Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

# Search results for: Commutativity

##### 4 Extension and Closure of a Field for Engineering Purpose

Authors: Shouji Yujiro, Memei Dukovic, Mist Yakubu

Abstract:

Fields are important objects of study in algebra since they provide a useful generalization of many number systems, such as the rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. In particular, the usual rules of associativity, commutativity and distributivity hold. Fields also appear in many other areas of mathematics; see the examples below. When abstract algebra was first being developed, the definition of a field usually did not include commutativity of multiplication, and what we today call a field would have been called either a commutative field or a rational domain. In contemporary usage, a field is always commutative. A structure which satisfies all the properties of a field except possibly for commutativity, is today called a division ring ordivision algebra or sometimes a skew field. Also non-commutative field is still widely used. In French, fields are called corps (literally, body), generally regardless of their commutativity. When necessary, a (commutative) field is called corps commutative and a skew field-corps gauche. The German word for body is Körper and this word is used to denote fields; hence the use of the blackboard bold to denote a field. The concept of fields was first (implicitly) used to prove that there is no general formula expressing in terms of radicals the roots of a polynomial with rational coefficients of degree 5 or higher. An extension of a field k is just a field K containing k as a subfield. One distinguishes between extensions having various qualities. For example, an extension K of a field k is called algebraic, if every element of K is a root of some polynomial with coefficients in k. Otherwise, the extension is called transcendental. The aim of Galois Theory is the study of algebraic extensions of a field. Given a field k, various kinds of closures of k may be introduced. For example, the algebraic closure, the separable closure, the cyclic closure et cetera. The idea is always the same: If P is a property of fields, then a P-closure of k is a field K containing k, having property, and which is minimal in the sense that no proper subfield of K that contains k has property P. For example if we take P (K) to be the property ‘every non-constant polynomial f in K[t] has a root in K’, then a P-closure of k is just an algebraic closure of k. In general, if P-closures exist for some property P and field k, they are all isomorphic. However, there is in general no preferable isomorphism between two closures.

Keywords: field theory, mechanic maths, supertech, rolltech

##### 3 Decomposition of Third-Order Discrete-Time Linear Time-Varying Systems into Its Second- and First-Order Pairs

Authors: Mohamed Hassan Abdullahi

Abstract:

Decomposition is used as a synthesis tool in several physical systems. It can also be used for tearing and restructuring, which is large-scale system analysis. On the other hand, the commutativity of series-connected systems has fascinated the interest of researchers, and its advantages have been emphasized in the literature. The presentation looks into the necessary conditions for decomposing any third-order discrete-time linear time-varying system into a commutative pair of first- and second-order systems. Additional requirements are derived in the case of nonzero initial conditions. MATLAB simulations are used to verify the findings. The work is unique and is being published for the first time. It is critical from the standpoints of synthesis and/or design. Because many design techniques in engineering systems rely on tearing and reconstruction, this is the process of putting together simple components to create a finished product. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that regarding sensitivity to initial conditions, some combinations may be better than others. The results of this work can be extended for the decomposition of fourth-order discrete-time linear time-varying systems into lower-order commutative pairs, as two second-order commutative subsystems or one first-order and one third-order commutative subsystems. Downloads 15