Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 716

Search results for: unsafe acts

716 The Exploration of Psychosocial Risk and the Handling of Unsafe Acts and Misconduct

Authors: Jacquelene Swanepoel, J. C. Visagie, H. M. Linde

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this article is to investigate the psychosocial risk environment influencing employee behaviour, and subsequently the trust relationship between employer and employee. Design/methodology/approach: The unique nature and commonness of negative acts, such as unsafe behaviour, human errors, poor performance and negligence, also referred to as unsafe practice, are explored. A literature review is formulated to investigate the nature of negative acts or unsafe behaviour. The findings of this study are used to draw comparisons between unsafe behaviour/misconduct and accidents in the workplace and finally conclude how it should be addressed from a labour relations point of view. Findings: The results indicate comparisons between unsafe practice/misconduct and occupational injuries and accidents, as a result of system flaws, human error or psychosocial risk.

Keywords: occupational risks, unsafe practice, misconduct, organisational safety culture, ergonomics, management commitment and leadership, labour relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
715 Assessment of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in Construction Accident Prevention

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Didi Thwala

Abstract:

Majority of the incidents and accidents in complex high-risk systems that exist in the construction industry and other sectors have been attributed to unsafe acts of workers. The purpose of this paper was to asses Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in construction accident prevention. The study was conducted through the use of secondary data from journals, books and internet to achieve the objective of the study. The review of literature looked into details of different views from different scholars about HFACS framework in accidents investigations. It further highlighted on various sections or disciplines of accident occurrences in human performance within the construction. The findings from literature review showed that unsafe acts of a worker and unsafe working conditions are the two major causes of accident in the construction industry.Most significant factor in the cause of site accident in the construction industry is unsafe acts of a worker. The findings also show how the application of HFACS framework in the investigation of accident will lead to the identification of common trends. Further findings show that provision for the prevention of accident will be made based on past accident records to identify and prioritize where intervention is needed within the construction industry.

Keywords: accident, construction, HFACS, unsafe acts

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
714 A Literature Review of Ergonomics Sitting Studies to Characterize Safe and Unsafe Sitting Behaviors

Authors: Yoonjin Lee, Dongwook Hwang, Juhee Park, Woojin Park

Abstract:

As undesirable sitting posture is known to be a major cause of musculoskeletal disorder of office workers, sitting has attracted attention on occupational health. However, there seems to be no consensus on what are safe and unsafe sitting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safe and unsafe behaviors based on scientific findings of sitting behavior. Three objectives were as follows; to identify different sitting behaviors measure used in ergonomics studies on safe sitting, for each measure identified, to find available findings or recommendations on safe and unsafe sitting behaviors along with relevant empirical grounds, and to synthesize the findings or recommendations to provide characterizations of safe and unsafe behaviors. A systematic review of electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science) was conducted for extensive search of sitting behavior. Key terms included awkward sitting position, sedentary sitting, dynamic sitting, sitting posture, sitting posture, and sitting biomechanics, etc. Each article was systemically abstracted to extract a list of studied sitting behaviors, measures used to study the sitting behavior, and presence of empirical evidence of safety of the sitting behaviors. Finally, characterization of safe and unsafe sitting behavior was conducted based on knowledge with empirical evidence. This characterization is expected to provide useful knowledge for evaluation of sitting behavior and about postures to be measured in development of sensing chair.

Keywords: sitting position, sitting biomechanics, sitting behavior, unsafe sitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
713 Investigating the Causes of Human Error-Induced Incidents in the Maintenance Operations of Petrochemical Industry by Using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System

Authors: Omid Kalatpour, Mohammadreza Ajdari

Abstract:

This article studied the possible causes of human error-induced incidents in the petrochemical industry maintenance activities by using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The purpose of the study was anticipating and identifying these causes and proposing corrective and preventive actions. Maintenance department in a petrochemical company was selected for research. A checklist of human error-induced incidents was developed based on four HFACS main levels and nineteen sub-groups. Hierarchical task analysis (HTA) technique was used to identify maintenance activities and tasks. The main causes of possible incidents were identified by checklist and recorded. Corrective and preventive actions were defined depending on priority. Analyzing the worksheets of 444 activities in four levels of HFACS showed 37.6% of the causes were at the level of unsafe actions, 27.5% at the level of unsafe supervision, 20.9% at the level of preconditions for unsafe acts and 14% of the causes were at the level of organizational effects. The HFACS sub-groups showed errors (24.36%) inadequate supervision (14.89%) and violations (13.26%) with the most frequency. According to findings of this study, increasing the training effectiveness of operators and supervision improvement respectively are the most important measures in decreasing the human error-induced incidents in petrochemical industry maintenance.

Keywords: human error, petrochemical industry, maintenance, HFACS

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
712 Speech Acts and Politeness Strategies in an EFL Classroom in Georgia

Authors: Tinatin Kurdghelashvili

Abstract:

The paper deals with the usage of speech acts and politeness strategies in an EFL classroom in Georgia (Rep of). It explores the students’ and the teachers’ practice of the politeness strategies and the speech acts of apology, thanking, request, compliment/encouragement, command, agreeing/disagreeing, addressing and code switching. The research method includes observation as well as a questionnaire. The target group involves the students from Georgian public schools and two certified, experienced local English teachers. The analysis is based on Searle’s Speech Act Theory and Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies. The findings show that the students have certain knowledge regarding politeness yet they fail to apply them in English communication. In addition, most of the speech acts from the classroom interaction are used by the teachers and not the students. Thereby, it is suggested that teachers should cultivate the students’ communicative competence and attempt to give them opportunities to practice more English speech acts than they do today.

Keywords: english as a foreign language, Georgia, politeness principles, speech acts

Procedia PDF Downloads 545
711 The Principle of the Protection of Legitimate Expectation: Analysis the Adjudications of Thailand Court

Authors: Paiboon Chuwatthanakij

Abstract:

In reference to the legal state in the Thai legal system, most people understand the minor principles of the legal state form, which are the principles that can be explained and understood easily and the results can be seen clearly, especially in the legitimacy of administrative acts. Therefore, there is no awareness of justice, which is the fundamental value of Thai law. The legitimacy of administrative acts requires the administration to adhere to the constitution and legislative laws in enforcement of the laws. If it appears that the administrative acts are illegitimate, the administrative court, as the court of justice, will revoke those acts as if they had never been set in the legal system, this will affect people’s trust as they are unaware as to whether the administrative acts that appoint their lives are legitimate or not. Regarding the revocation of administrative orders by the administrative court as if those orders had never existed, the common individual surely cannot be expected to comprehend the security of their juristic position. Therefore, the legal state does not require a revocation of the government’s acts to terminate its legal results merely because those acts are illegitimate, but there should be considerations and realizations regarding the “The Principle of the Protection of Legitimate Expectation,” which is a minor principle in the legal state’s content that focuses on supporting and protecting legitimate expectations of the juristic position of an individual and maintaining justice, which is the fundamental value of Thai law

Keywords: legal state, rule of law, protection of legitimate, adjudication

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
710 Analysis of Labor Behavior Effect on Occupational Health and Safety Management by Multiple Linear Regression

Authors: Yulinda Rizky Pratiwi, Fuji Anugrah Emily

Abstract:

Management of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) are appropriately applied properly by all workers and pekarya in the company. K3 management application also has become very important to prevent accidents. Violation of the rules regarding the K3 has often occurred from time to time. By 2015 the number of occurrences of a violation of the K3 or so-called unsafe action tends to increase. Until finally in January 2016, the number increased drastically unsafe action. Trigger increase in the number of unsafe action is a decrease in the quality of management practices K3. While the application of K3 management performed by each individual thought to be influenced by the attitude and observation guide the actions of each of the individual. In addition to the decline in the quality of K3 management application may result in increased likelihood of accidents and losses for the company as well as the local co-workers. The big difference in the number of unsafe action is very significant in the month of January 2016, making the company Pertamina as the national oil company must do a lot of effort to keep track of how the implementation of K3 management on every worker and pekarya, one at PT Pertamina EP Cepu Field Asset IV. To consider the effort to control the implementation of K3 management can be seen from the attitude and observation guide the actions of the workers and pekarya. By using Multiple Linear Regression can be seen the influence of attitude and action observation guide workers and pekarya the K3 management application that has been done. The results showed that scores K3 management application of each worker and pekarya will increase by 0.764 if the score pekarya worker attitudes and increase one unit, whereas if the score Reassurance action guidelines and pekarya workers increased by one unit then the score management application K3 will increase by 0.754.

Keywords: occupational safety and health, management of occupational safety and health, unsafe action, multiple linear regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
709 Crystallization of the US Supreme Court’s Role as an Arbiter of Constitutionality of Laws

Authors: Fethia Braik

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the history of the US Supreme Court. It did not enjoy today’s status. It did neither control legislation nor the executive power. It was until 1803, during Marshall’s term, that it gained the pride of ruling over the constitutionality of acts be they federal or local, congressional or presidential. The Chief Justice, whether intended or not, vested such power in the supreme judicial institution via the case of Marbury v. Madison. Such power, nevertheless, had not been exercised for many years, till the Dred Scott case.

Keywords: Judiciary Acts 1789, 1801, chief justice, associate justice, justice of peace, review of constitutionality of acts, Jay court, Ellsworth court, Marshall court

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
708 The Philippines’ War on Drugs: a Pragmatic Analysis on Duterte's Commemorative Speeches

Authors: Ericson O. Alieto, Aprillete C. Devanadera

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is to determine the dominant speech acts in five commemorative speeches of President Duterte. This study employed Speech Act Theory and Discourse analysis to determine how the speech acts features connote the pragmatic meaning of Duterte’s speeches. Identifying the speech acts is significant in elucidating the underlying message or the pragmatic meaning of the speeches. From the 713 sentences or utterances from the speeches, assertive with 208 occurrences from the corpus or 29% is the dominant speech acts. It was followed by expressive with 177 or 25% occurrences, directive accounts for 152 or 15% occurrences. While commisive accounts for 104 or 15% occurrences and declarative got the lowest percentage of occurrences with 72 or 10% only. These sentences when uttered by Duterte carry a certain power of language to move or influence people. Thus, the present study shows the fundamental message perceived by the listeners. Moreover, the frequent use of assertive and expressive not only explains the pragmatic message of the speeches but also reflects the personality of President Duterte.

Keywords: commemorative speech, discourse analysis, duterte, pragmatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
707 Unsafe Abortions in India: Questioning the Propitiousness of MTP Act

Authors: Suresh Sharma, Neeti Goutam

Abstract:

In India abortions are legal and with the exceedingly liberal and broadened law that was passed in 1971, “Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act” had opened a new window to Women’s’ freedom and choice over their fertility. This paper would like to focus on the factors responsible for or leading to unsafe abortion as well as such high incidence of abortion in India which can help in understanding the ways in which we can prevent this apathy. To study the intricacies involved in delivering safety to womanhood in terms of safe abortion practice which includes more trained personnel, detailed explanation and consequences of conducting an abortion, fine reporting, awareness regarding family planning measures and not only pressurizing them to sterilize immediately after an abortion but also prior to that informing them and lastly easy accessibility of Contraceptives with a educated and brief information on that. Data has been drawn from various sources such as National Family Household Survey (1, 2, 3), Health Management Information System and Annual Health Survey. To safeguard the interest of women when it comes to complications resulting from unsafe abortions, Reproductive Health laid its strict adherence to it in its guidelines. The Government could induce more measures in terms of family planning measures and increase in the number of skilled medical health force, chiefly in rural areas to prevent the illegality of abortions. But before that fine reporting on the number of abortions performed will give an insight to this very issue only then policies and programs will work much better in favor of women.

Keywords: abortion, MTP act, India, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
706 Polite Request Strategies in Commuter Discourse in Xhosa

Authors: Mawande Dlali

Abstract:

This paper examines the request strategies in commuter discourse involving taxi drivers and passengers in Khayelitsha as well as the responses to these requests. The present study considers requests in commuter transport as face threatening acts (FTAs), hence the need for the commuter crew to strategically shape their communicative actions to achieve their overall discourse goal of getting passengers to perform actions that are in their own interest with minimum resistance or confrontation. The crew presents itself by using communicative devices that prompt the passengers to evaluate it positively as warm, friendly, and respectful. However, the passengers' responses to requests range from compliance to resistance depending on their interpretation of the speaker’s motive and the probable social consequences. Participant observation by the researcher was the main method of collecting examples of requests and responses to the requests. Unstructured interviews and informal discussions were made with randomly selected taxi drivers and commuters. The findings and explanations presented in this article revealed the predominance of polite requests as speech acts in taxi discourse in Khayelitsha. This research makes a contribution to the contemporary pragmatics study of African languages in urban context.

Keywords: face threatening acts, speech acts, request strategies, discourse

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
705 Rational Memory Therapy: The Counselling Technique to Control Psychological and Psychosomatic Illnesses

Authors: Sachin Deshmukh

Abstract:

Mind and body synchronization occurs through memory and sensation production. Sensations are the guiding language of subconscious mind for conscious mind to take a proper action. Mind-mechanism is based upon memories collected so far since intrauterine life. There are three universal triggers for memory creation; they are persons, situations and objects. Memory is created as sensations experienced by special senses. Based upon experiencing comfort or discomfort, the triggers are categorized as safe or unsafe triggers. A memory comprises of ‘safe or unsafe feeling for triggers, and actions taken for that feeling’. Memories for triggers are created slowly, thoughtfully and consciously by the conscious mind, and archived in the subconscious mind for future references. Later on, similar triggers can come in contact with the individual. Subconscious mind uses these stored feelings to decide whether these triggers are safe or unsafe. It produces comfort or discomfort sensations as emotions accordingly and reacts in the same way as has been recorded in memory. Speed of sensing and processing the triggers, and reacting by subconscious mind is that of the speed of bioelectricity. Hence, formula for human emotions has been designed in this paper as follows: Emotion (Stress or Peace) = Trigger (Person or Situation or object) x Mass of feelings (stressful or peaceful) associated with the Trigger x Speed of Light². We also establish modern medical scientific facts about relationship between reflex activity and memory. This research further develops the ‘Rational Memory Therapy’ focusing on therapeutic feelings conversion techniques, for stress prevention and management.

Keywords: memory, sensations, feelings, emotions, rational memory therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
704 Predictive Output Feedback Linearization for Safe Control of Collaborative Robots

Authors: Aliasghar Arab

Abstract:

Autonomous robots interacting with humans, as safety-critical nonlinear control systems, are complex closed-loop cyber-physical dynamical machines. Keeping these intelligent yet complicated systems safe and smooth during their operations is challenging. The aim of the safe predictive output feedback linearization control synthesis is to design a novel controller for smooth trajectory following while unsafe situations must be avoided. The controller design should obtain a linearized output for smoothness and invariance to a safety subset. Inspired by finite-horizon nonlinear model predictive control, the problem is formulated as constrained nonlinear dynamic programming. The safety constraints can be defined as control barrier functions. Avoiding unsafe maneuvers and performing smooth motions increases the predictability of the robot’s movement for humans when robots and people are working together. Our results demonstrate the proposed output linearization method obeys the safety constraints and, compared to existing safety-guaranteed methods, is smoother and performs better.

Keywords: robotics, collaborative robots, safety, autonomous robots

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
703 Bangladeshi English Teachers’ Understanding of Teacher Autonomy

Authors: Rubaiyat Jahan

Abstract:

This paper reports some findings of a study on the issues related to teacher autonomy in the Bangladeshi school contexts, and data of this research was collected from fourteen practicing English teachers of Bangladesh through semi structured interviews. The theoretical underpinning of teacher autonomy, on an apparent note, focuses on the behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy hence emphasizing mostly on the teachers’ capacity for self-directed acts of teaching and self-directed acts of professional development. Yet, a contemporary literature survey of teacher autonomy seems to be concerned more on the political interpretations of teacher autonomy. Thus, autonomous teachers are expected to generate their personal theories of teaching from their practices. The idea of personal theories of practice upholds the view that along with the teaching, teachers need to engage themselves in various classroom based research with a view to theorising from their practices. The findings of this research indicate enormous evidence of behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy. As the data of this research suggests, the participant teachers’ understanding of classroom situations, their reflections on the situational realities and opting for classroom decisions on the basis of those realizations are some good examples of teacher autonomy. Also, a few teachers’ stated teaching practices seem to reflect, though in a subtle way, their effort of outlining context embedded personal theories of teaching. This paper has got one significant pedagogical implication for the teacher education. Any teacher education must promote the conditions and capabilities for the present and prospective teachers for the role of theorisers in addition to develop their professional, procedural, and personal knowledge base.

Keywords: personal theories of practice, self-directed acts of professional development, self-directed acts of teaching, teacher autonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
702 Accident analysis in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India

Authors: Pranab Kumar Goswami, Elena Gurung

Abstract:

Small and medium enterprises (SME) are considered as the driving force for the economic growth of a developing country like India. Most of the SMEs are located in residential/non-industrial areas to avoid legal obligations of occupational safety and health (OSH) provisions. This study was conducted in Delhiwith a view to analyze the accidents that occurredduringthe year 2019 & 2020. The objective of the study was to find out the accident prone SMEs in Delhi and major causes of such accidents. Methods: Survey and comprehensive data analysis methods, followed by applying simple statistical techniques, were used for this study. The accident reports for the study period collected from the labour department and police stations were analyzed for the study. The injured workers were interviewed to ascertain safety compliances, training and awareness programs, etc. The study was completed in March2021. Results: It was found that most of the accidents took place in SMEs located in residential/non- industrial areas in Delhi. The accident-prone machines were found to be power presses (42%) and injection moulding machines (37%). Predominantly unsafe machinery or unsafe working conditions and lack of training of worker were observed to be the major causes of accidents in such industries. Conclusions: It was concluded from the study that unsafe machinery/equipment and lack of proper training to the workers were two main reasons for increase in accidents.It was also concluded that the industries located in industrial areas were better placed in terms of workplace compliances. The managements who were running their operations from residential/non-industrial areaswere found to be less aware on health and safety issues. Lack of enforcement by government agencies in such areas has escalated this problem. Adequate training to workers, managing safe & healthy workplace, and sustained enforcement can reduce accidents in such industries.

Keywords: SME, accident prevention, cause of accident, unorganised

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
701 An Analysis of Illocutioary Act in Martin Luther King Jr.'s Propaganda Speech Entitled 'I Have a Dream'

Authors: Mahgfirah Firdaus Soberatta

Abstract:

Language cannot be separated from human life. Humans use language to convey ideas, thoughts, and feelings. We can use words for different things for example like asserted, advising, promise, give opinions, hopes, etc. Propaganda is an attempt which seeks to obtain stable behavior to adopt everyone to his everyday life. It also controls the thoughts and attitudes of individuals in social settings permanent. In this research, the writer will discuss about the speech act in a propaganda speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. in Washington at Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963. 'I Have a Dream' is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist MLK, he calls from an end to racism in USA. In this research, the writer uses Searle theory to analyze the types of illocutionary speech act that used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. In this research, the writer uses a qualitative method described in descriptive, because the research wants to describe and explain the types of illocutionary speech acts used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. The findings indicate that there are five types of speech acts in Martin Luther King Jr. speech. MLK also used direct speech and indirect speech in his propaganda speech. However, direct speech is the dominant speech act that MLK used in his propaganda speech. It is hoped that this research is useful for the readers to enrich their knowledge in a particular field of pragmatic speech acts.

Keywords: speech act, propaganda, Martin Luther King Jr., speech

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
700 Independent Encryption Technique for Mobile Voice Calls

Authors: Nael Hirzalla

Abstract:

The legality of some countries or agencies’ acts to spy on personal phone calls of the public became a hot topic to many social groups’ talks. It is believed that this act is considered an invasion to someone’s privacy. Such act may be justified if it is singling out specific cases but to spy without limits is very unacceptable. This paper discusses the needs for not only a simple and light weight technique to secure mobile voice calls but also a technique that is independent from any encryption standard or library. It then presents and tests one encrypting algorithm that is based of frequency scrambling technique to show fair and delay-free process that can be used to protect phone calls from such spying acts.

Keywords: frequency scrambling, mobile applications, real-time voice encryption, spying on calls

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
699 Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Apology Strategies by Libyans

Authors: Ahmed Elgadri

Abstract:

In the last thirty years, studies on cross-cultural pragmatics in general and apology strategies in specific have focused on western and East-Asian societies. A small volume of research has been conducted in investigating speech acts production by Arabic dialect speakers. Therefore, this study investigated the apology strategies used by Libyan Arabic speakers using an online Discourse Completion Task (DCT) questionnaire. The DCT consisted of six situations covering different social contexts. The survey was written in Libyan Arabic dialect to help generate vernacular speech as much as possible. The participants were 25 Libyan nationals, 12 females, and 13 males. Also, to get a deeper understanding of the motivation behind the use of certain strategies, the researcher interviewed four participants using the Libyan Arabic dialect as well. The results revealed a high use of IFID, offer of repair, and explanation. Although this might support the universality claim of speech acts strategies, it was clear that cultural norms and religion determined the choice of apology strategies significantly. This led to the discovery of new culture-specific strategies, as outlined later in this paper. This study gives an insight into politeness strategies in Libyan society, and it is hoped to contribute to the field of cross-cultural pragmatics.

Keywords: apologies, cross-cultural pragmatics, language and culture, Libyan Arabic, politeness, pragmatics, socio-pragmatics, speech acts

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
698 The Significance of Community Life in Promoting Unity in the Light of Acts 2:42

Authors: Takesure Mahohoma

Abstract:

Community life is an epitome of the African axiom 'I am because we are, since we are therefore I am.' This culminates in the Ubuntu philosophy which is summarized in the Zulu words, 'umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu' (A person is a person through other people). This relationship gives honour to all people. This is the gist of the paper. This paper seeks to demonstrate the impact of community life in promoting unity from an African perspective. Using the proto-community in Acts 2:42, it is argued that community life is a solution to many social problems that divide African society today. The aim is to encourage all Africans and other people to cultivate a sense of belonging and valuing community life in the light of Acts 2:42. Hence we shall trace this theme from Old Testament, New Testament, and Christian history. The other section touches on the essence of community life and obstacles that hinder it. We shall offer spiritual suggestions and an integrative reflection. The nature of the paper is theology in general but spiritual in particular. As a spiritual paper, it is guided by the foundational approach. Thus, it employs the dialogical and integrative reflection method. The expected result is that freedom from all the miseries experienced is brought by living a community life. This is a life that gives greater assurance of enough food, education, health, peace, employment, and increased responsibility that values human dignity. Thus people are neighbours to each other. There is no stranger among them. The basic presumption is that there can be no development in any society without community life.

Keywords: community, seged, koinonia, neighbor

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
697 Sexual Behaviors and Condom Attitude among Injecting Drug Users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Qualitative Findings

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Thanh N. Long, Phan T. Huong, Donald E. Stewart

Abstract:

This paper presents views on condom use and the contexts of safe and unsafe sexual practices with different sexual partners and their relationships among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. Fifteen IDUs participated and two local interviewers conducted qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews in September-October, 2012 in Vietnamese language. Data were analyzed thematically. Non-protective condom attitudes include negotiate or convince Female Sex Workers (FSW); not realizing risk, importance or necessity; partner doesn’t like, and having extra money/drug from clients. On the other hand, self-awareness, family-consciousness, suspicion of STI presence, fear of getting HIV, and client negotiation sometimes resulted in a safe-sex practice. A thematic diagram was developed to present the relationship (strong/weak) between condom attitude and sexual practice (safe/unsafe) by partner types. The experiences and views reflected in the qualitative information emphasize the heightened need for safe-sex education especially among young IDUs (male/female) highlighting sexual transmission risk.

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, injecting drug user, risk behaviors, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
696 Traffic Safety and Risk Assessment Model by Analysis of Questionnaire Survey: A Case Study of S. G. Highway, Ahmedabad, India

Authors: Abhijitsinh Gohil, Kaushal Wadhvaniya, Kuldipsinh Jadeja

Abstract:

Road Safety is a multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional issue. An effective model can assess the risk associated with highway safety. A questionnaire survey is very essential to identify the events or activities which are causing unsafe condition for traffic on an urban highway. A questionnaire of standard questions including vehicular, human and infrastructure characteristics can be made. Responses from the age wise group of road users can be taken on field. Each question or an event holds a specific risk weightage, which contributes in creating an inappropriate and unsafe flow of traffic. The probability of occurrence of an event can be calculated from the data collected from the road users. Finally, the risk score can be calculated by considering the risk factor and the probability of occurrence of individual event and addition of all risk score for the individual event will give the total risk score of a particular road. Standards for risk score can be made and total risk score can be compared with the standards. Thus road can be categorized based on risk associated and traffic safety on it. With this model, one can assess the need for traffic safety improvement on a given road, and qualitative data can be analysed.

Keywords: probability of occurrence, questionnaire, risk factor, risk score

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
695 Effects of Exposing Learners to Speech Acts in the German Teaching Material Schritte International: The Case of Requests

Authors: Wan-Lin Tsai

Abstract:

Speech act of requests is an important issue in the field of language learning and teaching because we cannot avoid making requesting in our daily life. This study examined whether or not the subjects who were freshmen and majored in German at Wenzao University of Languages were able to use the linguistic forms which they had learned from their course book Schritte International to make appropriate requests through dialogue completed tasks (DCT). The results revealed that the majority of the subjects were unable to use the forms to make appropriate requests in German due to the lack of explicit instructions. Furthermore, Chinese interference was observed in students' productions. Explicit instructions in speech acts are strongly recommended.

Keywords: Chinese interference, German pragmatics, German teaching, make appropriate requests in German, speech act of requesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
694 Construction of Green Aggregates from Waste Processing

Authors: Fahad K. Alqahtani

Abstract:

Nowadays construction industry is developing means to incorporate waste products in concrete to ensure sustainability. To meet the need of construction industry, a synthetic aggregate was developed using optimized technique called compression moulding press technique. The manufactured aggregate comprises mixture of plastic, waste which acts as binder, together with by-product waste which acts as fillers. The physical properties and microstructures of the inert materials and the manufactured aggregate were examined and compared with the conventional available aggregates. The outcomes suggest that the developed aggregate has potential to be used as substitution of conventional aggregate due to its less weight and water absorption. The microstructure analysis confirmed the efficiency of the manufacturing process where the final product has the same mixture of binder and filler.

Keywords: fly ash, plastic waste, quarry fine, red sand, synthetic aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
693 Refusal Speech Acts in French Learners of Mandarin Chinese

Authors: Jui-Hsueh Hu

Abstract:

This study investigated various models of refusal speech acts among three target groups: French learners of Mandarin Chinese (FM), Taiwanese native Mandarin speakers (TM), and native French speakers (NF). The refusal responses were analyzed in terms of their options, frequencies, and sequences and the contents of their semantic formulas. This study also examined differences in refusal strategies, as determined by social status and social distance, among the three groups. The difficulties of refusal speech acts encountered by FM were then generalized. The results indicated that Mandarin instructors of NF should focus on the different reasons for the pragmatic failure of French learners and should assist these learners in mastering refusal speech acts that rely on abundant cultural information. In this study, refusal policies were mainly classified according to the research of Beebe et al. (1990). Discourse completion questionnaires were collected from TM, FM, and NF, and their responses were compared to determine how refusal policies differed among the groups. This study not only emphasized the dissimilarities of refusal strategies between native Mandarin speakers and second-language Mandarin learners but also used NF as a control group. The results of this study demonstrated that regarding overall strategies, FM were biased toward NF in terms of strategy choice, order, and content, resulting in pragmatic transfer under the influence of social factors such as 'social status' and 'social distance,' strategy choices of FM were still closer to those of NF, and the phenomenon of pragmatic transfer of FM was revealed. Regarding the refusal difficulties among the three groups, the F-test in the analysis of variance revealed statistical significance was achieved for Role Playing Items 13 and 14 (P < 0.05). A difference was observed in the average number of refusal difficulties between the participants. However, after multiple comparisons, it was found that item 13 (unrecognized heterosexual junior colleague requesting contacts) was significantly more difficult for NF than for TM and FM; item 14 (contacts requested by an unrecognized classmate of the opposite sex) was significantly more difficult to refuse for NF than for TM. This study summarized the pragmatic language errors that most FM often perform, including the misuse or absence of modal words, hedging expressions, and empty words at the end of sentences, as the reasons for pragmatic failures. The common social pragmatic failures of FM include inaccurately applying the level of directness and formality.

Keywords: French Mandarin, interlanguage refusal, pragmatic transfer, speech acts

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
692 Doctor-Patient Interaction in an L2: Pragmatic Study of a Nigerian Experience

Authors: Ayodele James Akinola

Abstract:

This study investigated the use of English in doctor-patient interaction in a university teaching hospital from a southwestern state in Nigeria with the aim of identifying the role of communication in an L2, patterns of communication, discourse strategies, pragmatic acts, and contexts that shape the interaction. Jacob Mey’s Pragmatic Acts notion complemented with Emanuel and Emanuel’s model of doctor-patient relationship provided the theoretical standpoint. Data comprising 7 audio-recorded doctors-patient interactions were collected from a University Hospital in Oyo state, Nigeria. Interactions involving the use of English language were purposefully selected. These were supplemented with patients’ case notes and interviews conducted with doctors. Transcription was patterned alongside modified Arminen’s notations of conversation analysis. In the study, interaction in English between doctor and patients has the preponderance of direct-translation, code-mixing and switching, Nigerianism and use of cultural worldviews to express medical experience. Irrespective of these, three patterns communication, namely the paternalistic, interpretive, and deliberative were identified. These were exhibited through varying discourse strategies. The paternalistic model reflected slightly casual conversational conventions and registers. These were achieved through the pragmemic activities of situated speech acts, psychological and physical acts, via patients’ quarrel-induced acts, controlled and managed through doctors’ shared situation knowledge. All these produced empathising, pacifying, promising and instructing practs. The patients’ practs were explaining, provoking, associating and greeting in the paternalistic model. The informative model reveals the use of adjacency pairs, formal turn-taking, precise detailing, institutional talks and dialogic strategies. Through the activities of the speech, prosody and physical acts, the practs of declaring, alerting and informing were utilised by doctors, while the patients exploited adapting, requesting and selecting practs. The negotiating conversational strategy of the deliberative model featured in the speech, prosody and physical acts. In this model, practs of suggesting, teaching, persuading and convincing were utilised by the doctors. The patients deployed the practs of questioning, demanding, considering and deciding. The contextual variables revealed that other patterns (such as phatic and informative) are also used and they coalesced in the hospital within the situational and psychological contexts. However, the paternalistic model was predominantly employed by doctors with over six years in practice, while the interpretive, informative and deliberative models were found among registrar and others below six years of medical practice. Doctors’ experience, patients’ peculiarities and shared cultural knowledge influenced doctor-patient communication in the study.

Keywords: pragmatics, communication pattern, doctor-patient interaction, Nigerian hospital situation

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
691 Safety Conditions Analysis of Scaffolding on Construction Sites

Authors: M. Pieńko, A. Robak, E. Błazik-Borowa, J. Szer

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of analysis of 100 full-scale scaffolding structures in terms of compliance with legal acts and safety of use. In 2016 and 2017, authors examined scaffolds in Poland located at buildings which were at construction or renovation stage. The basic elements affecting the safety of scaffolding use such as anchors, supports, platforms, guardrails and toe-boards have been taken into account. All of these elements were checked in each of considered scaffolding. Based on the analyzed scaffoldings, the most common errors concerning assembly process and use of scaffolding were collected. Legal acts on the scaffoldings are not always clear, and this causes many issues. In practice, people realize how dangerous the use of incomplete scaffolds is only when the accident occurs. Despite the fact that the scaffolding should ensure the safety of its users, most accidents on construction sites are caused by fall from a height.

Keywords: façade scaffolds, load capacity, practice, safety of people

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
690 Experimental Challenges and Solutions in Design and Operation of the Test Rig for Water Lubricated Journal Bearing

Authors: Ravindra Mallya, B. Satish Shenoy, B. Raghuvir Pai

Abstract:

The study deals with the challenges in developing a test rig to test the performance of water lubricated journal bearing. The test rig is designed to simulate the working conditions of the bearing in order to understand their performance before they are put in operation. The bearing that is studied is the commercially available water lubricated bearing which has a rubber liner bonded with a rigid metal shell. The lubricant enters the bearing axially through a pressurized inlet tank and exits to an outlet tank which is at sufficiently low pressure. The load on the bearing is applied through the dead weight system which acts both in upward and downward direction so that net load acts on the bearing. The issues in feeding the lubricant into the bearing from the inlet side and preventing the leakage of the lubricant is discussed. The application of the load on the test bearing while maintaining the bearing afloat is also discussed.

Keywords: axial groove, hydrodynamic pressure, journal bearing, test rig, water lubrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
689 Confusion on the Definition of Terrorism and Difficulty in Criminalizing Terrorist Financing

Authors: Hamed Tofangsaz

Abstract:

In the absence of an internationally agreed definition of terrorism, the question which needs to be posed is whether there is a clear and common understanding of what constitutes terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist groups, the financing of which needs to be stopped. That is, from a criminal law perspective, whether the Terrorist Financing Convention, as the backbone of the counter-terrorist financing regime, clarifies what types of conduct, by who, in what circumstances and when, against whom (targets or victims) and with what intention or motivation should be considered terrorism? It will be explained how and why it has been difficult to reach an agreement on the definition of terrorism. The endeavour of the drafters of the Terrorist Financing Convention and others involved in countering terrorist financing to establish a general definition of terrorism will be examined. The record of attempts to define the elements of terrorism proves that it is hardly possible to reach an agreement on a generic definition of terrorism because the concept of terrorism is elusive and subject to various understandings. Even the definition provided by the Terrorist Financing Convention, is not convincing. With regard to the findings, this paper calls for further research on the legal consequences of the implementation of the terrorist financing-counter measures while the scope of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations have been left vague.

Keywords: terrorism, terrorist financing, crime, convention

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
688 A Review of Psychiatric Practices in Issues of Anomalous Experiences

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri

Abstract:

In issues of anomalous experiences commonly referred to as madness or mental illness, attempts have been made to deal with it so that people manage to live their lives in a more functional way. It is in this stance that psychiatry has sort of portraying itself as seeking to ameliorate perturbations which individuals live with via nosological systems and use of medicine to anomalous experiences. It is from this hegemony that has led to the untold harm which people living with madness have endured from antique to contemporary life. The paper reflects via a literature review on the history of psychiatry and argues that it is akin to contemporary psychiatry to be involved in iatrogenic acts. As antique psychiatry meddled with gory issues of inhumanity, deceit and mass murders which some of those the contemporary psychiatry has not weaned itself from such diabolical acts. The objective of the paper is to suggest to psychiatry that it has not comported to the mores of psychological ethics. In doing this, the paper hopes that psychiatry will reflect and reform its curricular and praxis so that it comports to ethical standards in psychological science in ameliorating anomalous experiences.

Keywords: nosology, psychiatry, madness, diagnosis, eugenics

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
687 Between Efficacy and Danger: Narratives of Female University Students about Emergency Contraception Methods

Authors: Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Ezebunwa Ethelbert Nwokocha, Wilson Akpan, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi

Abstract:

Studies on emergency contraception (EC) mostly utilise quantitative methods and focus on medically approved drugs for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. This methodological bias necessarily obscures insider perspectives on sexual behaviour, particularly on why specific methods are utilized by women who seek to prevent unplanned pregnancies. In order to privilege this perspective, with a view to further enriching the discourse and policy on the prevention and management of unplanned pregnancies, this paper brings together the findings from several focus groups and in-depth interviews conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities. The study found that while the research participants had good knowledge of the consequences of unprotected sexual intercourses - with abstinence and condom widely used - participants’ willingness to rely only on medically sound measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies was not always mediated by such knowledge. Some of the methods favored by participants appeared to be those commonly associated with people of low socio-economic status in the society where the study was conducted. Medically unsafe concoctions, some outright dangerous, were widely believed to be efficacious in preventing unwanted pregnancy. Furthermore, respondents’ narratives about their sexual behaviour revealed that inadequate sex education, socio-economic pressures, and misconceptions about the efficacy of “crude” emergency contraception methods were all interrelated. The paper therefore suggests that these different facets of the unplanned pregnancy problem should be the focus of intervention.

Keywords: unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion, emergency contraception, concoctions

Procedia PDF Downloads 346