Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1249

Search results for: thickness

1249 Leading Edge Vortex Development for a 65° Delta Wing with Varying Thickness and Maximum Thickness Locations

Authors: Jana Stucke, Sean Tuling, Chris Toomer


This study focuses on the numerical investigation of the leading edge vortex (LEV) development over a 65° swept delta wing with varying thickness and maximum thickness location and their impact on its overall performance. The tested configurations are defined by a 6% and 12 % thick biconvex aerofoil with maximum thickness location at 30% and 50% of the root chord. The results are compared to a flat plate delta wing configuration of 3.4% thickness. The largest differences are observed for the aerofoils of 12% thickness and are used to demonstrate the trends and aerodynamic characteristics from here on. It was found that the vortex structure changes with change with maximum thickness and overall thickness. This change leads to not only a reduction in lift but also in drag, especially when the maximum thickness is moved forward. The reduction in drag, however, outweighs the loss in lift thus increasing the overall performance of the configuration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, delta wing, leading edge vortices

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1248 The Effect of Particle Temperature on the Thickness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H.Mohammadi Majd


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: HVOF, temperature, thickness, velocity, WC-12Co

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1247 The Effect of Impinging WC-12Co Particles Temperature on Thickness of HVOF Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: HVOF, temperature thickness, velocity, WC-12Co

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
1246 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian


Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

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1245 Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish K. Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K. Saxena


The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

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1244 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab


In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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1243 Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Bead Height for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish Kumar Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K Saxena, Deepti Jaiswal


The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on bead geometry and dilution. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction, while bead width and reinforcement increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1242 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System

Authors: Janusz Kwaśniewski, Ireneusz Dominik, Krzysztof Lalik


The knowledge about rock layers thickness, especially above drilled mining pavements are crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-Excited Acoustical System is presented in the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rock layer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system, which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.

Keywords: auto-oscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement, geotechnic

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1241 FEM Investigation of Inhomogeneous Wall Thickness Backward Extrusion for Aerosol Can Manufacturing

Authors: Jemal Ebrahim Dessie, Zsolt Lukacs


The wall of the aerosol can is extruded from the backward extrusion process. Necking is another forming process stage developed on the can shoulder after the backward extrusion process. Due to the thinner thickness of the wall, buckling is the critical challenge for current pure aluminum aerosol can industries. Design and investigation of extrusion with inhomogeneous wall thickness could be the best solution for reducing and optimization of neck retraction numbers. FEM simulation of inhomogeneous wall thickness has been simulated through this investigation. From axisymmetric Deform-2D backward extrusion, an aerosol can with a thickness of 0.4 mm at the top and 0.33 mm at the bottom of the aerosol can have been developed. As the result, it can optimize the number of retractions of the necking process and manufacture defect-free aerosol can shoulder due to the necking process.

Keywords: aerosol can, backward extrusion, Deform-2D, necking

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1240 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran


Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement

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1239 Prediction of Rolling Forces and Real Exit Thickness of Strips in the Cold Rolling by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Heydari Vini


There is a complicated relation between effective input parameters of cold rolling and output rolling force and exit thickness of many mathematical models, the effect of some rolling parameters have been ignored and the outputs have not a desirable accuracy. In the other hand, there is a special relation among input thickness of strips,the width of the strips,rolling speeds,mandrill tensions and the required exit thickness of strips with rolling force and the real exit thickness of the rolled strip. First of all, in this paper the effective parameters of cold rolling process modeled using an artificial neural network according to the optimum network achieved by using a written program in MATLAB,it has been shown that the prediction of rolling stand parameters with different properties and new dimensions attained from prior rolled strips by an artificial neural network is applicable.

Keywords: cold rolling, artificial neural networks, rolling force, real rolled thickness of strips

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1238 Approach to Study the Workability of Concrete with the Fractal Model

Authors: Achouri Fatima, Chouicha Kaddour


The main parameters affecting the workability are the water content, particle size, and the total surface of the grains, as long as the mixing water begins by wetting the surface of the grains and then fills the voids between the grains to form entrapped water, the quantity of water remaining is called free water. The aim is to undertake a fractal approach through the relationship between the concrete formulation parameters and workability, to develop this approach a series of concrete taken from the literature was investigated by varying formulation parameters such as G / S, the quantity of cement C and the quantity of mixing water E. We also call on other model as the model for the thickness of the water layer and model of the thickness of the paste layer to judge their relevance, hence the following results : the relevance of the model of the thickness of the water layer is considered relevant when there is a variation in the water quantity, the model of the thickness of the layer of the paste is only applicable if we consider that the paste is made with the grain value Dmax = 2.85: value from which we see a stable model.

Keywords: concrete, fractal method, paste thickness, water thickness, workability

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1237 The Effect of Honeycomb Core Thickness on the Repeated Low-Velocity Impact Behavior of Sandwich Beams

Authors: S. H. Abo Sabah, A. B. H. Kueh, M. A. Megat Johari, T. A. Majid


In a recent study, a new bio-inspired honeycomb sandwich beam (BHSB) mimicking the head configuration of the woodpecker was developed. The beam consists of two carbon/epoxy composite face sheets, aluminum honeycomb core, and rubber core to enhance the repeated low-velocity impact resistance of sandwich structures. This paper aims to numerically enhance the repeated low-velocity impact resistance of the BHSB via optimizing the aluminum honeycomb core thickness. The beam was investigated employing three core thicknesses: 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm at three impact energy levels (13.5 J, 15.55 J, 21.43 J). The results revealed that increasing the thickness of the aluminum honeycomb core to a certain level enhances the sandwich beam stiffness. The beam with the 25 mm honeycomb core thickness was the only beam that can sustain five repeated impacts achieving the highest impact resistance efficiency index, especially at high energy levels. Furthermore, the bottom face sheet of this beam developed the lowest stresses indicating that this thickness has a relatively better performance during impact events since it allowed minimal stress to reach the bottom face sheet. Overall, increasing the aluminum core thickness will increase the height of its cells subjecting it to buckling phenomenon. Therefore, this study suggests that the optimal thickness of the aluminum honeycomb core should be 65 % of the overall thickness of the sandwich beam to have the best impact resistance.

Keywords: sandwich beams, core thickness, impact behavior, finite element analysis, modeling

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1236 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability Distribution of Grown Crack Size in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.

Keywords: crack size, fatigue crack propagation, magnesium alloys, probability distribution, specimen thickness

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1235 The Control of Wall Thickness Tolerance during Pipe Purchase Stage Based on Reliability Approach

Authors: Weichao Yu, Kai Wen, Weihe Huang, Yang Yang, Jing Gong


Metal-loss corrosion is a major threat to the safety and integrity of gas pipelines as it may result in the burst failures which can cause severe consequences that may include enormous economic losses as well as the personnel casualties. Therefore, it is important to ensure the corroding pipeline integrity and efficiency, considering the value of wall thickness, which plays an important role in the failure probability of corroding pipeline. Actually, the wall thickness is controlled during pipe purchase stage. For example, the API_SPEC_5L standard regulates the allowable tolerance of the wall thickness from the specified value during the pipe purchase. The allowable wall thickness tolerance will be used to determine the wall thickness distribution characteristic such as the mean value, standard deviation and distribution. Taking the uncertainties of the input variables in the burst limit-state function into account, the reliability approach rather than the deterministic approach will be used to evaluate the failure probability. Moreover, the cost of pipe purchase will be influenced by the allowable wall thickness tolerance. More strict control of the wall thickness usually corresponds to a higher pipe purchase cost. Therefore changing the wall thickness tolerance will vary both the probability of a burst failure and the cost of the pipe. This paper describes an approach to optimize the wall thickness tolerance considering both the safety and economy of corroding pipelines. In this paper, the corrosion burst limit-state function in Annex O of CSAZ662-7 is employed to evaluate the failure probability using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. By changing the allowable wall thickness tolerance, the parameters of the wall thickness distribution in the limit-state function will be changed. Using the reliability approach, the corresponding variations in the burst failure probability will be shown. On the other hand, changing the wall thickness tolerance will lead to a change in cost in pipe purchase. Using the variation of the failure probability and pipe cost caused by changing wall thickness tolerance specification, the optimal allowable tolerance can be obtained, and used to define pipe purchase specifications.

Keywords: allowable tolerance, corroding pipeline segment, operation cost, production cost, reliability approach

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1234 Correlation of Strength and Change in the Thickness of Back Extensor Muscles during Maximal Isometric Contraction in Healthy and Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Mohammad Jan-Nataj Zeinab, Kahrizi Sedighe, Bayat Noshin, Giti Torkaman


According to the importance of the back extensor muscle strength in postmenopausal women, this study aimed to determine the relationship between strength and changes in the thickness of back extensor muscles during isometric contraction in healthy and osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Strength and thickness of the muscles of 42 postmenopausal women were measured respectively, using a handheld dynamometer and ultrasonography. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the strength and thickness. The results indicated a high reproducibility dynamometer test and ultrasonography. The decrease of strength in people with osteoporosis, occurred more through changes in muscle structure such as reducing the number and size of muscle fibers than changes in the nervous system part.

Keywords: back extensor muscles, strength, thickness, osteoporosis

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1233 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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1232 Economical Analysis of Optimum Insulation Thickness for HVAC Duct

Authors: D. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. G. Memon, R. A. Memon, K. Harijan


A considerable amount of energy is usually lost due to compression of insulation in Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct. In this paper, the economic impact of compression of insulation is estimated. Relevant mathematical models were used to estimate the optimal thickness at the points of compression. Furthermore, the payback period is calculated for the optimal thickness at the critical parts of supply air duct (SAD) and return air duct (RAD) considering natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuels for chillier operation. The mathematical model is developed using preliminary data obtained for an HVAC system of a pharmaceutical company. The higher heat gain and cooling loss, due to compression of thermal insulation, is estimated using relevant heat transfer equations. The results reveal that maximum energy savings (ES) in SAD is 34.5 and 40%, while in RAD is 22.9% and 29% for NG and LPG, respectively. Moreover, the minimum payback period (PP) for SAD is 2 and 1.6years, while in RAD is 4.3 and 2.7years for NG and LPG, respectively. The optimum insulation thickness (OIT) corresponding to maximum ES and minimum PP is estimated to be 35 and 42mm for SAD, while 30 and 38mm for RAD in case of NG and LPG, respectively.

Keywords: optimum insulation thickness, life cycle cost analysis, payback period, HVAC system

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
1231 Thickness Measurement and Void Detection in Concrete Elements through Ultrasonic Pulse

Authors: Leonel Lipa Cusi, Enrique Nestor Pasquel Carbajal, Laura Marina Navarro Alvarado, José Del Álamo Carazas


This research analyses the accuracy of the ultrasound and the pulse echo ultrasound technic to find voids and to measure thickness of concrete elements. These mentioned air voids are simulated by polystyrene expanded and hollow containers of thin thickness made of plastic or cardboard of different sizes and shapes. These targets are distributed strategically inside concrete at different depths. For this research, a shear wave pulse echo ultrasonic device of 50 KHz is used to scan the concrete elements. Despite the small measurements of the concrete elements and because of voids’ size are near the half of the wavelength, pre and post processing steps like voltage, gain, SAFT, envelope and time compensation were made in order to improve imaging results.

Keywords: ultrasonic, concrete, thickness, pulse echo, void

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1230 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour


In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5 mm to 6.3 mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3 mm to 8 mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, column faces bending, concrete filled hollow sections

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1229 Design of Ternary Coatings System to Minimize the Residual Solvent in Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Jyoti Sharma, Raj Kumar Arya


The coatings of homogeneous ternary solution of Poly(styrene)(PS)-Poly(ethyleneglycol)-6000(PEG) Chlorobenzene (CLB) of two different concentrations (5.05%-4.98%-89.97% and 10.05%-5.12%-84.82%) were studied and dried under quiescent conditions. Residual solvent percentage and coatings thickness were calculated by gravimetric weight loss data. Residual solvent remained lower in case of the single thick layer as compared to layer-by-layer assembly technique. The Results suggests the effectiveness of the single thick layer for minimizing the residual solvent. A single thick layer had an initial coating thickness of 1098 µm and the final thickness of 106 µm which is lower as compared to the dried coatings of nearly the same final thickness by layer-by-layer assembly technique.

Keywords: films, layer-by-layer assembly, polymeric coatings, ternary system

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1228 Advanced Model for Calculation of the Neutral Axis Shifting and the Wall Thickness Distribution in Rotary Draw Bending Processes

Authors: B. Engel, H. Hassan


Rotary draw bending is a method which is being used in tube forming. In the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness distribution changes for tube’s cross section. Thinning takes place in the outer arc of the tube (extrados) due to the stretching of the material, whereas thickening occurs in the inner arc of the tube (intrados) due to the comparison of the material. The calculations of the wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting, and strain distribution have not been accurate enough, so far. The previous model (the geometrical model) describes the neutral axis shifting and wall thickness distribution. The geometrical of the tube, bending radius and bending angle are considered in the geometrical model, while the influence of the material properties of the tube forming are ignored. The advanced model is a modification of the previous model using material properties that depends on the correction factor. The correction factor is a purely empirically determined factor. The advanced model was compared with the Finite element simulation (FE simulation) using a different bending factor (Bf=bending radius/ diameter of the tube), wall thickness (Wf=diameter of the tube/ wall thickness), and material properties (strain hardening exponent). Finite element model of rotary draw bending has been performed in PAM-TUBE program (version: 2012). Results from the advanced model resemble the FE simulation and the experimental test.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, material properties, neutral axis shifting, wall thickness distribution

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1227 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Bond Thickness on the Interface Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Sheet Bonded to Timber

Authors: Abbas Vahedian, Rijun Shrestha, Keith Crews


The bond mechanism between timber and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) is relatively complex and is influenced by a number of variables including bond thickness, bond width, bond length, material properties, and geometries. This study investigates the influence of bond thickness on the behaviour of interface, failure mode, and bond strength of externally bonded FRP-to-timber interface. In the present study, 106 single shear joint specimens have been investigated. Experiment results showed that higher layers of FRP increase the ultimate load carrying capacity of interface; conversely, such increase led to decrease the slip of interface. Moreover, samples with more layers of FRPs may fail in a brittle manner without noticeable warning that collapse is imminent.

Keywords: fibre reinforced polymer, FRP, single shear test, bond thickness, bond strength

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1226 Effect of Segregation Pattern of Mn, Si, and C on through Thickness Microstructure and Properties of Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Waleed M. Al-Othman, Hamid Bayati, Abdullah Al-Shahrani, Haitham Al-Jabr


Pearlite bands commonly form parallel to the surface of the hot rolled steel and have significant influence on the properties of the steel. This study investigated the correlation between segregation pattern of Mn, Si, C and formation of the pearlite bands in hot rolled Gr 60 steel plate. Microstructural study indicated formation of a distinguished thick band at centerline of the plate with number of parallel bands through thickness of the steel plate. The thickness, frequency, and continuity of the bands are reduced from mid-thickness toward external surface of the steel plate. Analysis showed a noticeable increase of C, Si and Mn levels within the bands. Such alloying segregation takes place during metal solidification. EDS analysis verified presence of particles rich in Ti, Nb, Mn, C, N, within the bands. Texture analysis by Electron Backscatter Detector (EBSD) indicated the grains size/misorientation can noticeably change within the bands. Effect of banding on through-thickness properties of the steel was examined by carrying out microhardness, toughness and tensile tests. Results suggest the Mn and C contents are changed in sinusoidal pattern through thickness of the hot rolled plate and pearlite bands are formed at the peaks of this sinusoidal segregation pattern. Changes in grain size/misorientation, formation of highly alloyed particles, and pearlite within these bands, facilitate crack formation along boundaries of these bands.

Keywords: pearlite band, alloying segregation, hot rolling, Ti, Nb, N, C

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1225 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer


Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: microwave drying, eggplant, drying rate, drying efficiency, energy consumption

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1224 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi


This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: CuAlS2, evaporation, sulfurisation, thickness, resistivity, crystalline

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1223 Optimum of Offshore Structures Lifting Padeyes Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Abdelrahim Hamadelnil


Padeye design and analysis plays important roles during the lifting, load out and installation of heavy structures. This paper explains the disadvantages of limiting the effective thickness of the cheek plate to 75% of the main plate thickness. In addition, a sensitivity study about the impact of the out of plane force on the padeye design is discussed. This study also explains the fabrication requirements to ensure that the designed strength is achieved. The objective of this study is to elaborate and discuss the philosophy of padeye design and to propose the suitable effective cheek plate thickness to be considered in the analysis of padeye. A finite element analysis using London University Structure Analysis System (LUSAS), is conducted and compared with the hand calculation. The benefits and advantage of using FE analysis is addressed in this paper. At the end of this paper, a guideline elaborating the philosophy of the design of the padeye is developed and the suitable effective thickness of cheek plate to be considered in the design is recommended. In addition, a comparison between the finite element result and the hand calculation using beam theory is discussed as well.

Keywords: cheek plate, effective thickness, out of plane force, Padeye

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1222 An Investigation on the Energy Absorption of Sandwich Panels With Aluminium Foam Core under Perforation Test

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Mojtaba Zebarjad, Golestanipour


Metallic sandwich structures with aluminum foam core are good energy absorbers. In this paper, perforation test were carried out on different samples to study energy absorption. In the experiments, effect of several parameters, i.e. skin thickness and thickness of foam core, on the energy absorption, delamination zone of back faces and deformation strain(φ) are discussed. Results show that increasing plates thickness will results in more absorbed energy and delamination. Moreover, thickening foam core has the same effect.

Keywords: sandwich panel, aluminium foam, perforation, energy absorption

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1221 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar


Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.


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1220 Dynamic Analysis of Viscoelastic Plates with Variable Thickness

Authors: Gülçin Tekin, Fethi Kadıoğlu


In this study, the dynamic analysis of viscoelastic plates with variable thickness is examined. The solutions of dynamic response of viscoelastic thin plates with variable thickness have been obtained by using the functional analysis method in the conjunction with the Gâteaux differential. The four-node serendipity element with four degrees of freedom such as deflection, bending, and twisting moments at each node is used. Additionally, boundary condition terms are included in the functional by using a systematic way. In viscoelastic modeling, Three-parameter Kelvin solid model is employed. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain are transformed to the real time domain by using MDOP, Dubner & Abate, and Durbin inverse transform techniques. To test the performance of the proposed mixed finite element formulation, numerical examples are treated.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, inverse laplace transform techniques, mixed finite element formulation, viscoelastic plate with variable thickness

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