Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 634

Search results for: Tabrej Khan

634 Understanding Consumer Behaviors by Using Neuromarketing Tools and Methods

Authors: Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

Neuromarketing can refer to the commercial application of neuroscience technologies and insights to drive business further. On the other side, consumer neuroscience can be seen as the academic use of neuroscience to better understand marketing effects on consumer behavior. Consumer Neuroscience and Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary effort between economics, psychology, and neuroscience and information technology. Traditional methods are using survey, interviews, focus group people are overtly and consciously reporting on their experience and thoughts. The unconscious side of customer behavior is largely unmeasured in the traditional methods. Neuroscience has a potential to understand the unconscious part. Through this paper, we are going to present specific results of selected tools and methods that are used to understand consumer behaviors.

Keywords: neuromarketing, neuroscience, consumer behaviors, tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
633 Examination Scheduling System with Proposed Algorithm

Authors: Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

Examination Scheduling System (ESS) is a scheduling system that targets as an exam committee in any academic institute to help them in managing the exams automatically. We present an algorithm for Examination Scheduling System. Nowadays, many universities have challenges with creating examination schedule fast with less confliction compared to hand works. Our aims are to develop a computerized system that can be used in examination scheduling in an academic institute versus available resources (Time, Hall, Invigilator and instructor) with no contradiction and achieve fairness among students. ESS was developed using HTML, C# language, Crystal Report and ASP.NET through Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 as developing tools with integrated SQL server database. This application can produce some benefits such as reducing the time spent in creating an exam schedule and achieving fairness among students

Keywords: examination scheduling system (ESS), algorithm, ASP.NET, crystal report

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
632 E-Commerce Implementation to Support Customize Clothes for Obese People

Authors: Hamza Al-Hazmi, Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

Obesity is today a global phenomenon that affects all countries, all types of societies regardless of age, sex, and income. The average value of the relative body mass index (BMI) has increased, which indicates an increasing obesity problem in the population. Nowadays obesity is a global problem, and mass production of clothes is standard size. People have a problem to find best-fitted clothes. The goal of the project is to develop an E-Commerce web portal as a new, innovative and customize clothing production system for obese people. This research has a long-term objective and short-term objective. The long-term objectives are (1) utilize online Web portal to improve tailors’ income, and (2) provide a free online platform to the tailors and customers in order to stitch clothes. Then, the short-term objective are (1) identify e-commerce’s requirements, (2) analyze and design the e-commerce application, and (3) build and implement the e-commerce application to Customized Clothes for Overweight people. This application can hopefully improve the tailors’ income and provide an easy way for customers to choose a fabric, apply style and provide measurement. This e-commerce application is not limited to obese or overweight people but also for other people who want to stitch cloth from tailors. MySQL and PHP we are going to use for developing the application.

Keywords: e-commerce, obesity, PHP, customize clothes

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
631 A Saudi Herbal Database: An Approach for Organizing the Rich Herbal Resource of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

The use of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle has gained a significant acceptance across the globe. The increasing popularity of Herbal Medicine can be owed to the fact that is relatively inexpensive and has lesser side effects as compared to general medicines. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a rich heritage of herbal medicine for overages. However, the information about essential traditional herbs of Arabian origin and their implication in the treatment of various diseases are not well documented in an organized manner. Therefore, the requirement of a local platform (database system) for herbal medicines of Arab origin is the need of the day. In this context, various questionnaire and surveys were conducted over a period of 6 months. The surveys were targeted to identify a range of herbal remedies used by the communities of Saudi Arabia e.g., pharmacists and local people. The survey leads us to identify many of the mysterious local medicinal herbs used for the treatment of various ailments and thus reveals a unique insight into the natural herbal resource of Saudi Arabia. The information of the herbal medicines will be further used to develop a Saudi herbal database system using the principles of waterfall method. An interactive dynamic electronic web portal of the herbal database system will be built using MySQL and PHP for accessing the information available in the Saudi herbal database system. The web portal will be a step forward in creating awareness among the Arab nationals of their rich herbal heritage.

Keywords: Saudi herbal medicine, community survey, database system and design, MySQL, PHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
630 On Paranorm Zweier I-Convergent Sequence Spaces

Authors: Nazneen Khan, Vakeel A. Khan

Abstract:

In this article we introduce the Paranorm Zweier I-convergent sequence spaces, for a sequence of positive real numbers. We study some topological properties, prove the decomposition theorem and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.

Keywords: ideal, filter, I-convergence, I-nullity, paranorm

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
629 LIZTOXD: Inclusive Lizard Toxin Database by Using MySQL Protocol

Authors: Iftikhar A. Tayubi, Tabrej Khan, Mansoor M. Alsubei, Fahad A. Alsaferi

Abstract:

LIZTOXD provides a single source of high-quality information about proteinaceous lizard toxins that will be an invaluable resource for pharmacologists, neuroscientists, toxicologists, medicinal chemists, ion channel scientists, clinicians, and structural biologists. We will provide an intuitive, well-organized and user-friendly web interface that allows users to explore the detail information of Lizard and toxin proteins. It includes common name, scientific name, entry id, entry name, protein name and length of the protein sequence. The utility of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Lizard, toxin and toxin protein of different Lizard species. These interfaces created in this database will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing in-depth knowledge about Lizard and its toxin. In the next phase of our project we will adopt methodology and by using A MySQL and Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) which and for designing Smart Draw. A database is a wonderful piece of equipment for storing large quantities of data efficiently. The users can thus navigate from one section to another, depending on the field of interest of the user. This database contains a wealth of information on species, toxins, toxins, clinical data etc. LIZTOXD resource that provides comprehensive information about protein toxins from lizard toxins. The combination of specific classification schemes and a rich user interface allows researchers to easily locate and view information on the sequence, structure, and biological activity of these toxins. This manually curated database will be a valuable resource for both basic researchers as well as those interested in potential pharmaceutical and agricultural applications of lizard toxins.

Keywords: LIZTOXD, MySQL, PHP, smart draw

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
628 E-Pharmacy: An e-Commerce Approach for Buying Medicine Online in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan, Ibrahim Manssor Al Najar, Mohammed Nasser

Abstract:

The incredible accomplishment achieved by e-commerce in consumer durable area encouraged us to implement the online e-commerce model to tap the business benefits of electronic pharmacy in Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is famous for traditional herbal medicine. The rich heritage of traditional medicine has helped the mushrooming of regional pharmaceutical industries manufacturing drugs and other therapeutic against various diseases. However, the implementation of e-commerce in pharmacy has not been employed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The electronic pharmacy (E-Pharm) is an important sector that is flourishing across the globe and providing benefits of E-Pharm to the customers and suppliers all around the world. In this context, our web-based application of electronic pharmacy is the one of its kind in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Surveys and personal interviews were used to identify key objectives of the proposed web-based portal. As per the findings of the surveys and personal interviews, following key objectives were identified: (a) The online platform will be used for ordering of prescription based medications for consumers. (b) The e-portal will provide space for pharmaceutical retailers who do not have an electronic platform to upload and sell their therapeutic products in an organized way. (c) The web portal will provide a tracking system to track the customer’s behavior like choice, offer, order, shipment, payment, etc. The web-based e-pharmacy portal will be developed using MySQL and PHP. The development of e-pharmacy web portal and e-prescription practices will not only improve the growth of electronic pharmacy but would also decrease the possibility of prescription alteration thus providing safety and improving the quality of service provided to the patient or consumers.

Keywords: e-commerce, E-Pharm, MySQL, PHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
627 The Potential Factors Relating to the Decision of Return Migration of Myanmar Migrant Workers: A Case Study in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee

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The aim of this research is to study potential factors relating to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province by conducting a random sampling of 400 people aged between 15-59 who migrated from Myanmar. The information collected through interviews was analyzed to find a percentage and mean using the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis. The results have shown that 33.25% of Myanmar migrant workers want to return to their home country within the next 1-5 years, 46.25%, in 6-10 years and the rest, in over 10 years. The factors relating to such decision can be concluded that the scale of the decision of return migration has a positive relationship with a statistical significance at 0.05 with a conformity with friends and relatives (r=0.886), a relationship with family and community (r=0.782), possession of land in hometown (r=0.756) and educational level (r=0.699). However, the factor of property possession in Prachuap Khiri Khan is the only factor with a high negative relationship (r=0.-537). From the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis, the results have shown that the conformity with friends and relatives and educational level factors are influential to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, which can predict the decision at 86.60% and the multiple regression equation from the analysis is Y= 6.744+1.198 conformity + 0.647 education.

Keywords: decision of return migration, factors of return migration, Myanmar migrant workers, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

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626 Application of Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System Model for Hydrodynamic Analysis of Arial Khan River

Authors: Najeeb Hassan, Mahmudur Rahman

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Arial Khan River is one of the main south-eastward outlets of the River Padma. This river maintains a meander channel through its course and is erosional in nature. The specific objective of the research is to study and evaluate the hydrological characteristics in the form of assessing changes of cross-sections, discharge, water level and velocity profile in different stations and to create a hydrodynamic model of the Arial Khan River. Necessary data have been collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) and Center for Environment and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS). Satellite images have been observed from Google earth. In this study, hydrodynamic model of Arial Khan River has been developed using well known steady open channel flow code Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) using field surveyed geometric data. Cross-section properties at 22 locations of River Arial Khan for the years 2011, 2013 and 2015 were also analysed. 1-D HEC-RAS model has been developed using the cross sectional data of 2015 and appropriate boundary condition is being used to run the model. This Arial Khan River model is calibrated using the pick discharge of 2015. The applicable value of Mannings roughness coefficient (n) is adjusted through the process of calibration. The value of water level which ties with the observed data to an acceptable accuracy is taken as calibrated model. The 1-D HEC-RAS model then validated by using the pick discharges from 2009-2018. Variation in observed water level in the model and collected water level data is being compared to validate the model. It is observed that due to seasonal variation, discharge of the river changes rapidly and Mannings roughness coefficient (n) also changes due to the vegetation growth along the river banks. This river model may act as a tool to measure flood area in future. By considering the past pick flow discharge, it is strongly recommended to improve the carrying capacity of Arial Khan River to protect the surrounding areas from flash flood.

Keywords: BWDB, CEGIS, HEC-RAS

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625 Library Anxiety among Library and Information Science Students at Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak, Pakistan: A Bostick Approach

Authors: Saeed Ullah Jan, Shafaq, Sumbul

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Anxiety is one of the most common emotions and is a normal reaction to danger or a threat. It is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention. The prime aim of this study was to examine the level of anxiety of Library and Information Science students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. A survey method was used for the completion of this study. The response of male respondents was better than female LIS students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. The librarians should have to focus on the information needs of the university students. Special training needs to be arranged for female students to improve their library usage and readership rate.

Keywords: library-anxiety, library anxiety-students, library anxiety -students-Pakistan, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
624 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa

Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan, Afzal Khan

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Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).

Keywords: measles, vaccination, immunity, population

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623 Green It-Outsourcing Assurance Model for It-Outsourcing Vendors

Authors: Siffat Ullah Khan, Rahmat Ullah Khan, Rafiq Ahmad Khan, Habibullah Khan

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Green IT or green computing has emerged as a fast growing business paradigm in recent years in order to develop energy-efficient Software and peripheral devices. With the constant evolution of technology and the world critical environmental status, all private and public information technology (IT) businesses are moving towards sustainability. We identified, through systematic literature review and questionnaire survey, 9 motivators, in total, faced by vendors in IT-Outsourcing relationship. Amongst these motivators 7 were ranked as critical motivators. We also identified 21, in total, practices for addressing these critical motivators. Based on these inputs we have developed Green IT-Outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM) for IT-Outsourcing vendors. The model comprises four different levels. i.e. Initial, White, Green and Grey. Each level comprises different critical motivators and their relevant practices. We conclude that our model, GITAM, will assist IT-Outsourcing vendors in gauging their level in order to manage IT-Outsourcing activities in a green and sustainable fashion to assist the environment and to reduce the carbon emission. The model will assist vendors in improving their current level by suggesting various practices. The model will contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of Green IT.

Keywords: Green IT-outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM), Systematic Literature Review, Empirical Study, Case Study

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
622 Scar Removal Stretegy for Fingerprint Using Diffusion

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Tariq M. Khan, Yinan Kong

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Fingerprint image enhancement is one of the most important step in an automatic fingerprint identification recognition (AFIS) system which directly affects the overall efficiency of AFIS. The conventional fingerprint enhancement like Gabor and Anisotropic filters do fill the gaps in ridge lines but they fail to tackle scar lines. To deal with this problem we are proposing a method for enhancing the ridges and valleys with scar so that true minutia points can be extracted with accuracy. Our results have shown an improved performance in terms of enhancement.

Keywords: fingerprint image enhancement, removing noise, coherence, enhanced diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
621 SIPTOX: Spider Toxin Database Information Repository System of Protein Toxins from Spiders by Using MySQL Method

Authors: Iftikhar Tayubi, Tabrej Khan, Rayan Alsulmi, Abdulrahman Labban

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Spider produces a special kind of substance. This special kind of substance is called a toxin. The toxin is composed of many types of protein, which differs from species to species. Spider toxin consists of several proteins and non-proteins that include various categories of toxins like myotoxin, neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, dendrotoxin, haemorrhagins, and fibrinolytic enzyme. Protein Sequence information with references of toxins was derived from literature and public databases. From the previous findings, the Spider toxin would be the best choice to treat different types of tumors and cancer. There are many therapeutic regimes, which causes more side effects than treatment hence a different approach must be adopted for the treatment of cancer. The combinations of drugs are being encouraged, and dramatic outcomes are reported. Spider toxin is one of the natural cytotoxic compounds. Hence, it is being used to treat different types of tumors; especially its positive effect on breast cancer is being reported during the last few decades. The efficacy of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Spiders, toxin and toxin protein of different Spiders species. SPIDTOXD provides a single source information about spider toxins, which will be useful for pharmacologists, neuroscientists, toxicologists, medicinal chemists. The well-ordered and accessible web interface allows users to explore the detail information of Spider and toxin proteins. It includes common name, scientific name, entry id, entry name, protein name and length of the protein sequence. The utility of this database is that it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to retrieve the information about Spider, toxin and toxin protein of different Spider species. The database interfaces will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing in-depth knowledge about Spider and its toxin. We have adopted the methodology by using A MySQL and PHP and for designing, we used the Smart Draw. The users can thus navigate from one section to another, depending on the field of interest of the user. This database contains a wealth of information on species, toxins, and clinical data, etc. This database will be useful for the scientific community, basic researchers and those interested in potential pharmaceutical Industry.

Keywords: siptoxd, php, mysql, toxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
620 Blended Learning in a Mathematics Classroom: A Focus in Khan Academy

Authors: Sibawu Witness Siyepu

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This study explores the effects of instructional design using blended learning in the learning of radian measures among Engineering students. Blended learning is an education programme that combines online digital media with traditional classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both lecturer and student in a mathematics computer laboratory. Blended learning provides element of class control over time, place, path or pace. The focus was on the use of Khan Academy to supplement traditional classroom interactions. Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organisation created by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating an accessible place for students to learn through watching videos in a computer assisted computer. The researcher who is an also lecturer in mathematics support programme collected data through instructing students to watch Khan Academy videos on radian measures, and by supplying students with traditional classroom activities. Classroom activities entails radian measure activities extracted from the Internet. Students were given an opportunity to engage in class discussions, social interactions and collaborations. These activities necessitated students to write formative assessments tests. The purpose of formative assessments tests was to find out about the students’ understanding of radian measures, including errors and misconceptions they displayed in their calculations. Identification of errors and misconceptions serve as pointers of students’ weaknesses and strengths in their learning of radian measures. At the end of data collection, semi-structure interviews were administered to a purposefully sampled group to explore their perceptions and feedback regarding the use of blended learning approach in teaching and learning of radian measures. The study employed Algebraic Insight Framework to analyse data collected. Algebraic Insight Framework is a subset of symbol sense which allows a student to correctly enter expressions into a computer assisted systems efficiently. This study offers students opportunities to enter topics and subtopics on radian measures into a computer through the lens of Khan Academy. Khan academy demonstrates procedures followed to reach solutions of mathematical problems. The researcher performed the task of explaining mathematical concepts and facilitated the process of reinvention of rules and formulae in the learning of radian measures. Lastly, activities that reinforce students’ understanding of radian were distributed. Results showed that this study enthused the students in their learning of radian measures. Learning through videos prompted the students to ask questions which brought about clarity and sense making to the classroom discussions. Data revealed that sense making through reinvention of rules and formulae assisted the students in enhancing their learning of radian measures. This study recommends the use of Khan Academy in blended learning to be introduced as a socialisation programme to all first year students. This will prepare students that are computer illiterate to become conversant with the use of Khan Academy as a powerful tool in the learning of mathematics. Khan Academy is a key technological tool that is pivotal for the development of students’ autonomy in the learning of mathematics and that promotes collaboration with lecturers and peers.

Keywords: algebraic insight framework, blended learning, Khan Academy, radian measures

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
619 Prediction Fluid Properties of Iranian Oil Field with Using of Radial Based Neural Network

Authors: Abdolreza Memari

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In this article in order to estimate the viscosity of crude oil,a numerical method has been used. We use this method to measure the crude oil's viscosity for 3 states: Saturated oil's viscosity, viscosity above the bubble point and viscosity under the saturation pressure. Then the crude oil's viscosity is estimated by using KHAN model and roller ball method. After that using these data that include efficient conditions in measuring viscosity, the estimated viscosity by the presented method, a radial based neural method, is taught. This network is a kind of two layered artificial neural network that its stimulation function of hidden layer is Gaussian function and teaching algorithms are used to teach them. After teaching radial based neural network, results of experimental method and artificial intelligence are compared all together. Teaching this network, we are able to estimate crude oil's viscosity without using KHAN model and experimental conditions and under any other condition with acceptable accuracy. Results show that radial neural network has high capability of estimating crude oil saving in time and cost is another advantage of this investigation.

Keywords: viscosity, Iranian crude oil, radial based, neural network, roller ball method, KHAN model

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
618 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features

Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan

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Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
617 A Modified Shannon Entropy Measure for Improved Image Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Omar A. Kittaneh, M. Akbar, Tariq M. Khan, Husam A. Bayoud

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The Shannon Entropy measure has been widely used for measuring uncertainty. However, in partial settings, the histogram is used to estimate the underlying distribution. The histogram is dependent on the number of bins used. In this paper, a modification is proposed that makes the Shannon entropy based on histogram consistent. For providing the benefits, two application are picked in medical image processing applications. The simulations are carried out to show the superiority of this modified measure for image segmentation problem. The improvement may be contributed to robustness shown to uneven background in images.

Keywords: Shannon entropy, medical image processing, image segmentation, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
616 Developing Teachers as Change Agents: A Qualitative Study of Master of Education Graduates in Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal Tajik

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The 'Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan' (STEP) is an innovative programme jointly funded by the Government of Canada and the Aga Khan Foundation Canada and implemented by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in partnership with the local governments, education departments and communities in the provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. One of the key components of the programme is the professional development of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators through a variety of teacher education programmes including a two-year Masters of Education (MEd) Programme offered by AKU-IED. A number of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators from these provinces have been developed through the MEd Programme. This paper discusses a qualitative research study conducted to explore the nature, relevance, rigor and richness of the experiences of the MEd graduates, and how these experiences have fostered their own professional development and their ability to bring about positive changes in their schools. The findings of the study provide useful insights into the graduates’ self-actualization, the transformation of their professional beliefs and practices, the difference they have made in their schools, and the challenges they face. The study also provides recommendations for policy and practice related to teacher education programmes.

Keywords: STEP, teacher education, Pakistan, Canada, Aga Khan foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
615 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi

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Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: hydrothermal growth, sol-gel, zinc dioxide, biosensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
614 Computational Approach to Identify Novel Chemotherapeutic Agents against Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating autoimmune disorder, of the central nervous system (CNS). In the present scenario, the current therapies either do not halt the progression of the disease or have side effects which limit the usage of current Disease Modifying Therapies (DMTs) for a longer period of time. Therefore, keeping the current treatment failure schema, we are focusing on screening novel analogues of the available DMTs that specifically bind and inhibit the Sphingosine1-phosphate receptor1 (S1PR1) thereby hindering the lymphocyte propagation toward CNS. The novel drug-like analogs molecule will decrease the frequency of relapses (recurrence of the symptoms associated with MS) with higher efficacy and lower toxicity to human system. In this study, an integrated approach involving ligand-based virtual screening protocol (Ultrafast Shape Recognition with CREDO Atom Types (USRCAT)) to identify the non-toxic drug like analogs of the approved DMTs were employed. The potency of the drug-like analog molecules to cross the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) was estimated. Besides, molecular docking and simulation using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.2 and GOLD 3.01 were performed using the X-ray crystal structure of Mtb LprG protein to calculate the affinity and specificity of the analogs with the given LprG protein. The docking results were further confirmed by DSX (DrugScore eXtented), a robust program to evaluate the binding energy of ligands bound to the ligand binding domain of the Mtb LprG lipoprotein. The ligand, which has a higher hypothetical affinity, also has greater negative value. Further, the non-specific ligands were screened out using the structural filter proposed by Baell and Holloway. Based on the USRCAT, Lipinski’s values, toxicity and BBB analysis, the drug-like analogs of fingolimod and BG-12 showed that RTL and CHEMBL1771640, respectively are non-toxic and permeable to BBB. The successful docking and DSX analysis showed that RTL and CHEMBL1771640 could bind to the binding pocket of S1PR1 receptor protein of human with greater affinity than as compared to their parent compound (Fingolimod). In this study, we also found that all the drug-like analogs of the standard MS drugs passed the Bell and Holloway filter.

Keywords: antagonist, binding affinity, chemotherapeutics, drug-like, multiple sclerosis, S1PR1 receptor protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
613 Critical Discourse Analysis of Political TV Talk Show of Pakistani Media

Authors: Sumaira Saleem, Sajjad Hussain, Asma Kashif Shahzad, Hina Shaheen

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This study aims at exploring the relationship between language and ideology and how such relationships are represented in the analysis of spoken texts, following Van Dijk’s Socio Cognitive Model (2002). In this study, it is tried to show that political Talk shows broadcast by Private TV channels are working apparatuses of ideology and store meanings which are not always obvious for readers. This analysis was about the situation created by Arslan Iftkhar, the son of ex-Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudry and PTI Chief Imran Khan. Arslan Iftikhar submitted an application against Imran Khan that he is not able to become a member of parliament of Pakistan. In the application, he demanded the documents, which are submitted by Imran Khan at the time of Election to the Election Commission of Pakistan. Murad Ali from PTI also submitted an application against PM Nawaz Sharif to the Election Commission of Pakistan for providing the copies. It also suggests that these talk shows mystify the agency of processes by using various strategies. In other words, critical text analyses reveal how these choices enable speakers to manipulate the realizations of agency and power in the representation of action to produce particular meanings which are not always explicit for all readers.

Keywords: ECP, CDA, socio cognitive model, ideology, TV channels, power

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612 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar

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The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
611 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad

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In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: partial discharges, condition monitoring, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
610 A New Genus Longicheles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) for Pakistan Fauna from Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Macrochelid mites are poorly studied from the planes of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted as a part of PhD thesis research partially funded by the Royal Society of Entomology, UK. The genus Longicheles was first time reported from the Pakistan. Samples were collected on the monthly basis from different districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The genus Longicheles was frequently found from five districts (Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhung, Layyah, and Rajanpur) of Punjab province. Taxonomic studies were performed in Acarology Lab., Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad with slide deposition. Taxonomic work was performed by using Phase contrast microscope and adobe illustrator (drawings) for finishing of picture. The detail descriptions of two (Longicheles mandibularis and Longicheles hortorum) females are given along with diagrams and key.

Keywords: macrochelidae, longicheles, new records, Punjab

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609 Texturing of Tool Insert Using Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Ashfaq Khan, Aftab Khan, Mushtaq Khan, Sarem Sattar, Mohammad A Sheikh, Lin Li

Abstract:

Chip removal processes are one of key processes of the manufacturing industry where chip removal is conducted by tool inserts of exceptionally hard materials. Tungsten carbide has been extensively used as tool insert for machining processes involving chip removal processes. These hard materials are generally fabricated by single step sintering process as further modification after fabrication in these materials cannot be done easily. Advances in tool surface modification have revealed that advantages such as improved tribological properties and extended tool life can be harnessed from the same tool by texturing the tool rake surface. Moreover, it has been observed that the shape and location of the texture also influences the behavior. Although texturing offers plentiful advantages the challenge lies in the generation of textures on the tool surface. Extremely hard material such as diamond is required to process tungsten carbide. Laser is unique processing tool that does not have a physical contact with the material and thus does not wear. In this research the potential of utilizing laser for texturing of tungsten carbide to develop custom features would be studied. A parametric study of texturing of Tungsten Carbide with a femtosecond laser would be conducted to investigate the process parameters and establish the feasible processing window. The effect of fluence, scan speed and number of repetition would be viewed in detail. Moreover, the mechanism for the generation of features would also be reviewed.

Keywords: laser, texturing, femtosecond, tungsten carbide

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608 Depression among Housewives and Professional Women in Karachi: A Comparative Study

Authors: Naheed Khan

Abstract:

A non-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in middle-class women in Karachi, a metropolitan city of Pakistan. The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was self -administered by a sample of 50 housewives and 50 professional women between the ages of 24 and 54 years. All the participants were at least graduates, married, had children, and were living in joint family systems. Results showed a 48% prevalence of anxiety and depression in housewives as compared to 34% in professional women. The data showed significant difference in mean of total scores on AKUADS and the calculated t-value of 1.957 with a df = 98 and α = 0.05. Two variables, that is, profession and a higher level of education were significantly related to the outcome. Hence acquiring higher education and taking up a job, even a part time one, may alleviate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in housewives. Other factors responsible for the relief of such symptoms, such as quality of relationship with husbands, may be investigated for both categories of women.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, housewives, professional women

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607 Smart Meter Incorporating UWB Technology

Authors: T. A. Khan, A. B. Khan, M. Babar, T. A. Taj, Imran Ijaz Imran

Abstract:

Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional services as compared to the conventional energy meters. One of the important element that makes a meter smart and different is its communication module. Smart meters usually have two way and real-time communication between the consumer and the supplier through which its transfer data and information. In this paper, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) is recommended as communication platform because of its high data-rate and presents the physical layer, which could be easily incorporated in existing Smart Meters. The physical layer is simulated in MATLAB Simulink and the results are provided.

Keywords: Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Smart Meter, MATLAB, transfer data

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606 A Cross Culture Analysis of Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapies: Highly Effective for Gastropathic Disorders among Three Ethnic Communities of South West Pakistan

Authors: Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Raees Khan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shayan Jamshed, Humera Jabeen, Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Gastropathic disorders are increasing rapidly and millions patients are reported every years across the world. Herbal medicines and traditional phytotherapies are very effective for many diseases including gastropathic ailments. Many communities and study region have their own unique remedies for such diseases. The current study was aimed to investigate and document high valued medicinal plants and folk remedies for different gastropathic disorders among the three ethnic groups of three regions in South West Pakistan. A total of 104 semi-structured interviews involving experts of traditional knowledge in 21 localities of the three regions (D.I. Khan, Zhob and Mianwali) were conducted. The interviews were especially focused on the documentation of folk herbal remedies. The collected data was analyzed using different quantitative methods. The highly effective plants from all localities were identified with the help of local interviewers and collected for proper taxonomic identification. A total of 56 medicinal plants and 33 effective recipes for 12 gastropathic diseases were documented from all the three ethnic groups in 21 localities. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were most prominently used for different gastropathic diseases. Diarrhea, vomiting and dysentery were the most commonly diseases treated with herbal remedies. It was observed that the three communities shared knowledge about the use of medicinal plants, 35 species were commonly reported from all three areas. However, each community had also their own unique uses of medicinal plants, e.g. 23 plants species were only used in Zhob, 20 plant species were only reported in D.I. Khan and 16 species in Mianwali. The present study reveals that different communities and ethnic groups share some traditional knowledge and also have their own unique knowledge of plants utilization. Gastropathic disorder is increasing very rapidly and the traditional cross-cultural knowledge of medicinal plants use can be very effective for its cure.

Keywords: cross cultural, ethnic groups, gastropathy, phytotherapies, South West Pakistan

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605 A Computational Approach to Screen Antagonist’s Molecule against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c)

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues to take a disturbing toll on human life and healthcare facility worldwide. The global burden of TB remains enormous. The alarming rise of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis calls for an increase in research efforts towards the development of new target specific therapeutics against diverse strains of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, the discovery of new molecular scaffolds targeting new drug sites should be a priority for a workable plan for fighting resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb non-acylated lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) has a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist actions that depend on its association with triacylated glycolipids binding specifically with the hydrophobic pocket of Mtb LprG lipoprotein. The detection of a glycolipid carrier function has important implications for the role of LprG in Mycobacterial physiology and virulence. Therefore, considering the pivotal role of glycolipids in mycobacterial physiology and host-pathogen interactions, designing competitive antagonist (chemotherapeutics) ligands that competitively bind to glycolipid binding domain in LprG lipoprotein, will lead to inhibition of tuberculosis infection in humans. In this study, a unified approach involving ligand-based virtual screening protocol USRCAT (Ultra Shape Recognition) software and molecular docking studies using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.2 using the X-ray crystal structure of Mtb LprG protein was implemented. The docking results were further confirmed by DSX (DrugScore eXtented), a robust program to evaluate the binding energy of ligands bound to the Ligand binding domain of the Mtb LprG lipoprotein. The ligand, which has the higher hypothetical affinity, also has greater negative value. Based on the USRCAT, Lipinski’s values and molecular docking results, [(2R)-2,3-di(hexadecanoyl oxy)propyl][(2S,3S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-2,6-bis[[(2R,3S,4S,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6 (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxy]cyclohexyl] phosphate (XPX) was confirmed as a promising drug-like lead compound (antagonist) binding specifically to the hydrophobic domain of LprG protein with affinity greater than that of PIM2 (agonist of LprG protein) with a free binding energy of -9.98e+006 Kcal/mol and binding affinity of -132 Kcal/mol, respectively. A further, in vitro assay of this compound is required to establish its potency in inhibiting molecular evasion mechanism of MTB within the infected host macrophages. These results will certainly be helpful in future anti-TB drug discovery efforts against Multidrug-Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Keywords: antagonist, agonist, binding affinity, chemotherapeutics, drug-like, multi drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB), RV1411c protein, toll-like receptor (TLR2)

Procedia PDF Downloads 197