Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7659

Search results for: economic policy

7659 How Do Crisis Affect Economic Policy?

Authors: Eva Kotlánová

Abstract:

After recession that began in 2007 in the United States and subsequently spilled over the Europe we could expect recovery of economic growth. According to the last estimation of economic progress of European countries, this recovery is not strong enough. Among others, it will depend on economic policy, where and in which way, the economic indicators will proceed. Economic theories postulate that the economic subjects prefer stably, continual economic policy without repeated and strong fluctuations. This policy is perceived as support of economic growth. Mostly in crises period, when the government must cope with consequences of recession, the economic policy becomes unpredictable for many subjects and economic policy uncertainty grows, which have negative influence on economic growth. The aim of this paper is to use panel regression to prove or disprove this hypothesis on the example of five largest European economies in the period 2008–2012.

Keywords: economic crises in Europe, economic policy, uncertainty, panel analysis regression

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7658 Trade Policy and Economic Growth of Turkey in Global Economy: New Empirical Evidence

Authors: Pınar Yardımcı

Abstract:

This paper tries to answer to the questions whether or not trade openness cause economic growth and trade policy changes is good for Turkey as a developing country in global economy before and after 1980. We employ Johansen cointegration and Granger causality tests with error correction modelling based on vector autoregressive. Using WDI data from the pre-1980 and the post-1980, we find that trade openness and economic growth are cointegrated in the second term only. Also the results suggest a lack of long-run causality between our two variables. These findings may imply that trade policy of Turkey should concentrate more on extra complementary economic reforms.

Keywords: globalization, trade policy, economic growth, openness, cointegration, Turkey

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7657 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: economic growth, monetary policy, fiscal policy, VECM

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7656 Critical Literature Survey of the Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policy in Light of Recent Empirical Evidence

Authors: Walaa W. Diab

Abstract:

The present paper offers a fundamental critique of the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy after it surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy. It emphasizes the importance of the fiscal policy after reviewing the revolution of almost all economic schools and bringing them in one summarized figure; the paper links the developmental role of the fiscal policy with the objectives and measures of the economic transformation. Thus, the importance of this study can be seen from several perspectives: First, it reviews the theoretical harvest of fiscal policy and provides a comparison between the main revolutionary Economic thoughts; the classical school, Keynesian school, and monetarist school. Then it turns to conclude the fiscal policy from the new consensus mainstream economic schools. Finally, the study presents grouped and classified empirical pieces of evidence as it divides those empirical studies into two groups; the first for developed economies and the second for developing ones. So the study is important also for the policymakers as well as scholars as it gives its recommendations upon the last analysis in the form of ‘policy implications’. The paper also presents a deeper look into the evaluation approaches of the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy at the empirical level. Thus it is useful for both researchers and decision makers.

Keywords: economic transformation, fiscal policy, macroeconomic effects, public spending

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7655 Mechanisms and Process of an Effective Public Policy Formulation in Islamic Economic System

Authors: Md Abu Saieed

Abstract:

Crafting and implementing public policy is one of the indispensable works in any form of state and government. But the policy objectives, methods of formulation and tools of implementation might be different based on the ideological nature, historical legacy, structure and capacity of administration and management and other push and factors. Public policy in Islamic economic system needs to be based on the key guidelines of divine scriptures along with other sources of sharia’h. As a representative of Allah (SWT), the governor and other apparatus of the state will formulate and implement public policies which will enable to establish a true welfare state based on justice, equity and equality. The whole life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his policy in operating state of affairs in Madina is the practical guidelines for the policy actors and professionals in Islamic system of economics. Moreover, policy makers need to be more meticulous in formulating Islamic public policy which meets the needs and demands of contemporary worlds as well.

Keywords: formulation, Islam, public policy, policy factors, Sharia’h

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7654 Waste Prevention and Economic Policy: Policy Tools for Increasing Resource Efficiency and Savings

Authors: Sylvia Graczka

Abstract:

Waste related environmental problems are not only exploding but are also spotlighted for capacity shortages in recycling, as China announced its ban on waste imports. According to the waste hierarchy, prevention is the primary solution for waste, and also the cheapest. Waste related environmental pollution as externality puts an ever-growing burden on communities bearing the social costs. Economic policies often claim to be pro-environment, this often appears only theoretically, or at the level of principles. There are few concrete occurrences of tools in economic policies, such as green taxes, that are truly effective in stimulating the shift towards waste reduction. The paper presents theoretical economic policy tools based on literature review, and case studies on applied economic policy tools by analyzing policy papers, strategies in force, in line with ‘polluter pays’ and ‘extended producer responsibility’ principles. The study also emphasizes the differences between the broader notion of waste reduction and that of waste minimization, parallel to the difference between resource efficiency and resource savings. It also puts the issue in the context of neoclassical environmental economics and ecological economics, to present alternatives in approach. The research concludes in identifying effective economic policy tools that support the reduction of material use, and the prevention of waste. Consumer and producer awareness of waste problems and consciousness related to their choices are inevitable to make economic policy tools work effectively.

Keywords: economic policy, producer responsibility, resource efficiency, waste prevention

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7653 Economic Policy of Achieving National Competitive Advantage

Authors: Gulnaz Erkomaishvili, Eteri Kharaishvili, Marina Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper discusses the economic policy of increasing national competitiveness, the tools, and means which help the country to improve its competitiveness. The sectors of the economy, in which the country can achieve a competitive advantage, are studied. It is noted that the country’s economic policy plays an important role in obtaining and maintaining a competitive advantage - authority should take measures to ensure a high level of education; scientific and research activities should be funded by the state; foreign direct investments should be attracted mainly in science-intensive industries; adaptation with the latest scientific achievements of the modern world and deepening of scientific and technical cooperation. Stable business environment and export-oriented strategy is the basis for the country’s economic growth. The studies have shown that institutional reforms in Georgia are not enough to significantly improve the country's competitiveness.

Keywords: competitiveness, economic policy, competitiveness improvement strategy, competitiveness of Georgia

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7652 Tourism Economics and Tourism Development in Greece, in the Period of the Economic Adjustment Programmes

Authors: Aimilia Vlami

Abstract:

This paper examines the tourist economic development of Greece on the basis of the analysis of the main characteristics of the financing and development processes and the spatial and temporal structure of supply and demand. Taking into consideration the evolution of the economic planning and the policy for the tourist development of Greece over time, we study at the same time: the composition, the changes and the dynamics of the hotel industry in the last 20 years and especially the period of the economic adjustment programmes, where tourism has become a key pillar of development. It is clearly evident that this paper is written in a specific economic situation, which directs as much the emphases as the flow of arguments around the central question of balance of interventions in the tourist space, between the need for planning and practice of policy for sustainable tourist growth and in the de facto adaptation of fragmentary and urgent interventions of shaping and transforming the tourist space, as they are shaped by the requirements of various institutions and interest groups.

Keywords: development, Greece, hospitality, economic policy, tourism investments

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7651 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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7650 The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Gross Domestic Product under Contributions of Level of External Debt in Developing Countries

Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee

Abstract:

This study investigates the fiscal policy impact on countries’ economic growth in developing countries with a different external debt level. The fiscal policy effectiveness has been re-emphasized in the global financial crisis of 2008 with the external debt as its new contemporary driver (Ruščáková and Semančíková, 2016). According to Bouakez, (2014 ) different theories have proposed the economic consequence of fiscal policy, specifically for developing countries. However, fiscal policy literature is lacking research regarding the fiscal policy’s effectiveness with the external debt’s contributions through comprehensive study (Canh, 2018). Also, according to scholars, high levels of external debt will influence economic growth. First, through foreign resources and channel of investment in which high level of debt decreases the amount of foreign investment in the developing countries. Second, through the deterioration of foreign investors and fiscal policies related to a high level of debt (Cordella, et.al., 2010). Therefore, this study proposed that only countries with a low external debt level and appropriate fiscal policies and good quality institutions can gain the proper quantity and quality of foreign investors, which will help the economic growth. For this, this research is examining the impact of fiscal policy on developing countries' economic growth in the situation of different external debt levels.

Keywords: fiscal policy, external debt, gross domestic product, developing countries

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7649 The Role of Human Capital in Rural Development: A Critical Look at Ethiopian Education Policy

Authors: Blen Telayneh Melese

Abstract:

Rural development, the unending quest of a developing country, cannot be succeeded in deprived of human capital development. Human capital, the economic pillars of a country's development, appeals a policy-based supports while fulfilling what is expected. Ethiopia, one of the rural countries with untouched and forgotten land and human force, owes historical experiences of educational policy intending for mobilization of its citizen for the advancement of the overall economy. Rural Ethiopia as well has been the focus of those educational policies, considering the economic resources entrenched with in. In this literature review paper, Ethiopian educational policy and its contribution to human capital development, as well as its role in generating quality human labor force, is assessed concisely. The author argues that the foundation of rural development such as technology, knowledge, infrastructure, market chain, communication and etc., can only be achieved through enhanced education policy that conciliates the existing reality of rural communities. Ethiopia still needs an education policy that enables it to generate a human capital that is oriented with the rural areas economic opportunities and challenges.

Keywords: Ethiopia, rural development, human capital development, education policy

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7648 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability

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7647 E-Commercial Enterprises' Behavior on China's Local Government's Economic Policy: An Example from Zhejiang Province

Authors: Chia-Chi Cheng

Abstract:

After the implementation of “the internet plus,” several puzzles emerge as below: why does China impose more regulation and laws on economic development on the Internet? Why does China urge the importance of manufacturing industry? Why does China’s local government passively implement the policy imposed by the central government? What kind of factors can influence China’s local government’s economic preference? In the framework of neo-institutionalism, this research considers China’s local government as changing agents to analyze its preferences and behavior. In general, the interests urged by the local government will decide its preference and behaviors. They will change its counterpart to cooperate if the change will bring more benefits. Thus, they will change its preference and behavior while the external environment alters. While the local government has the same definition on political activity and economic interest, they will prefer to cooperate with the local enterprises in the way of laying symbiont, within the presumption that the institution remains. While the local government has the different positions on political activity and economic interest, they will re-define the existed regulation or create new regulation in the condition of institution vacuum. Sequentially, they will replace the targets, and the policy, which does not fit in the Central government’s policy, will emerge.

Keywords: China, institutional change, government enterprise relationship, e-commercial policy

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7646 Poverty Eradication Program in Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Mamat, Wan Mohd Zaifurin Wan Nawang

Abstract:

Malaysia's poverty eradication program is a long-term plan that was initially implemented by the government after the riots of the races on May 13, 1969. The incident broke out due to the huge economic gap between the majority of Malaysians,Malays and non-Malays minorities. As a result of the event, the government drafted the New Economic Policy(NEP) in 1970 to reduce the differences in economic status among races in Malaysia. At the end of this policy period (NEP) in 1990, the incidence of poverty in Malaysia was around 6.5 per cent. The incidence of poverty in Malaysia continued to decline to 0.6 per cent (2014) through some other policy after the NEP. The decline in poverty has been the result of the government's efforts to implement the New Economic Policy (1970-1990), National Development Policy (1991-2000), NationalVision Policy (2001-2010), and National Transformation Policy (2011-2020).This article also explains the meaning, concepts and measurements of poverty in order to identify the Poverty Level and measure the Poverty Index using various dimensions. This explanation is very important for a country like Malaysia who has some people living below the poverty line. In such a context, an effective poverty eradication policy can benefit the poor.Consequently, this article examines the continuing involvement of the government and non-governmental organizations through the empowerment program of the hardcore poor to change their lifestyle and culture as well as the vicious circle of poverty is indispensable to ensure that poverty eradication programs are in line with current economic and social changes. In addition, the involvement of non-governmental organizations and the State Islamic Religious Council to provide assistance to the poor is appropriate as the institution has its own distinctive interpretation of poverty to determine the type of assistance, criteria and so on to enable the rights of the poor to be ensured and protected.

Keywords: economic policy, poor, poverty eradication, poverty program

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7645 An Exposition of Principles of Islamic Fiscal Policy

Authors: Muhammad A. Ishaq, S. U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper on an exposition of Islamic fiscal policy attempts to discuss the basic principles of Islamic fiscal policy in an Islamic economy. The paper presents a number of definitions of the subject matter, its nature and its tools of application. Government spending, taxation and public borrowings were identified as the tools of the policy. The paper identifies zakat both as a veritable source of revenue and a major instrument of economic stabilization. Furthermore, the paper presents an algebraic 2-sector and 3-sector models from the basic Keynesian model. The paper posits that in view of uniqueness of its instruments, absence of interest rate in the economy and the policy’s derive towards socioeconomic justice and redistribution, Islamic fiscal policy is capable of stabilizing Islamic economy and ushering it into the path of long term economic growth and prosperity.

Keywords: automatic built-in-stabilizers, government spending, Islamic fiscal policy, taxation, zakat

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7644 Small Entrepreneurship Supporting Economic Policy in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses small entrepreneurship development strategy in Georgia and the tools and regulations that will encourage development of small entrepreneurship. The current situation in the small entrepreneurship sector, as well as factors affecting growth and decline in the sector and the priorities of state support, are studied and analyzed. The objective of this research is to assess the current situation of the sector to highlight opportunities and reveal the gaps. State support of small entrepreneurship should become a key priority in the country’s economic policy, as development of the sector will ensure social, economic and political stability. Based on the research, a small entrepreneurship development strategy is presented; corresponding conclusions are made and recommendations are developed.

Keywords: economic policy for small entrepreneurship development, small entrepreneurship, regulations, small entrepreneurship development strategy

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7643 Effect of Fiscal Policy on Growth in India

Authors: Parma Chakravartti

Abstract:

The impact of government spending and taxation on economic growth has remained a central issue of fiscal policy analysis. There is a wide range of opinions over the strength of fiscal policy’s effect on macroeconomic variables. It can be argued that the impact of fiscal policy depends on the structure and economic condition of the economy. This study makes an attempt to examine the effect of fiscal policy shocks on growth in India using the structural vector autoregressive model (SVAR), considering data from 1950 to 2019. The study finds that government spending is an important instrument of growth in India, where the share of revenue expenditure to capital expenditure plays a key role. The optimum composition of total expenditure is important for growth and it is not necessarily true that capital expenditure multiplier is more than revenue expenditure multiplier. The study also finds that the impact of public economic activities on private economic activities for both consumption expenditure and gross capital formation of government crowds in private consumption expenditure and private gross capital formation, respectively, thus indicating that government expenditure complements private expenditure in India.

Keywords: government spending, fiscal policy, multiplier, growth

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7642 The Effects of an Immigration Policy on the Economic Integration of Migrants and on Natives’ Attitudes: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Authors: S. Zeynep Siretioglu Girgin, Gizem Turna Cebeci

Abstract:

Turkey’s immigration policy is a controversial issue considering its legal, economic, social, and political and human rights dimensions. Formulation of an immigration policy goes hand in hand with political processes, where natives’ attitudes play a significant role. On the other hand, as was the case in Turkey, radical changes made in immigration policy or policies lacking transparency may cause severe reactions by the host society. The underlying discussion paper aims to analyze quantitatively the effects of the existing ‘open door’ immigration policy on the economic integration of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and on the perception of the native population of refugees. For the analysis, semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group interviews have been conducted. After the introduction, a literature review is provided, followed by theoretical background on the explanation of natives’ attitudes towards immigrants. In the next section, a qualitative analysis of natives’ attitudes towards Syrian refugees is presented with the subtopics of (i) awareness, general opinions and expectations, (ii) open-door policy and management of the migration process, (iii) perception of positive and negative impacts of immigration, (iv) economic integration, and (v) cultural similarity. Results indicate that, natives concurrently have social, economic and security concerns regarding refugees, while difficulties regarding security and economic integration of refugees stand out. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, such as the educational level and employment status, are not sufficient to explain the overall attitudes towards refugees, while they can be used to explain the awareness of the respondents and the priority of the concerns felt.

Keywords: economic integration, immigration policy, integration policies, migrants, natives’ sentiments, perception, Syrian refugees, Turkey

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7641 The Impact of Non-Interest Banking on Economic Development in Nigeria

Authors: Oduntan Kemi Olalekan

Abstract:

Nigeria as the largest economy in Africa is still in its developing stage as its economy cannot be termed developed; it is still in search of economic policy that will positively affect the life of majority of her citizenry. Several policies have been employed to take care of the situation prominent among which is Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) of Babangida Administration but it could not rescue the economy. Non-interest Banking otherwise known as Islamic Banking has been suggested as a means of developing Nigerian economy as it will enable more Nigerian have access to working capital and contribute positively to the growth of her economy. The paper investigated the level of Nigeria economic development and gave an overview of economic policies since independence, traced the genesis of non-interest banking in Nigeria and made recommendations on the adoption of the policy as an antidote to Nigeria economic development.

Keywords: economic development, Nigerian economy, non-interest banking, working capital, Islamic banking.

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7640 Economic Policy of Tourism and the Development Tendencies of Medical Wellness Resorts in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses the current condition of tourism and its economic policy in Georgia. It analyzes and studies wellness tourism, as one of the directions of tourism; the newest niche in the wellness industry – triggering wellness resorts with medical ideology. The paper discusses the development tendencies of medical wellness resorts in Georgia and its main economic preferences. The main finding of the research is that Georgia is a unique place in the world according to the variety of medical recourses. This makes the opportunity to create and successfully operate medical wellness resorts, as well as develop it as a brand for Georgia in the world. The research represents the development strategies of tourism and its medical wellness resorts in Georgia, and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: tourism, economic policy of tourism, wellness industry, medical wellness resorts

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7639 Farm Diversification and the Corresponding Policy for Its Implementation in Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The paper shows the necessity of farm diversification in accordance with the current trends in agricultural sector of Georgia. The possibilities for the diversification and the corresponding economic policy are suggested. The causes that hinder diversification of farms are revealed, possibilities of diversification are suggested and the ability of increasing employment through diversification is proved. Index of harvest diversification is calculated based on the areas used for cereals and legumes, potatoes and vegetables and other food crops. Crop and livestock production indexes are analyzed, correlation between crop capacity index and value-added per one worker and one ha is studied. Based on the research farm diversification strategies and priorities of corresponding economic policy are presented. Based on the conclusions relevant recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: farm diversification, diversification index, agricultural development policy

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7638 Changes in Foreign Direct Investment Policy of India and Its Impact on Economic Development

Authors: Kishor P. Kadam

Abstract:

Foreign direct investment policy (FDI) is defined as an investment involving a long term relationship and reflecting a long duration interest and control of a resident entity in the home country (foreign direct investor or parent firm) in the host country. India has been one of the most translucent and open-minded FDI regimes among the emerging and developing economies. There is clear cut mentioned about the sectoral caps for foreign investment. The policy problems that have been identified by time to time surveys as acting as additional hurdles for FDI are laws, regulatory systems and government monopolies that do not have contemporary relevance. Foreign investment policies in the post-reforms period have emphasized greater encouragement and mobilization of non-debt creating private inflows for plunging reliance on debt flows. This paper will focus on how foreign direct investment policy changed from 1990-91 up to now. A time series data of 25 years is used for analysing the policy changes. It is observed that India has more liberal policy. The growth in number of Greenfield investments in India has been more impressive than the number of M&A deals whereas equity capital for incorporated bodies FDI inflows has been increased continuously 2014-15. India has made major changes in FDI Policy, and it has positive impact on economic development.

Keywords: FDI, India, economic development, government

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7637 Optimal Production and Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable Production System with Stochastic Demand

Authors: Leila Jafari, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In this paper, the joint optimization of the economic manufacturing quantity (EMQ), safety stock level, and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is presented for a partially observable, deteriorating system subject to random failure. The demand is stochastic and it is described by a Poisson process. The stochastic model is developed and the optimization problem is formulated in the semi-Markov decision process framework. A modification of the policy iteration algorithm is developed to find the optimal policy. A numerical example is presented to compare the optimal policy with the policy considering zero safety stock.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, economic manufacturing quantity, safety stock, stochastic demand

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7636 The Role of Official Languages and Language Training Policy in Adult Immigrant Integration in Canada

Authors: Lillie Lum

Abstract:

Focusing on the role of official language in immigrant integration, this paper will first report the results of a literature review and demonstrate that there is no doubt on the necessity of adequate language skills for newcomers to successfully settle, adapt, and integrate socially, culturally and economically in Canada. This paper attempts to synthesize the literature in order to shed light on the language policy terrain which is not easy to navigate. Then, by outlining what is currently available in the language policy environment, it will ask if the current state of language training in Canada is adequate to assist newcomers in their language acquisition process. At a deeper level, it aims to continue to raise questions in this policy area. Are current policy responses likely to improve linguistic capabilities in the future, particularly for immigrant workers with poor language proficiency? This paper is timely given the magnitude of the language issue and the value of immigrants for Canada’s economic, social, and political vitality.

Keywords: official language education, immigrant integration into Canada, economic factors, policy implications

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7635 Investigation of the Relationship between Government Expenditure and Country’s Economic Development in the Context of Sustainable Development

Authors: Lina Sinevičienė

Abstract:

Arising problems of countries’ public finances, social and demographic changes motivate scientific and policy debates on public spending size, structure and efficiency in order to meet the changing needs of society and business. The concept of sustainable development poses new challenges for scientists and policy-makers in the field of public finance. This paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between government expenditure and country’s economic development in the context of sustainable development. Empirical analysis focuses on the data of the European Union (except Croatia and Luxemburg) countries. The study covers 2003 – 2012 years, using annual cross-sectional data. Summarizing the research results, it can be stated that governments should pay more attention to the needs that ensure sustainable development in the long-run when formulating public expenditure policy, particularly in the field of environment protection.

Keywords: economic development, economic growth, government expenditure, sustainable development

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7634 Recessionary Tales: An Investigation into How Children with Intellectual Disability, and Their Families Experience the Current Economic Downturn

Authors: S. Flynn

Abstract:

This paper offers a focused commentary on the impact of the current economic downturn on children with ID (intellectual disability), and their families, in the Republic of Ireland. It will examine the practical challenges, serious concerns, and trends in the field of disability with specific regard to the impact of the economic downturn in the Irish context. This includes the impact of cutbacks to services and supports, and the erosion of possibilities for life progression for children with ID as evident within the existing body of research. This focused commentary on core and seminal literature, policy and research will then be used to provide a discussion on what are the core points of learning for policy makers, researchers, practitioners and society as whole.

Keywords: children, disability, economic, recession

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7633 Energy Policy of India: An Assessment of Its Impacts and Way Forward

Authors: Mrinal Saurabh Bhaskar, Rahul E Ravindranathan, Priyangana Borah

Abstract:

Energy plays a key role and as a driving force for economic and social growth for any country. To manage the energy sources and its efficient utilization in different economic sectors, energy policy of a country is critical. The energy performance of a country is measured in Energy Intensity and India’s Energy Intensity due to several policies interventions has reduced from 0.53 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2000 to 0.38 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2014, which is about 28 per cent reduction. The Government of India has taken several initiates to manage their increasing energy demand and meet the climate change goals defined by them. The major policy milestones in India related to energy are (i) Enactment of Energy Conservation (EC) Act 2001 (ii) Establishment of Bureau of Energy Efficiency 2001 (iii) National Action Plan on Climate Change (iv) Launch of Demand Side Management schemes (v) Amendment of EC Act 2010 (vi) Launch of Perform Achieve and Trade scheme 2012. Through a critical review, this paper highlights the key energy policy interventions by India, its benefits and impact, challenges faced and efforts of the Government to overcome such challenges. Such take away would be helpful for other countries who are proposing to prepare or amend their energy policy for their different economic sectors.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, climate, policy

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7632 Assessing the Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policy Changes in Egypt: A Bayesian Structural Vector Autoregression Approach

Authors: Walaa Diab, Baher Atlam, Nadia El Nimer

Abstract:

Egypt faces many obvious economic challenges, and it is so clear that a real economic transformation is needed to address those problems, especially after the recent decisions of floating the Egyptian pound and the gradual subsidy cuts that are trying to meet the needed conditions to get the IMF support of (a £12bn loan) for its economic reform program. Following the post-2008 revival of the interest in the fiscal policy and its vital role in speeding up or slowing down the economic growth. Here comes the value of this paper as it seeks to analyze the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in Egypt by applying A Bayesian SVAR Approach. The study uses the Bayesian method because it includes the prior information and no relevant information is omitted and so it is well suited for rational, evidence-based decision-making. Since the study aims to define the effects of fiscal policy shocks in Egypt to help the decision-makers in determining the proper means to correct the structural problems in the Egyptian economy, it has to study the period of 1990s economic reform, but unfortunately; the available data is on an annual frequency. Thus, it uses annual time series to study the period 1991: 2005 And quarterly data over the period 2006–2016. It uses a set of six main variables includes government expenditure and net tax revenues as fiscal policy arms affecting real GDP, unemployment, inflation and the interest rate. The study also tries to assess the 'crowding out' effects by considering the effects of government spending and government revenue shocks on the composition of GDP, namely, on private consumption and private investment. Last but not least the study provides its policy implications regarding the needed role of fiscal policy in Egypt in the upcoming economic reform building on the results it concludes from the previous reform program.

Keywords: fiscal policy, government spending, structural vector autoregression, taxation

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7631 Values That Should Be Taken into Account in the Arts: The Tension between Economic Influences and Cultural Values

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

Recently the two matters of how to evaluate art and what the influencing economic effects on cultural values are have attracted many researchers to investigate them. Therefore, in the present article the researcher made an attempt to answer the above questions. However, the fundamental distinction between this article and the other ones is in comparing the economic value (shown by monetary phrases) with cultural values (that reflects the aesthetic values and the importance of the artist). This article shows a different and trivial distinction that has a very clearly pivotal significance in the process of cultural policy making. The economic activities would be influenced when there are cultural values. The increase of commercial activities is measured by impact assessment. In other words, the value of culture is reflected in the satisfaction of the users of cultural activities. This kind of value is measured by “willingness to pay” researches. The researcher believes that these two values are dominant in the cultural policy but they include many aspects and are presented by different kinds of communities.

Keywords: economic influence, cultural values, monetary phrases, aesthetic values

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7630 Demographic Shrinkage and Reshaping Regional Policy of Lithuania in Economic Geographic Context

Authors: Eduardas Spiriajevas

Abstract:

Since the end of the 20th century, when Lithuania regained its independence, a process of demographic shrinkage started. Recently, it affects the efficiency of implementation of actions related to regional development policy and geographic scopes of created value added in the regions. The demographic structures of human resources reflect onto the regions and their economic geographic environment. Due to reshaping economies and state reforms on restructuration of economic branches such as agriculture and industry, it affects the economic significance of services’ sector. These processes influence the competitiveness of labor market and its demographic characteristics. Such vivid consequences are appropriate for the structures of human migrations, which affected the processes of demographic ageing of human resources in the regions, especially in peripheral ones. These phenomena of modern times induce the demographic shrinkage of society and its economic geographic characteristics in the actions of regional development and in regional policy. The internal and external migrations of population captured numerous regional economic disparities, and influenced on territorial density and concentration of population of the country and created the economies of spatial unevenness in such small geographically compact country as Lithuania. The processes of territorial reshaping of distribution of population create new regions and their economic environment, which is not corresponding to the main principles of regional policy and its power to create the well-being and to promote the attractiveness for economic development. These are the new challenges of national regional policy and it should be researched in a systematic way of taking into consideration the analytical approaches of regional economy in the context of economic geographic research methods. A comparative territorial analysis according to administrative division of Lithuania in relation to retrospective approach and introduction of method of location quotients, both give the results of economic geographic character with cartographic representations using the tools of spatial analysis provided by technologies of Geographic Information Systems. A set of these research methods provide the new spatially evidenced based results, which must be taken into consideration in reshaping of national regional policy in economic geographic context. Due to demographic shrinkage and increasing differentiation of economic developments within the regions, an input of economic geographic dimension is inevitable. In order to sustain territorial balanced economic development, there is a need to strengthen the roles of regional centers (towns) and to empower them with new economic functionalities for revitalization of peripheral regions, and to increase their economic competitiveness and social capacities on national scale.

Keywords: demographic shrinkage, economic geography, Lithuania, regions

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