as the first priority to do in funeral while oblivious other compulsory things that must be recited when lay down the corpse. They tend to assume that this tradition is a part of Islamic local culture.

Keywords: Azan, tradition, qiyas, Islamic local, hadist

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347 A Lost Tradition: Reflections towards Select Tribal Songs of Odisha

Authors: Akshaya K. Rath, Manjit Mahanta

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The paper aims at examining the oral tradition of the Kondh and Oroan people of Odisha. Highlighting the translated versions of Kondh and Oroan songs—chiefly highlighting issues on agriculture—we argue that the relevance of these songs have fallen apart in the recent decades with the advancement of modern knowledge and thinking. What remains instead is a faint voice in the oral tradition that sings the past indigenous knowledge in the form of oral literature. Though there have been few attempts to document the rich cultural tradition by some individuals—Sitakant Mahapatra’s can be cited as an example—the need to document the tradition remains ever arching. In short, the thesis examines Kondh and Oroan “songs” and argues for a need to document the tradition. It also shows a comparative study on both the tribes on Agriculture which shows their cultural identity and a diversification of both the tribes in nature and how these tribal groups are associated with nature and the cycle of it.

Keywords: oral tradition, Meriah, folklore, karma, Oroan

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346 Songkran Tradition: An Invented Tradition of Thai Buddhists and Thai Muslims for Peace and Happiness in Southern Thailand

Authors: Utit Sungkharat

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Purpose: To investigate an invented tradition of Thai Buddhists and Thai Muslims for peace. Methods: The data for this qualitative research were collected from related documents and research reports, field data, and in-depth interviews with Buddhist and Muslim religious leaders and people in the community. Results: The results of the research revealed that Thai Buddhists and Thai Muslims in Tamod Community in the Southern part of Thailand who have lived in the same community and shared the same history of the community jointly invented the Songkran tradition holding on to the reason that they have lived in the same community founded by the same person. The reason for inventing this tradition is that Songkran is a tradition for paying respect to ancestors who passed away and people in Tamod have the same ancestor even though they believe in different religions. Therefore, paying respect to the ancestors can be performed together by people of the two religions. The invented tradition has not only united them and empowered them to drive their community to development but also brought peace and happiness to this community.

Keywords: invented tradition, Thai Buddhists, Thai Muslims, peace

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345 Social Support in the Tradition for Pregnant Mother Care In East Nusa Tenggara

Authors: Sri Widati, Ira Nurmala

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The Se’i Tradition was considered to contribute highly to the high maternal mortality rate in South Amanuban, East Nusa Tenggara. This tradition is still preserved due to the social support that has influenced the decision to carry out the Se’i to pregnant women and post-partum women. The purpose of this study is to analyze this social support towards the Se’i Tradition on pregnant women in East Nusa Tenggara. This research was an explorative study with in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions (FGD) in collecting the data. This study showed that emotional support towards Se’i was commonly given by families, specifically by the mother-in laws. Instrumental support was shown by the husbands and the traditional midwives who helped delivered the babies. Informational support was found on the pregnant women and their mother-in laws. Appraisal support was given by all the neighbors and relatives of the pregnant women by telling how comfortable it was to go through this tradition which eventually affected those women to carry it out themselves. The Se’i Tradition is still carried out and mostly supported by the relatives of the pregnant women. The first recommendation of this study is to suggest people to only follow the suggestions from the local health staff to give birth in the local health centers and not to do the tradition anymore. The second recommendation is to urge the government to give support in the form of transportation facilities for pregnant women to reach the local health staff.

Keywords: the Se’i tradition, social support, pregnant women, maternal mortality, post-partum women

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344 Contradictions of Contemporary Culture and Civilization, Processes of Tradition and Innovation

Authors: G. K. Abdigalieva, Z. N. Ismagambetova, T. H. Gabitov, K. A. Biazdikova, A. A. Mukhanbet , B. E. Moldagaliyev, Saira Shamahay

Abstract:

In the article was shown attitude to contemporary traditional culture and cultural heritage preservation issues and features of further development of a culture. Concerning innovation, appeal to cultural heritage, ability of reception of a culture and cultural diffusion in the process of globalization, it is offered further positive development of Kazakhstan’s based human experience and achieved with time. System of traditions is considered as a phenomenon which describes unity, harmony and stability of social body. Contradictions of contemporary culture and civilization, processes of tradition and innovation, cultural changes, and creativities are considered as second side of a society development. Innovation is analyzed as a method of renewal of a culture, tradition and innovation are considered as universal feature of any culture.

Keywords: culture, civilization, innovation, tradition, reality, customs, social relations, morality, values

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343 Marosok Tradition in the Process of Buying and Selling Cattle in Payakumbuh: A Comparative Study between Adat Law and Positive Law of Indonesia

Authors: Mhd. Zakiul Fikri, M. Agus Maulidi

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Indonesia is a constitutional state. As the constitutional state, Indonesia is not only using a single legal system, but also adopting three legal systems consist of: The European continental legal system or positive law of Indonesia, adat law system, and legal system of religion. This study will discuss Marosok tradition in the process of buying and selling cattle in Payakumbuh: a comparative study between adat law and positive law of Indonesia. The objectives of this research are: First, to find the meaning of the philosophical of Marosok tradition in Payakumbuh. Second, to find the legal implications of the Marosok tradition reviewed aspects of adat law and positive law of Indonesia. Third, to find legal procedure in arbitrating the dispute wich is potentially appear in the post-process of buying and selling cattle based on positive law and adat law adopted in Indonesia. This research is empirical legal research that using two model approaches which are statute approach and conceptual approach. Data was obtained through interviews, observations, and documents or books. Then a method of data analysis used is inductive analysis. Finally, this study found that: First, tradition of Marosok contains the meaning of harmonization of social life that keep people from negative debate, envy, and arrogant. Second, Marosok tradition is one of the adat law in Indonesia; it is one of contract law in the process of buying and selling. If the comparison between the practice Marosok tradition as adat law with the provisions of Article 1320 book of civil code about the terms of the validity of a contract, the elements contained in the provisions of these regulations are met in practice Marosok. Thus, the practice of Marosok in buying and selling cattle process in Payakumbuh justified in view of the positive law of Indonesia. Last of all, all kinds of disputes arising due to contracts made by Marosok tradition can be resolved by positive law and adat law of Indonesia.

Keywords: Adat law, contract, Indonesia, Marosok

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342 The Role of 'Hindu Tantrism' in Conceptualization of the Divine Manifestations in Vajrayana Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism

Authors: Mohammed T. Shabeer

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Hoary moorlands of Tibet bear bundle of religious traditions. Vajrayana tradition of Tibetan Buddhism is one of the deep rooted religious orders of the area. It demands the homage to a variety of gods and diverse worships, especially to manifestations like the Dalai Lamas. This divine diversity has been conceptualized by remoteness of the area and transcontinental intrusion of Asiatic philosophies like Indian Buddhism, Mongolian Shamanism and Hindu Tantrism. This study reveals the role of Hindu Tantrism in conceptualizing the manifestations in Vajrayana Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in a comparative way. Nowadays, the academic explorations and researches in the field of ‘Tibetology’ are widely tolerable in east and west alike. International community concerns such studies supportive of the restless campaigns for ‘free Tibet’. Moreover, the scientific sources on the topic are rarest and precious in the field of comparative religion. This study reveals a clear account of god concept of Vajrayana tradition and insists that the god concept of the tradition is conceptualized from the amalgamation of Indian Hindu Tantrism, Mongolian Shamanism, and Indian Buddhism. Primly, it sheds the light upon the mysterious similarities between Indian and Tibetan concepts of manifestation of gods. The scientific examination of this problem lasts in the conclusion that the transcontinental transmission of Hindu Tantrism in the special occasion of Buddhist Diaspora of 12th century in consequence of the invasion of Muslim Ghorid Sultanate had paved a vital role in shaping the Vajrayana tradition especially conceptualizing the manifestation of Tibetan gods.

Keywords: Buddhist diaspora, Hindu tantrism, manifestation of god, Vajrayana tradition of Tibetan Buddhism

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341 A Tomb Structure in Pursuit of Tradition in 2oth Century Turkey and Its Story; the Tomb of Haci Hâkim Kemal Onsun and His Wife

Authors: Yavuz Arat, Ugur Tuztasi, Mehmet Uysal

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Anatolia has been the host of many civilizations and a site where architectural structures of many cultural layers were interpreted. Most significantly the Turks who settled in Central Asia brought their architectural dynamics and cultural accumulation to Anatolia after the 12th century. The tomb structures first observed in Central Asia under the influence of Islamic faith and Turkish cultural heritage has blossomed under Great Seljuk Empire and with the Anatolian Seljuk Empire these tombs changed both in size and form with rich and beautiful samples from Ahlat to Sivas to Kayseri and Konya. This tomb tradition which started during 13th century has continued during the Ottoman Empire period with some alterations of form and evolved into the rarely observed mausoleum type tombs. The Ottoman tradition of building tombs inside mosque gardens and their forms present the clues of an important burial tradition. However this understanding was abandoned in 20th century Turkey. This tradition was abandoned with regard to legal regulations and health conditions. This study investigates the vestiges of this tradition and its spatial reflections over a sample. The present sample is representative of a tradition that started in 1970s and the case of building tombs inside mosque gardens will be illustrated over the tomb of Hacı Kemal Onsun and his wife which is located in Konya, the capital of the Anatolian Seljuks. The building process of this tomb will be evaluated with regard to burial traditions and architectural stylization.

Keywords: tomb, language of architectural form, Anatolian Seljuk tombs, Ottoman tombs

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340 Regained Oral Tradition and Identity Construction in House Made of Dawn

Authors: Yi Hu

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House Made of Dawn is famous novelist N. Scott Momaday’s Pulitzer-winning novel in 1968. The novel tells a story of the struggling life of an Indian named Abel, following the pattern of leaving home, coming home, leaving again, and returning home at the closure of the story. It touches upon the theme of the relationship between Indianness, identity, and tradition. Abel’s confusion over his identity and his constant struggle and exploration of his identity are pivoted on the tradition of oral literature in the form of story-telling. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the important role of oral tradition in constructing Abel’s Indian cultural identity. The significance of the research lies in two aspects: first of all, the research aims to provide an enlightening perspective for Momaday’s House Made of Dawn in order to gain a better understanding of the novel. Secondly, by emphasizing the importance of traditional culture in identity construction, the research hopes to provide some referential value for people who suffer from identity predicament in modern society. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion that alienation from traditional tribal culture will result in a serious physical and psychological crisis for Indian people. Indian people should adhere to their traditional culture in order to construct their unique cultural identity.

Keywords: House Made of Dawn, identity, N.Scott.Momaday, oral tradition

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339 Using Kalosara Tradition for Conflict Resolution in Tolaki's People, Southeast Sulawesi

Authors: S. S. Ramis Rauf

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This study will be explained the role of local wisdom in Tolakinese customary law on customs offense. The scope of this study was the informants who have a conflict located in Southeast Sulawesi. Then, their conflicts were resolved by using Kalosara tradition. The method of this study was a qualitative research by applying the techniques of deep interviews, revealing experiences and stories from informants, interviews customary leaders who are skilled and experienced in the customary settlement process of Kalosara tradition. Kalosara, as Tolakinese local wisdom, has contained in Tolakinese customary law. Kalosara was the application of customary law which was guided by Tolaki’s people when there was a problem. Knowledge and understanding of the customs have been conceived as something that comes from the ancestors. They created custom rules based on the law of Allah SWT for the elderly to do with full of awareness. Then, it was hereditary obeying by their children from generation to generation. The conflict occurred because of several things, namely bad words, aspersion, and other violations (such as harassment and affair). In custom settlement process, kalosara was done by using the enforcement of Tolakinese customary law that managed within an institution. It was called as Sara Wonua. It led by someone who was called as Pu'utobu that serves as a customary leader.

Keywords: kalosara, conflict resolution, tradition, unity, diversity

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338 Hanna Arendt and Al-Farabi’s Non-Naturalistic Political Philosophy

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Badamchi

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As Leo Strauss demonstrates in his works, Political Philosophy in the western tradition is an epistemic-naturalistic tradition insofar Hanna Arendt mentioning the deep conflict between philosophy and politics, opposed to be named “political philosopher” prefer the title “political thinker” for herself. In fact, the Western political philosophy’s tendency to derive politics from natural law and epistemic argumentations makes a paradox between the actual “the political” and the theoretical “natural politics” in the western tradition. In this paper, we want to show that Hanna Arendt, in her exploration to find a new realm of the non-naturalistic way of thinking about the political is walking on a completely different tradition of political philosophy which was first established by Al-Farabi, the founder of Islamic political philosophy around thousand years after Greek Philosophy. Despite Aristotelian Polis which is a Natural community based on true natural rationality to reach the natural purposes of mankind, Al-Farabi’s Madine (his reconstructed concept of Aristotelian Polis) is completely constructed against natural cities, which are formulated by necessity logic of natural arguments and natural deception of humanity. In fact, Farabi considers the natural understanding of politics as Ignorant ideologies used by governments to suppress people. Madine in Farabi’s work is not a natural institution but is a collaborative constitution founded by citizens. So despite Aristotelian thinking, here we don’t have just A Polis that is the one true polis, but we have various multiple Madines among one, is virtuous not by definition but by real action of citizens and civil relations. Al-Farabi’s political philosophy is not a Naturalistic-epistemic Political Philosophy but is a Phronetic Political Philosophy which Hanna Arendt wants to establish outside of western contemplative anti-active political philosophy tradition.

Keywords: al-farabi, hanna arendt, natural politics, the political, political philosophy

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337 Religion and the Constitutional Regulation

Authors: Valbona Metaj

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The relationship between the state and the religion is different based on the fact that how powerful is the religion faith in a state and of the influences that affected the views of the constitution drafters according to the constitutional system they were based to draft their constitution. This paper aims at providing, through a comparative methodology, how it is regulated by the constitution the relationship between the state and the religion. The object of this study are the constitutions of Italy as a nation with catholic religious tradition, Greece as a nation with orthodox religion tradition, and Turkey as a nation which represents Muslim religion, while Albania as a nation known for its religious plurality. In particular, the analysis will be focused on the secular or religious principle provided in the constitution of each respective state. This comparative overview intends to discern which of the states analyzed is more tolerant and fully respects the freedom of religion. It results that most of the states subject of this study, despite their religious tradition have chosen the secular principle in their constitutions, but the religious freedom is differently guaranteed.

Keywords: constitution, religion, religious freedom, secular

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336 Linguistic Analysis of Holy Scriptures: A Comparative Study of Islamic Jurisprudence and the Western Hermeneutical Tradition

Authors: Sana Ammad

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The tradition of linguistic analysis in Islam and Christianity has developed independently of each other in lieu of the social developments specific to their historical context. However, recently increasing number of Muslim academics educated in the West have tried to apply the Western tradition of linguistic interpretation to the Qur’anic text while completely disregarding the Islamic linguistic tradition used and developed by the traditional scholars over the centuries. The aim of the paper is to outline the linguistic tools and methods used by the traditional Islamic scholars for the purpose of interpretating the Holy Qur’an and shed light on how they contribute towards a better understanding of the text compared to their Western counterparts. This paper carries out a descriptive-comparative study of the linguistic tools developed and perfected by the traditional scholars in Islam for the purpose of textual analysis of the Qur’an as they have been described in the authentic works of Usul Al Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and the principles of textual analysis employed by the Western hermeneutical tradition for the study of the Bible. First, it briefly outlines the independent historical development of the two traditions emphasizing the final normative shape that they have taken. Then it draws a comparison of the two traditions highlighting the similarities and the differences existing between them. In the end, the paper demonstrates the level of academic excellence achieved by the traditional linguistic scholars in their efforts to develop appropriate tools of textual interpretation and how these tools are more suitable for interpreting the Qur’an compared to the Western principles. Since the aim of interpreters of both the traditions is to try and attain an objective understanding of the Scriptures, the emphasis of the paper shall be to highlight how well the Islamic method of linguistic interpretation contributes to an objective understanding of the Qur’anic text. The paper concludes with the following findings: The Western hermeneutical tradition of linguistic analysis developed within the Western historical context. However, the Islamic method of linguistic analysis is much more highly developed and complex and serves better the purpose of objective understanding of the Holy text.

Keywords: Islamic jurisprudence, linguistic analysis, textual interpretation, western hermeneutics

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335 The Study of Using Mon Dance in Pathum Thani Province’s Tradition

Authors: Dusittorn Ngamying

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This investigation of Mon Dance is focused on using in Pathum Thani Province’s tradition and has the following objectives: 1) to study the background of Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province; 2) to study Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province; 3) to study of using Mon Dance in Pathum Thani province’s tradition. This qualitative research was conducted in Pathum Thani provinces (the central of Thailand). Data was collected from a documentary study and field data by means of observation, interview and group discussion. Workshops were also held with a total of 100 attendees, comprised of 20 key informants, 40 casual informants and 40 general informants. Data was validated using a triangulation technique and findings are presented using descriptive analysis. The results of the studied showed that the historical background of Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province initiated during the war evacuation from Martaban (south of Burma) to settle down in Sam Khok, Pathum Thani Province in Ayutthaya period to Rattanakosin. The study found that Mon dance typically consists of 12 dancing process. The melodies have 12 songs. Piphat Mon (Mon traditional music ensemble) was used in the performance. The costume was dressed on Mon traditional. The performers were 6-12 women and depending on the employer’s demands. Length of the performance varied from the duration of music orchestration. Rituals and Customs were paying homage to teachers before the performance. The offerings were composed of flowers, incense sticks, candles, money gifts which were well arranged on a tray with pedestal, and also liquors, tobaccos and pure water for asking propitiousness. To using Mon Dance in Pathum Thani Province’s tradition, was found that it commonly performed in the funeral ceremonial tradition at present because the physical postures of the performance were graceful and exquisite as approved conservative. In addition, the value since the ancient time had believed that Mon Dance was the sacred thing considered as the dignity glorification especially for funeral ceremonies of the priest or royal hierarchy classes. However, Mon dance was continued to use in the traditions associated with Mon people activities in Pathum Thani Province, for instance, customary welcome for honor guest and Songkran Festival.

Keywords: Mon dance, Pathum Tani Province, tradition, triangulation technique

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334 Pilgrimage: Between Culture and Religion Case study of Pilgrimage in Shia tradition in Indonesia, Traditional Philosophy approach of Seyyed Hosein Nasr and Religious Experience of William James

Authors: Ma'ruf

Abstract:

Pilgrimage has a universal value, founded in every religion. No exception to Islam, has a ritual value, and became part of the religion, as well as the procession of a social culture in nature. The tradition of pilgrimage, especially in Indonesia, rooted in the society, because the Islam that entered into the archipelago through Sufism (tasawuf). In the Sufi tradition, the interconnecty of the human spirit (ruh) to the spirit (ruh) of God, must go through a guardian (wasilah) appointed by God himself ,the prophet Muhammad and wali. In the process of pilgrimage rituals usually by reading the prayer to praise God, the prophet and wali, then convey intent (hajat). In the pilgrimage procession, usually not only done in the house, but aslo completed the process by direct pilgrimage visiting the tombs of saints. The tradition of pilgrimage, especially in Indonesia continues to be maintained, and still attached to the traditions in Nahdiyin (NU followers). The relationship with God manifested in wasilah prayer to God, the prophet Muhammad, the best companions of the Prophet and Nine wali (Songo), who had been influential in spreading Islam in Java. The tradition of pilgrimage in Indonesia is also linked to the Shia community in Indonesia, along with a growing number of followers of the Shia in Indonesia, especially after the Islamic revolution of Iran after the 1979. Pilgrimage in the Shia community, Likewise NU members also pray with supplication of tawasul to the Prophet and Shia Imams. If NU members to make improvements pilgrimage to visit the tomb wali Songo in Java, residents Shia pilgrimage rituals abroad, usually one package with umrah trip, with a pilgrimage to the tomb of the prophet, proceed to the tomb of the Imam Shia, in Iran and Iraq. Trends of pilgrimage as a ritual in the Indonesian Shia tradition, together with the growing number of Shia residents increased, followed by increasing the awareness (syi’isme) - bond with the Imam, Shia. In every certain months (arbaeen, asyuro) Shia pilgrims routinely perform pilgrimage, along with increasing number spiritual travel.

Keywords: traditional approach, religious experience, culture, religion, pilgrimage, Syria

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333 Social Construction of Merantau in Minangkabau Society in Capital City of Indonesia, Jakarta

Authors: Arfan Fadli, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Siti Hazar Sitorus

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Merantau is one of the traditions that has been done by the Minangkabau tribe since the 15th century where it is based on socio-economic factors. In fact, that is not only limited to economic factors alone but more how to develop themselves through the experience to get the skills or education. The lack of jobs opportunity in the hometown causes the community, especially for young men to seek livelihoods in other areas. Unemployment impacts on the economy of the community that led to change in the pattern of employment from farmers to traders or new businesses in areas outside of their homeland. This is also worsened because many young people are not interested in becoming a farmer and working on the land in their village. In this context, merantau is considered to be an alternative to fulfilling livelihoods, and therefore this study examines how the merantau tradition constructed by the Minangkabau community, West Sumatera Province. The research method is done by literature review by collecting information related to the social construction of merantau tradition from various scientific publications. The results show how merantau becomes a solution of economic problems for Minangkabau society. Merantau which has now become an institutionalized tradition for the Minangkabau community where the culture of merantau occurred like a chain that can raise the people from the condition of poverty. When there are people who have successfully in merantau, they tend to bring other relatives who have not found a job to be able to trade with them. In the place of merantau, they will be disciplined to learn how to trade. Eventually, they will have new skills to trade and even make their own business. The tradition of bringing relatives to the rantau to be empowered is a unique side of merantau because it is influenced by the Matrilinear kinship system. The matrilineal kinship system in Minangkabau is the largest in the world where helping relatives are considered to be of the highest value. This system also places men as high positions where men should be encouraged to go abroad for financial success and to help their relatives in their hometown. The success of this tradition (to uplift and resolve the poverty and manpower issues) is demonstrated by the tradition of Minangkabau communities that have been successful in the area of Rantau that send money to their relatives in their homes (remittance). Merantau tradition can also be an alternative in reducing unemployment especially for young people where it is demonstrated by the culture of helping relatives to get work outside of their homeland.

Keywords: matrilineal kinship system, merantau, minangkabau community, reducing unemployment

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332 Perspectives of Computational Modeling in Sanskrit Lexicons

Authors: Baldev Ram Khandoliyan, Ram Kishor

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India has a classical tradition of Sanskrit Lexicons. Research work has been done on the study of Indian lexicography. India has seen amazing strides in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications for Indian languages in general and for Sanskrit in particular. Since Machine Translation from Sanskrit to other Indian languages is often the desired goal, traditional Sanskrit lexicography has attracted a lot of attention from the ICT and Computational Linguistics community. From Nighaŋţu and Nirukta to Amarakośa and Medinīkośa, Sanskrit owns a rich history of lexicography. As these kośas do not follow the same typology or standard in the selection and arrangement of the words and the information related to them, several types of Kośa-styles have emerged in this tradition. The model of a grammar given by Aṣṭādhyāyī is well appreciated by Indian and western linguists and grammarians. But the different models provided by lexicographic tradition also have importance. The general usefulness of Sanskrit traditional Kośas is well discussed by some scholars. That is most of the matter made available in the text. Some also have discussed the good arrangement of lexica. This paper aims to discuss some more use of the different models of Sanskrit lexicography especially focusing on its computational modeling and its use in different computational operations.

Keywords: computational lexicography, Sanskrit Lexicons, nighanṭu, kośa, Amarkosa

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331 The Nature of Origin of New Criminal Occurrences in Gjakova Region: Cultural and Criminological “Intersection” in 1999-2009

Authors: Bekim Avdiaj

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The transition period of Kosovo society brought fundamental changes in all the spheres of organizing life. This was the period when also in the cultural tradition the biggest movement and an emerging from ‘isolation’ or from the ‘shell’ occurred. Transformation of the traditional and embracing of the modern began here. The same was experienced and is currently being experienced also by Gjakova and its surrounding which is historically renowned for its great tradition and culture. The population of this region is actually facing a transition from the traditional system into the modern one and quite often with huge leaps. These ‘movements’ or ‘evolutions’ of the society of this region, besides the numerous positive things it ‘harvested’, also brought things that do not at all correspond with their tradition as well as new criminal occurrences which in the past were not present in this area. Furthermore, some of the ‘new’ behaviours that are embraced from other ‘cultures’ and ‘civilizations’, and which are often exceeded, are quite perturbing. The security situation is also worrying, particularly following the appearance of some new criminal occurrences. Therefore, with this research paper we will strive to analyse the new cultural “intersections” as well as the nature of the origin of some new very worrying criminal occurrences. We will present there also some factors inciting into these occurrences, which were confessed by the persons involved in these criminal occurrences and who come from this very region.

Keywords: crime, occurrence, culture, Gjakova Region

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330 Current Trends in the Arabic Linguistics Development: Between National Tradition and Global Tendencies

Authors: Olga Bernikova, Oleg Redkin

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Globalization is a process of worldwide economic, political and cultural integration. Obviously, this phenomenon has both positive and negative issues. This article analyzes the impact of the modern process of globalization on the national traditions of language teaching and research. In this context, the problem of the ratio of local to global can be viewed from several sides. Firstly, since English is the language of over 80 percent of scientific and technical research worldwide, what should be the language of science in certain region? Secondly, language 'globality' is not always associated with English, because intercultural communications may have their regional peculiarities. For example, in the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic can also be regarded as 'global' phenomenon, since the mother-tongue languages of the population are local Arabic dialects. In addition, the correlation 'local' versus 'global' is manifested not only in the linguistic sphere but also in the methodology used in language acquisition and research. Thus, the major principles of the Arabic philological tradition, which goes back to the 7th century, are still spread in the modern Arab world. At the same time, the terminology and methods of language research that are peculiar to this tradition are quite far from the issues of general linguistics that underlies the description of all the languages of the world. The present research relies on a comparative analysis of sources in Arabic linguistics, including original works in Arabic dating back to the 12th-13th centuries. As a case study, interaction of local and global is also considered on the example of the Arabic teaching and research in Russia. Speaking about the correlation between local and global it is possible to forecast development of two parallel tendencies: the spread of the phenomena of globalization on one hand, and local implementation of a language policy aimed at preserving native languages, including Arabic, on the other.

Keywords: Arabic, global, language, local, tradition

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329 Changing Social Life of the Potters of Nongpok Sekmai in Manipur, India

Authors: Keisham Ingocha Singh, Mayanglambam Mani Babu, Lorho Mary Maheo

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Background: The tradition of the development of pottery through the handling of clay is one of the earliest skills known to the Chakpas of Manipur. Nongpok Sekmai, a Chakpa village in Thoubal district of Manipur, India, is strictly associated with making pots of red ochre colour called uyan. In the past, pottery was in great demand, each family needed them in rituals, festive occasions and also for day to day use. The whole village was engaged in the occupation of pot making. However the tradition of pottery making is fast declining. People have switched over to other economic activities which can provide them a better socioeconomic life leaving behind the age-old tradition of pottery occupation. The present study was carried out to find out the social life of the potters of Nongpok Sekmai. Materials and Method: In-depth interviews, household survey and observation were conducted to collect information on the pottery trend in the village. Results: The total population of the surveyed village is 1194 persons out of which 582 are male and 612 are female, distributed through 252 households. At present 4.94 % of the total population are still engaged in this profession. The study recorded 19 occupations other than pottery among women indicating decline of the traditional occupation. Conclusion: The study has revealed the changing life of the potters due to technological development, globalization and social network.

Keywords: Chakpas, Nongpok Sekmai, pottery, uyan

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328 Analysis of Buddhist Rock Carvings in Diamer Basha Dam Reservoir Area, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Abdul Ghani Khan

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This paper focuses on the Buddhist rock carvings in the Diamer-Basha reservoir area, Gilgit-Baltistan, which is perhaps the largest rock art province of the world. The study region has thousands of rock carvings, particularly of the stupa carvings, engraved by artists, devotees or pilgrims, merchants have left their marks in the landscape or for the propagation of Buddhism. The Pak-German Archaeological Mission prepared, documented, and published the extensive catalogues of these carvings. Though, to date, very little systematic or statistically driven analysis was undertaken for in-depth understandings of the Buddhist rock carving tradition of the study region. This paper had made an attempt to examine stupa carvings and their constituent parts from the five selected sites, namely Oshibat, Shing Nala, Gichi Nala, Dadam Das, and Chilas Bridge. The statistical analyses and classification of the stupa carvings and their chronological contexts were carried out with the help of modern scientific tools such as STATA, FileMaker Pro, and MapSource softwares. The study had found that the tradition of stupa carvings on the surfaces of the rocks at the five selected sites continued for around 900 years, from the 1st century BCE to 8th century CE. There is a variation within the chronological settings of each of selected sites, possibly impacted by their utilization within particular landscapes, such as political (for example, change in political administrations or warfare) landscapes and geographical (for example, shifting of routes). The longer existence of the stupa carvings' tradition at these specific locations also indicates their central position on the trade and communication routes, and these were possibly also linked with religious ideologies within their particular times. The analyses of the different architectural elements of stupa carvings in the study area show that this tradition had structural similarities and differences in temporal and spatial contexts.

Keywords: rock carvings, stupa, stupa carvings, Buddhism, Pak-German archaeological mission

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327 Multiracial Society and Oral Tradition: A Study through Secondary Data

Authors: Jesvin Puay-Hwa Yeo, Laavanya Kathiravelu, Sa’Eda Binte Buang

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In the early days, myths and taboos were used by our ancestors to give explanations to the existence of nature and man, as well as to propitiate fortunes and to avoid unluckiness and harm. Myths and taboos are deeply rooted in our cultures and environment, and they form certain characteristics of any society, even in modern societies. With decades of the three main ethnic communities in Singapore – Malay, Indian and Chinese – living together, there has been intermingling and intermixing of traditions and practices. This may mean that what we think is a ‘Malay’ practice is actually one that is a hybrid of the Chinese and Malay. A good example would be the practice of covering all mirrors in a house of mourning. Therefore, the proposed seeks to explore and understand the underlying social influences of Singapore’s oral tradition. As part of a bigger cultural research project: Designing Cultures, the proposed paper focused on using secondary data to contribute to the overall cultural understanding of the integral connections between oral traditions, people and landscapes. The proposed paper will discuss in details the initials findings of the research project, including the two manners that contributed to the intermixing of myths and taboos. The first is the presence of social institutions such as religions, and the second is the presence of cross-cultural minorities such as the Straits Chinese. As well as other observations included the use and influence of Chinese oral traditions such as folklore among the early Chinese immigrants through social institutions.

Keywords: cultural belief, multiracial society, myths, oral tradition

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326 Morphological Transformations and Variations in Architectural Language from Tombs to Mausoleums: From Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic

Authors: Uğur Tuztaşi, Mehmet Uysal, Yavuz Arat

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The tomb (grave) structures that have influenced the architectural culture from the Seljuk times to the Ottoman throughout Anatolia are members of a continuing building tradition in terms of monumental expression and styles. This building typology which has religious and cultural permeability in view of spatial traces and structural formations follows the entire trajectory of the respect to death and the deceased from the Seljuks to the Ottomans and also the changing burial traditions epitomised in the form of mausoleums in the Turkish Republic. Although the cultural layers have the same contents with regards to the cult of monument this architectural tradition which evolved from tombs to mausoleums changed in both typological formation and structural size. In short, the tomb tradition with unique examples of architectural functions and typological formations has been encountered from 13th century onwards and continued during the Ottoman period with changes in form and has transformed to mausoleums during the 20th century. This study analyses the process of transformation from complex structures to simple structures and then to monumental graves in terms of architectural expression. Moreover, the study interrogates the architectural language of Anatolian Seljuk tombs to Ottoman tombs and monumental graves built during the republican period in terms of spatial and structural contexts.

Keywords: death and space in Turks, monumental graves, language of architectural style, morphological transformations

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325 Examining the Challenges of Teaching Traditional Dance in Contemporary India

Authors: Aadya Kaktikar

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The role of a traditional dance teacher in India revolves around teaching movements and postures that have been a part of the movement vocabulary of dancers from before the 2nd century BC. These movements inscribe on the mind and body of the dancer a complex web of philosophy, culture history, and religion. However, this repository of tradition sits in a fast globalizing India creating a cultural space which is in a constant flux, where identities and meanings are being constantly challenged. The guru-shishya parampara, the traditional way of learning dance, sits uneasily with a modern education space in India. The traditional dance teacher is caught in the cross-currents of tradition and modernity, of preservation and exploration. This paper explores conflicting views on what dance ought to mean and how it should be taught. The paper explores the tensions of the social, economic and cultural spaces that the traditional dance teacher navigates.

Keywords: pedagogy, dance education, dance curriculum, teacher training

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324 The Family, Tradition and Change in Africa: The Perspective of Postcolonial African Fiction

Authors: Ayobami Kehinde

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The literary representations of the family, tradition and change in African literature offer an immense, and as yet little theorised area of literary scholarship. Therefore, this paper explores the nexus among the family, tradition and change in five purposively selected post-colonial African fiction: Chimamanda Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus, Wale Okediran’s Tenants of the House, J. M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country, Tsitsi Dangrembga’s Nervous Condition and Meja Mwangi’s Striving for the Wind. The methodology centres on analysing, questioning, undermining and celebrating the family and its contemporary vicissitudes as depicted in the texts. This is with a view to exploring the postcolonial novel with references to concepts developed by major theorists in the field of postcolonial studies, including Frantz Fanon, Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak, Homi Bhabha, Kwame Appiah and Achille Mbembe. It is revealed that in spite of the fact that the family is a vital institution, the primary social unit in any community, an agent of acculturation and the first focus of development, independence and growth, the texts reflect a diversity of problems confronting the family unit in Africa. These include the multiple problems of disrupted family lives, enforced family separation, political and personal violence with the domestic environment. It is concluded that the post-colonial African novel is a quintessential weapon to analyse the continent, opening up to the reader the specific expressions and experiences of human lives and their wider contexts. Therefore, the post-colonial African novel is a primary socio-cultural indicator representing an immense variety of lived realities in the continent. The study, therefore, suggests a concerted concern with the preservation of traditional family structures and other related aspects, such as cultural values, spirituality, gender roles and mutual trust.

Keywords: family, African fiction, postcolonialism, African tradition, domestic dissonance

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323 Oriental Tradition, Taoism:A Critical Option for Peace Building Initiative in the Contemporary Society

Authors: Kingsley Okoro Nwannennaya

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The 21st century seems to have been eclipsed by social conflict, giving vent to a mentality construct that accepts conflict as inextricable part of the social system. This is justified by the escalation of conflict in all the zones of the world. We therefore, query whether a peaceful society is a mere illusion? It is in an attempt to give lucid answer to this question that the researcher began critical investigations on various peace building and conflict management models. Here the researcher discovered that these models as good as they may be have not addressed the root of conflicts which revolves on the social structure in place in any society. Hence the current social structure is organized around class system, which gave birth to competition, greed, selfishness, power struggle etc. and also promotes mono-culture based on Euro-American traditions. This placed some cultures on a disadvantageous position, with conflict as its outgrowth. However, the researcher being interested to finding a peace building and conflict management model that will address this gap discovered that Taoism has the seed that can offer the world the desired peace. This tradition anchors on the principles of Tao, Yin-yang and Wu-wei. Basic to the trio concepts are the idea of Pluralism, non-interference, non-action and flowing with the order of nature. This paper, having adopted, historical and sociological methods of investigations opines that if Taoist tradition shall be adopted as a peace building model, the desired peace of our dream shall soon become a reality.

Keywords: critical option, oriental traditions, peace initiative, taoism

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322 Transformative Concept of Logic to Islamic Science: Reflections on Al-Ghazālī's Influence

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir

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Before al-Ghazālī, Islamic scholars perceived logic as an intrusive knowledge. The knowledge therefore, did not receive ample attention among scholars on how it should be adapted into Islamic sciences. General scholarship in that period rejects logic as an instrumental knowledge. This attitude became unquestionable to the scholars from different perspectives with diversification of suggestions in the pre-al-Ghazālī’s period. However, al-Ghazālī proclaimed with new perspective that transform Logic from ‘intrusive knowledge’ to a useful tool for Islamic sciences. This study explores the contributions of al-Ghazālī to epistemology regarding the use and the relevance of Logic. The study applies qualitative research methodology dealing strictly with secondary data from medieval age and contemporary sources. The study concludes that al-Ghazālī’s contributions which supported the transformation of Logic to useful tool in the Muslim world were drawn from his experience within Islamic tradition. He succeeded in reconciling Islamic tradition with the wisdom of Greek sciences.

Keywords: Al-Ghazālī, classical logic, epistemology, Islamdom and Islamic sciences

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321 The Interface of Tradition and Modernity in Black South African Women's Experiences of Menstruation

Authors: Anita Padmanabhanunni, Labeeqah Jaffer

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Menstruation signifies the transition to biological sexual maturity and culture-bound values influence its meaning and experience for women. In South Africa there is a paucity of research specific to the topic of menstruation. This study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the experiences of menstruation among a group of women from the ama-Xhosa ethnic group, one of the largest ethnic groups in the country. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted with ama-Xhosa woman (n= 15). Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The study found that traditional knowledge systems and cultural practices associated with menstruation including virginity testing and intonjane (female right of passage) still exist and impact on women’s subjective experiences. The study highlights the interface of tradition and modernity in the meanings ascribed to menstruation and women’s experiences of it.

Keywords: menstruation, cultural belief systems, South Africa, ama-Xhosa

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320 Various Advanced Statistical Analyses of Index Values Extracted from Outdoor Agricultural Workers Motion Data

Authors: Shinji Kawakura, Ryosuke Shibasaki

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We have been grouping and developing various kinds of practical, promising sensing applied systems concerning agricultural advancement and technical tradition (guidance). These include advanced devices to secure real-time data related to worker motion, and we analyze by methods of various advanced statistics and human dynamics (e.g. primary component analysis, Ward system based cluster analysis, and mapping). What is more, we have been considering worker daily health and safety issues. Targeted fields are mainly common farms, meadows, and gardens. After then, we observed and discussed time-line style, changing data. And, we made some suggestions. The entire plan makes it possible to improve both the aforementioned applied systems and farms.

Keywords: advanced statistical analysis, wearable sensing system, tradition of skill, supporting for workers, detecting crisis

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319 Departures from Anatolian Seljuk Building Complex with Iwan/Eyvan: The Tradition of Iwan Tombs

Authors: Mehmet Uysal, Yavuz Arat, Uğur Tuztaşı

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As man constructed the spaces that he lived in he also designed spaces where their dead will stay according to their belief systems. These spaces are sometimes monumentalized by the means of a stone on the top of a mountain, sometimes signed by totems and sometimes became structures to protect graves and symbolize the person or make him unforgettable. Various grave monuments have been constructed from the earliest primitive societies to developed societies. Every belief system built structures for itself; Pyramids for pharaohs, grave monuments for kings and emperors, temples and tombs for important men of religion. These spaces are also architectural works like a school or a dwelling and have importance in history of architecture. After Turks embraced Islamism, examples of very beautiful tombs are built in Middle Asia during the Seljuk Period. By the time Seljuks came to Anatolia they built important tombs having peerless architectural characteristics firstly around Ahlat. After Anatolia Seljuks made Konya the capital city and Konya became administrative, cultural and scientific center, very important tombs were built in Konya. Different from the local tomb architecture, the architecture of tombs with half-open “eyvan/Iwan” is significant. Although iwan buildings is vastly used in Anatolian civil architecture and monumental buildings its best exmaples are observed in 13th century Medrese buildings. The iwan tomb tradition which was observed during the time period when this building typology was shaped and departed from the resident tradition in the form of iwan tombs are rarely represented. However, similar tombs were build in resemblance to this tradition. This study provides information on samples of iwan tombs (Gömeç Hatun Tomb, Emir Yavaştagel Tomb, and Beşparmak Tomb) and evaluates the departures from iwan building complexes in view of architectural language. This paper also gives information about iwan tombs among tombs having importance in Islamic Architectural Heritage.

Keywords: Seljuk Building Complex, Eyvan/Iwan, Anatolia, Islamic Architectural Heritage, tomb

Procedia PDF Downloads 328