Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 113

Search results for: photocatalysis

113 Hybrid Treatment Method for Decolorization of Mixed Dyes: Rhodamine-B, Brilliant Green and Congo Red

Authors: D. Naresh Yadav, K. Anand Kishore, Bhaskar Bethi, Shirish H. Sonawane, D. Bhagawan


The untreated industrial wastewater discharged into the environment causes the contamination of soil, water and air. Advanced treatment methods for enhanced wastewater treatment are attracting substantial interest among the currently employed unit processes in wastewater treatment. The textile industry is one of the predominant in wastewater production at current industrialized situation. The refused dyes at textile industry need to be treated in proper manner before its discharge into water bodies. In the present investigation, hybrid treatment process has been developed for the treatment of synthetic mixed dye wastewater. Photocatalysis and ceramic nanoporous membrane are mainly used for process integration to minimize the fouling and increase the flux. Commercial semiconducting powders (TiO2 and ZnO) has used as a nano photocatalyst for the degradation of mixed dye in the hybrid system. Commercial ceramic nanoporous tubular membranes have been used for the rejection of dye and suspended catalysts. Photocatalysis with catalyst has shown the average of 34% of decolorization (RB-32%, BG-34% and CR-36%), whereas ceramic nanofiltration has shown the 56% (RB-54%, BG-56% and CR-58%) of decolorization. Integration of photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration has shown 96% (RB-94%, BG-96% and CR-98%) of dye decolorization over 90 min of operation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, ceramic nanoporous membrane, wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation process, process integration

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112 Study of Synergetic Effect by Combining Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma and Photocatalysis for Abatement of Pollutants in Air Mixture System: Influence of Some Operating Conditions and Identification of Byproducts

Authors: Wala Abou Saoud, Aymen Amine Assadi, Monia Guiza, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Wael Aboussaoud, Abdelmottaleb Ouederni, Dominique Wolbert


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constitute one of the most important families of chemicals involved in atmospheric pollution, causing damage to the environment and human health, and need, consequently, to be eliminated. Among the promising technologies, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma - photocatalysis coupling reveals very interesting prospects in terms of process synergy of compounds mineralization’s, with low energy consumption. In this study, the removal of organic compounds such butyraldehyde (BUTY) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (exhaust gasses from animal quartering centers.) in air mixture using DBD plasma coupled with photocatalysis was tested, in order to determine whether or not synergy effect was present. The removal efficiency of these pollutants, a selectivity of CO₂ and CO, and byproducts formation such as ozone formation were investigated in order to evaluate the performance of the combined process. For this purpose, a series of experiments were carried out in a continuous reactor. Many operating parameters were also investigated such as the specific energy of discharge, the inlet concentration of pollutant and the flowrate. It appears from this study that, the performance of the process has enhanced and a synergetic effect is observed. In fact, we note an enhancement of 10 % on removal efficiency. It is interesting to note that the combined system leads to better CO₂ selectivity than for plasma. Consequently, intermediates by-products have been reduced due to various other species (O•, N, OH•, O₂•-, O₃, NO₂, NOx, etc.). Additionally, the behavior of combining DBD plasma and photocatalysis has shown that the ozone can be easily also decomposed in presence of photocatalyst.

Keywords: combined process, DBD plasma, photocatalysis, pilot scale, synergetic effect, VOCs

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111 Synthesis of Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xS Nanocomposites and Their Application to the Photodegradation of Methylene Blue

Authors: H. Boukhatem, L. Djouadi, H. Khalaf, R. M. Navarro, F. V. Ganzalez


Synthetic organic dyes are used in various industries, such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, hair dye production, etc. Wastewaters containing these dyes may be harmful to the environment and living organisms. Therefore, it is very important to remove or degrade these dyes before discharging them into the environment. In addition to standard technologies for the degradation and/or removal of dyes, several new specific technologies, the so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have been developed to eliminate dangerous compounds from polluted waters. AOPs are all characterized by the same chemical feature: production of radicals (•OH) through a multistep process, although different reaction systems are used. These radicals show little selectivity of attack and are able to oxidize various organic pollutants due to their high oxidative capacity (reduction potential of HO• Eo = 2.8 V). Heterogeneous photocatalysis, as one of the AOPs, could be effective in the oxidation/degradation of organic dyes. A major advantage of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for this purpose is the total mineralization of organic dyes, which results in CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids. In this study, nanomaterials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) were utilized for the degradation of the commercial cationic textile dye Methylene blue (MB), used as a model pollutant. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). Test results of photocatalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nanomaterials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increases with the increasing of Cu concentration. The kinetics of the degradation of the MB dye was described with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photocatalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nanomaterial

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110 AG Loaded WO3 Nanoplates for Photocatalytic Degradation of Sulfanilamide and Bacterial Removal under Visible Light

Authors: W. Y. Zhu, X. L. Yan, Y. Zhou


Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics; photocatalysis is an effective, way to remove the SAs from water driven by solar energy. Here we used WO3 nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts to investigate their photodegradation efficiency against sulfanilamide (SAM) which is the precursor of SAs. Results showed that WO3/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO3 where the highest removal rate was 96.2% can be achieved under visible light irradiation. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO3, and 100% removal efficiency could be achieved in 2 h under visible light irradiation for all WO3/Ag composites. Generally, WO3/Ag composites are very effective photocatalysts with potentials in practical applications which mainly use cheap, clean and green solar energy as energy source.

Keywords: antibacterial, photocatalysis, semiconductor, sulfanilamide

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109 Photocatalytic Degradation of Naproxen in Water under Solar Irradiation over NiFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle System

Authors: H. Boucheloukh, S. Rouissa, N. Aoun, M. Beloucifa, T. Sehili, F. Parrino, V. Loddo


To optimize water purification and wastewater treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis, we used NiFe₂O₄ as a catalyst and solar irradiation as a source of energy. In this concept, an organic substance present in many industrial effluents was chosen: naproxen ((S)-6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid or 2-(6-methoxynaphthalenyl) propanoic), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The main objective of this study is to degrade naproxen by an iron and nickel catalyst, the degradation of this organic pollutant by nickel ferrite has been studied in a heterogeneous aqueous medium, with the study of the various factors influencing photocatalysis such as the concentration of matter and the acidity of the medium. The photocatalytic activity was followed by HPLC-UV andUV-Vis spectroscopy. A first-order kinetic model appropriately fitted the experimental data. The degradation of naproxen was also studied in the presence of H₂O₂ as well as in an aqueous solution. The new hetero-system NiFe₂O₄/oxalic acid is also discussed. The fastest naproxen degradation was obtained with NiFe₂O₄/H₂O₂. In a first-place, we detailed the characteristics of the material NiFe₂O₄, which was synthesized by the sol-gel methods, using various analytical techniques: visible UV spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, cyclic voltammetry, luminescent discharge optical emission spectroscopy.

Keywords: naproxen, nickelate, photocatalysis, oxalic acid

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108 Photocatalytic Self-Cleaning Concrete Production Using Nano-Size Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh, Halla Elea, Lawrence Benzmiller


The objective of this research is to evaluate the possibility of using nano-sized materials, mainly titanium dioxide (TiO2), in producing economic self-cleaning concrete using photo-catalysis process. In photo-catalysis, the nano-particles react and dissolve smog, dust, and dirt particles in the presence of sunlight, resulting in a cleaned concrete surface. To-date, the Italian cement company (Italcementi) produces a proprietary self-cleaning cementitious material that is currently used in government buildings and major highways in Europe. The high initial cost of the proprietary product represents a major obstacle to the wide spread of the self-cleaning concrete in industrial and commercial projects. In this research project, titanium dioxide nano-sized particles are infused to the top layer of a concrete pour before the concrete surface is finished. Once hardened, a blue dye is applied to the concrete surface to simulate smog and dirt effect. The concrete surface is subjected to direct light to investigate the effectiveness of the nano-sized titanium dioxide in cleaning the concrete surface. The outcome of this research project proved that the titanium dioxide can be successfully used in reducing smog and dirt particles attached to the concrete when infused to the surface concrete layer. The majority of cleansing effect due to photocatalysis happens within 24 hours of photocatalysis process. The non-proprietary mix can be used in highway, industrial, and commercial projects due to its economy and ease of production.

Keywords: self-cleaning concrete, photocatalysis, Smog-eating concrete, titanium dioxide

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107 Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Visible-Light Activated BiOBr-Nanoplate Photocatalyst

Authors: Meichen Lee, Michael K. H. Leung


In recent years, visible-light activated photocatalysis has become a major field of intense researches for the higher efficiency of solar energy utilizations. Many attempts have been made on the modification of wide band gap semiconductors, while more and more efforts emphasize on cost-effective synthesis of visible-light activated catalysts. In this work, BiOBr nanoplates with band gap of visible-light range are synthesized through a promising microwave solvothermal method. The treatment time period and temperature dependent BiOBr nanosheets of various particle sizes are investigated through SEM. BiOBr synthesized under the condition of 160°C for 60 mins shows the most uniform particle sizes around 311 nm and the highest surface-to-volume ratio on account of its smallest average particle sizes compared with others. It exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior among all samples in RhB degradation.

Keywords: microwave solvothermal process, nanoplates, solar energy, visible-light photocatalysis

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106 Degradation of Rose Bengal by UV in the Presence of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: H. Boucheloukh, N. Aoun, S. Rouissa, T. Sehili, F. Parrino, V. Loddo


Photocatalysis has made a revolution in wastewater treatment and the elimination of persistent organic pollutants. This process is based on the use of semiconductors as photocatalysts. In this study, nickel ferrite spinel (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel route. The structural, morphological, elemental composition, chemical state, particle size, optical and electrochemical characterizations using powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX ). We tested the prepared NiFe2O4(NPS)by monitoring the degradation of Rose Bengal (RB) dye in an aqueous solution under direct sunlight irradiation. The effects of catalyst dosage and dye concentration were also considered for the effective degradation of RB dye. The optimum catalyst dosage and concentration of dye were found to be 1 g/L and 10 μM, respectively. A maximum of 80% photocatalytic degradation efficiency (DE%) was achieved at 120 min of direct sunlight irradiation.

Keywords: Rose Bengal, Nickelate, photocatalysis, irradiation

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105 Removal of Maxilon Red Dye by Adsorption and Photocatalysis: Optimum Conditions, Equilibrium, and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Aid Asma, Dahdouh Nadjib, Amokrane Samira, Ladjali Samir, Nibou Djamel


The present work has for main objective the elimination of the textile dye Maxilon Red (MR) by two processes, adsorption on activated clay followed by photocatalysis in presence of ZnO as a photocatalyst. The influence of the physical parameters like the initial pH, adsorbent dose of the activated clay, the MR concentration and temperature has been studied. The best adsorption yield occurs at neutral pH ~ 7 within 60 min with an uptake percentage of 97% for a concentration of 25 mg L⁻¹ and a dose of 0.5 g L⁻¹. The adsorption data were suitably fitted by the Langmuir model with a maximum capacity of 176 mg g⁻¹. The MR adsorption is well described by the pseudo second order kinetic. The second part of this work was dedicated to the photocatalytic degradation onto ZnO under solar irradiation of the residual MR concentration, remained after adsorption. The effect of ZnO dose and MR concentration has also been investigated. The parametric study showed that the elimination is very effective by this process, based essentially on the in situ generation of free radicals *OH which are non-selective and very reactive. The photodegradation process follows a first order kinetic model according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: maxilon red, adsorption, photodegradation, ZnO, coupling

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104 Air-Purifying Properties of Cement Mortars Intermixed with TiO₂-SiO₂ Composites

Authors: A.M. Kaja, Q. Yu, H.J.H Brouwers


An increased functionality of concrete towards higher eco-efficiency is nowadays of great importance due to the decreasing air quality in urban areas. Surface modifications of concrete walls and roads, as a coating or an intermixing of the surface layer with TiO₂, provide an opportunity to improve the air quality by reducing NOx via photocatalytic phenomena. Nevertheless, there are still concerns regarding the cost-efficiency as well as the toxicity of intermediate products which can be produced during the photocatalysis, limiting a widespread adoption of these materials. This study addresses the problem of the selectivity of cement mortars towards nitrate in terms of microstructural characteristics and hydration products. The ability of cement mortars matrix intermixed with commercial TiO₂ and TiO₂-SiO₂ composite to abate NO₂ is investigated. The influence of hydration products formed under the carbonation facilitating conditions is discussed and solutions how to optimize the mix design are proposed. The incorporation of the TiO₂-SiO₂ composite into cement mortar is found to increase the nitrate selectivity index.

Keywords: cement matrix, NO₂ abatement, photocatalysis, TiO₂-SiO₂ composite

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103 Hybrid Method Development for the Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Medium

Authors: D. Nareshyadav, K. Anand Kishore, D. Bhagawan


Water scarcity is the much-identified issue all over the world. The available sources of water need to be reused to sustainable future. The present work explores the treatment of dye wastewater using combinative photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration membrane. Commercial ceramic membrane and TiO₂ catalyst were used in this study to investigate the removal of crystal violet dye from the aqueous solution. The effect of operating parameters such as inlet pressure, initial concentration of crystal violet dye, catalyst (TiO₂) loading, initial pH was investigated in the individual system as well as the combined system. In this study, 95 % of dye water was decolorized and 89 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed by the hybrid system for 500 ppm of dye and 0.75 g/l of TiO₂ concentrations at pH 9. The operation of the integrated photocatalytic reactor and ceramic membrane filtration has shown the maximum removal of crystal violet dye compared to individual systems. Hence this proposed method may be effective for the removal of Crystal violet dye from effluents.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, ceramic nanoporous membrane, dye degradation/removal, hybrid system, photocatalysis

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102 Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Dye Over Ag, Loaded ZnO Under UV/Solar Light

Authors: Farida Kaouah, Wassila Hachi, Lamia Brahmi, Chahida Ousselah, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari


The feasibility of using solar irradiation instead of UV light in photocatalysis is a promising approach for water treatment. In this study, photocatalytic degradation of a widely used textile dye, Acid Blue 25 (AB25), with noble metal loaded ZnO photocatalyst (Ag/ZnO), was investigated in aqueous suspension under solar light. The results showed that the deposition of Ag as a noble metal onto the ZnO surface, improved the photodegradation of AB25. . The effect of different parameters such as catalyst dose, initial dye concentration, and contact time was optimized and the optimal degradation of AB25 (97%) was achieved for initial AB25 concentration of 24 mg L−1 an catalyst dose of 1 g L−1 at natural pH (5.42) after 180 min. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight photocatalysis has in the degradation of dyes from wastewater

Keywords: acid dye, photocatalytic degradation, sunlight, zinc oxide, noble metal, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model

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101 Rapid Degradation of High-Concentration Methylene Blue in the Combined System of Plasma-Enhanced Photocatalysis Using TiO₂-Carbon

Authors: Teguh Endah Saraswati, Kusumandari Kusumandari, Candra Purnawan, Annisa Dinan Ghaisani, Aufara Mahayum


The present study aims to investigate the degradation of methylene blue (MB) using TiO₂-carbon (TiO₂-C) photocatalyst combined with dielectric discharge (DBD) plasma. The carbon materials used in the photocatalyst were activated carbon and graphite. The thin layer of TiO₂-C photocatalyst was prepared by ball milling method which was then deposited on the plastic sheet. The characteristic of TiO₂-C thin layer was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The XRD diffractogram patterns of TiO₂-G thin layer in various weight compositions of 50:1, 50:3, and 50:5 show the 2θ peaks found around 25° and 27° are the main characteristic of TiO₂ and carbon. SEM analysis shows spherical and regular morphology of the photocatalyst. Analysis using UV-Vis diffuse reflectance shows TiO₂-C has narrower band gap energy. The DBD plasma reactor was generated using two electrodes of Cu tape connected with stainless steel mesh and Fe wire separated by a glass dielectric insulator, supplied by a high voltage 5 kV with an air flow rate of 1 L/min. The optimization of the weight composition of TiO₂-C thin layer was studied based on the highest reduction of the MB concentration achieved, examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The changes in pH values and color of MB indicated the success of MB degradation. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of MB was also studied in various higher concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 ppm treated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min. The degradation efficiency of MB treated in combination system of photocatalysis and DBD plasma reached more than 99% in 6 min, in which the greater concentration of methylene blue dye, the lower degradation rate of methylene blue dye would be achieved.

Keywords: activated carbon, DBD plasma, graphite, methylene blue, photocatalysis

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100 Removal of Oxytetracycline Using Sonophotocatalysis: Parametric Study

Authors: Bouafia-Chergui Souâd, Chabani Malika, Bensmaili Aicha


Water treatment and especially, medicament pollutants are nowadays important problems. Degradation of oxytetracycline was carried out using combined process of low-frequency ultrasound (US), ultraviolet irradiation and a catalyst. The effectiveness of the coupled processes has been evaluated by studying the effects of various operating parameters including initial OTC concentration, solution pH and catalyst mass. For the photolysis process, the monochromatic ultraviolet light wavelength utilized was 365 nm. The sonolysis experiments were performed with ultrasound at a frequency of 40 kHz. The heterogeneous photocatalysis was studied in the presence of TiO2. The processes were employed individually, and simultaneously to examine the details of the processes and to investigate the contribution of each process. Low UV intensity (12W), low pH and high mass of TiO2 conditions enhanced the sono-photocatalytic degradation of OTC. The results showed that the individual contribution sonochemical and photochemical reactions are very low, however, their coupling increases the degradation rate of 8 times compared to photolysis and 2 times compared to sonolysis. There is a synergistic effect between the two modes of radiation, UV and U.S. leading to 82.04% degradation yield. An application of these combined processes on the treatment of a real pharmaceutical wastewater was examined.

Keywords: sonolysis, photocatalysis, combined process, antibiotic

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99 Semiconducting Nanostructures Based Organic Pollutant Degradation Using Natural Sunlight for Water Remediation

Authors: Ankur Gupta, Jayant Raj Saurav, Shantanu Bhattacharya


In this work we report an effective water filtration system based on the photo catalytic performance of semiconducting dense nano-brushes under natural sunlight. During thin-film photocatalysis usually performed by a deposited layer of photocatalyst, a stagnant boundary layer is created near the catalyst which adversely affects the rate of adsorption because of diffusional restrictions. One strategy that may be used is to disrupt this laminar boundary layer by creating a super dense nanostructure near the surface of the catalyst. Further it is adequate to fabricate a structured filter element for a through pass of the water with as grown nanostructures coming out of the surface of such an element. So, the dye remediation is performed through solar means. This remediation was initially limited to lower efficiency because of diffusional restrictions but has now turned around as a fast process owing to the development of the filter materials with standing out dense nanostructures. The effect of increased surface area due to microholes on fraction adsorbed is also investigated and found that there is an optimum value of hole diameter for maximum adsorption.

Keywords: nano materials, photocatalysis, waste water treatment, water remediation

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98 TiO2 Solar Light Photocatalysis a Promising Treatment Method of Wastewater with Trinitrotoluene Content

Authors: Ines Nitoi, Petruta Oancea, Lucian Constantin, Laurentiu Dinu, Maria Crisan, Malina Raileanu, Ionut Cristea


2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most common pollutant identified in wastewater generated from munitions plants where this explosive is synthesized or handled (munitions load, assembly and pack operations). Due to their toxic and suspected carcinogenic characteristics, nitroaromatic compounds like TNT are included on the list of prioritary pollutants and strictly regulated in EU countries. Since their presence in water bodies is risky for human health and aquatic life, development of powerful, modern treatment methods like photocatalysis are needed in order to assures environmental pollution mitigation. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT was carried out at pH=7.8, in aqueous TiO2 based catalyst suspension, under sunlight irradiation. The enhanced photo activity of catalyst in visible domain was assured by 0.5% Fe doping. TNT degradation experiments were performed using a tubular collector type solar photoreactor (26 UV permeable silica glass tubes series connected), plug in a total recycle loops. The influence of substrate concentration and catalyst dose on the pollutant degradation and mineralization by-products (NO2-, NO3-, NH4+) formation efficiencies was studied. In order to compare the experimental results obtained in various working conditions, the pollutant and mineralization by-products measured concentrations have been considered as functions of irradiation time and cumulative photonic energy Qhν incident on the reactor surface (kJ/L). In the tested experimental conditions, at tens mg/L pollutant concentration, increase of 0,5%-TiO2 dose up to 200mg/L leads to the enhancement of CB degradation efficiency. Since, doubling of TNT content has a negative effect on pollutant degradation efficiency, in similar experimental condition, prolonged irradiation time from 360 to 480 min was necessary in order to assures the compliance of treated effluent with limits imposed by EU legislation (TNT ≤ 10µg/L).

Keywords: wastewater treatment, TNT, photocatalysis, environmental engineering

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97 Solar Photocatalysis of Methyl Orange Using Multi-Ion Doped TiO2 Catalysts

Authors: Victor R. Thulari, John Akach, Haleden Chiririwa, Aoyi Ochieng


Solar-light activated titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium (IV) isopropoxide with thiourea, followed by calcinations at 450 °C. The experiments demonstrated that methyl orange in aqueous solutions were successfully degraded under solar light using doped TiO2. The photocatalytic oxidation of a mono azo methyl-orange dye has been investigated in multi ion doped TiO2 and solar light. Solutions were irradiated by solar-light until high removal was achieved. It was found that there was no degradation of methyl orange in the dark and in the absence of TiO2. Varieties of laboratory prepared TiO2 catalysts both un-doped and doped using titanium (IV) isopropoxide and thiourea as a dopant were tested in order to compare their photoreactivity. As a result, it was found that the efficiency of the process strongly depends on the working conditions. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was obtained at optimum dosage using commercially produced TiO2. Our work focused on laboratory synthesized catalyst and the maximum methyl orange removal was achieved at 81% with catalyst loading of 0.04 g/L, initial pH of 3 and methyl orange concentration of 0.005 g/L using multi-ion doped catalyst. The kinetics of photocatalytic methyl orange dye stuff degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The presence of the multi-ion dopant (thiourea) enhanced the photoefficiency of the titanium dioxide catalyst.

Keywords: degradation, kinetics, methyl orange, photocatalysis

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96 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Vanja Gilja, Marijana Kraljić Roković, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić


The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.

Keywords: composite, photocatalysis, polypyrrole, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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95 Photocatalytic Degradation of Aqueous Organic Pollutant under UV Light Irradiation

Authors: D. Tassalit, N. Chekir, O. Benhabiles, N. A. Laoufi, F. Bentahar


In the setting of the waters purification, some molecules appear recalcitrant to the traditional treatments. The exploitation of the properties of some catalysts permits to amplify the oxidization performances with ultraviolet radiance and to remove this pollution by a non biological way. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a photocatalysis oxidation system for organic pollutants treatment using a new reactor design and ZnO/TiO2 as a catalyst under UV light. Oxidative degradation of tylosin by hydroxyl radicals (OH°) was studied in aqueous medium using suspended forms of ZnO and TiO2. The results improve that the treatment was affected by many factors such as flow-rate of solution, initial pollutant concentration and catalyst concentration. The rate equation for the tylosin degradation followed first order kinetics and the rate-constants were determined. The reaction rate fitted well with Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and the removed ratio of tylosin was 97 % in less than 60 minutes. To determine the optimum catalyst loading, a series of experiments were carried out by varying the amount of catalyst from 0.05 to 0.5 g/L. The results demonstrate that the rate of photodegradation is optimum with catalyst loading of 0.1 g/L, reaction flow rate of 3.79 mL/s and solution natural pH. The rate was found to increase with the decrease in tylosin concentration from 30 to 5 mg/L. Therefore, this simple photoreactor design for the removal of organic pollutants has the potential to be used in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: advanced oxidation, photocatalysis, TiO2, ZnO, UV light, pharmaceuticals pollutants, Spiramycin, tylosin, wastewater treatment

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94 Application of Bacteriophage and Essential Oil to Enhance Photocatalytic Efficiency

Authors: Myriam Ben Said, Dhekra Trabelsi, Faouzi Achouri, Marwa Ben Saad, Latifa Bousselmi, Ahmed Ghrabi


This present study suggests the use of biological and natural bactericide, cheap, safe to handle, natural, environmentally benign agents to enhance the conventional wastewater treatment process. In the same sense, to highlight the enhancement of wastewater photocatalytic treatability, we were used virulent bacteriophage(s) and essential oils (EOs). The pre-phago-treatment of wastewater with lytic phage(s), leads to a decrease in bacterial density and, consequently, limits the establishment of intercellular communication (QS), thus preventing biofilm formation and inhibiting the expression of other virulence factors after photocatalysis. Moreover, to increase the photocatalytic efficiency, we were added to the secondary treated wastewater 1/1000 (w/v) of EO of thyme (T. vulgaris). This EO showed in vitro an anti-biofilm activity through the inhibition of plonctonic cell mobility and their attachment on an inert surface and also the deterioration of the sessile structure. The presence of photoactivatable molecules (photosensitizes) in this type of oil allows the optimization of photocatalytic efficiency without hazards relayed to dyes and chemicals reagent. The use of ‘biological and natural tools’ in combination with usual water treatment process can be considered as a safety procedure to reduce and/or to prevent the recontamination of treated water and also to prevent the re-expression of virulent factors by pathogenic bacteria such as biofilm formation with friendly processes.

Keywords: biofilm, essential oil, optimization, phage, photocatalysis, wastewater

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93 Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Oriented Bismuth Oxyiodide Thin Films for the Photocatalytical Degradation of Pharmaceuticals Compounds in Water

Authors: Juan C. Duran-Alvarez, Daniel Mejia, Rodolfo Zanella


Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising method to achieve the complete degradation and mineralization of organic pollutants in water via their exhaustive oxidation. In order to take this advanced oxidation process towards sustainability, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption, referred as the light sources and the post-treatment operations. For this, the synthesis of new nanostructures of low band gap semiconductors in the form of thin films is in continuous development. In this work, thin films of the low band gap semiconductor bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) were synthesized via the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. For this, Bi(NO3)3 and KI solutions were prepared, and glass supports were immersed in each solution under strict rate and time immersion conditions. Synthesis was performed at room temperature and a washing step was set prior to each immersion. Thin films with an average thickness below 100 nm were obtained upon a cycle of 30 immersions, as determined by AFM and profilometry measurements. Cubic BiOI nanocrystals with average size of 17 nm and a high orientation to the 001 plane were observed by XRD. In order to optimize the synthesis method, several Bi/I ratios were tested, namely 1/1, 1/5, 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50. The highest crystallinity of the BiOI films was observed when the 1/5 ratio was used in the synthesis. Non-stoichiometric conditions also resulted in the highest uniformity of the thin layers. PVP was used as an additive to improve the adherence of the BiOI thin films to the support. The addition of 0.1 mg/mL of PVP during the washing step resulted in the highest adherence of the thin films. In photocatalysis tests, degradation rate of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin as high as 75% was achieved using visible light (380 to 700 nm) irradiation for 5 h in batch tests. Mineralization of the antibiotic was also observed, although in a lower extent; ~ 30% of the total organic carbon was removed upon 5 h of visible light irradiation. Some ciprofloxacin by-products were identified throughout the reaction; and some of these molecules displayed residual antibiotic activity. In conclusion, it is possible to obtain highly oriented BiOI thin films under ambient conditions via the SILAR method. Non-stoichiometric conditions using PVP additive are necessary to increase the crystallinity and adherence of the films, which are photocatalytically active to remove recalcitrant organic pollutants under visible light irradiation.

Keywords: bismuth oxyhalides, photocatalysis, thin films, water treatment

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92 Photocatalysis with Fe/Ti-Pillared Clays for the Oxofunctionalization of Alkylaromatics by O2

Authors: Houria Rezala, Jose Luis Valverde, Amaya Romero, Alessandra Molinari, Andrea Maldotti


A pillared montmorillonite containing iron doped titania (Fe/Ti-PILC) has been prepared from a natural clay. This material has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption, and diffuse reflectance UV-VIS spectroscopy. The layer structure of Fe/Ti-PILC resulted to be ordered with an insertion of pillars, which caused a slight increase in the basal spacing of the clay. Its specific surface area was about three times larger than that of the parent Na-montmorillonite due principally to the creation of a remarkable microporous network. The doped material was a robust photocatalyst able to oxidize liquid alkyl aromatics to the corresponding carbonylic derivatives, using O2 as the oxidizing species, at mild pressure and temperature conditions. Accumulation of valuable carbonylic derivatives was possible since their over-oxidation to carbon dioxide was negligible. Fe/Ti-PILC was able to discriminate between toluene and cyclohexane in favor of the aromatic compound with an efficiency that is about three times higher than that of titanium pillared clays (Ti-PILC). It is likely that the addition of iron favored the formation of new acid sites able to interact with the aromatic substrate. Iron doping caused a significant TiO2 visible light-induced activity (wavelength > 400 nm) with only minor negative effects on its performance under UV-light irradiation (wavelength > 290 nm).

Keywords: alkyl aromatics oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalysis, iron doping, pillared clays

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91 Valorization of Mineralogical Byproduct TiO₂ Using Photocatalytic Degradation of Organo-Sulfur Industrial Effluent

Authors: Harish Kuruva, Vedasri Bai Khavala, Tiju Thomas, K. Murugan, B. S. Murty


Industries are growing day to day to increase the economy of the country. The biggest problem with industries is wastewater treatment. Releasing these wastewater directly into the river is more harmful to human life and a threat to aquatic life. These industrial effluents contain many dissolved solids, organic/inorganic compounds, salts, toxic metals, etc. Phenols, pesticides, dioxins, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and textile dyes were the types of industrial effluents and more challenging to degrade eco-friendly. So many advanced techniques like electrochemical, oxidation process, and valorization have been applied for industrial wastewater treatment, but these are not cost-effective. Industrial effluent degradation is complicated compared to commercially available pollutants (dyes) like methylene blue, methylene orange, rhodamine B, etc. TiO₂ is one of the widely used photocatalysts which can degrade organic compounds using solar light and moisture available in the environment (organic compounds converted to CO₂ and H₂O). TiO₂ is widely studied in photocatalysis because of its low cost, non-toxic, high availability, and chemically and physically stable in the atmosphere. This study mainly focused on valorizing the mineralogical product TiO₂ (IREL, India). This mineralogical graded TiO₂ was characterized and compared with its structural and photocatalytic properties (industrial effluent degradation) with the commercially available Degussa P-25 TiO₂. It was testified that this mineralogical TiO₂ has the best photocatalytic properties (particle shape - spherical, size - 30±5 nm, surface area - 98.19 m²/g, bandgap - 3.2 eV, phase - 95% anatase, and 5% rutile). The industrial effluent was characterized by TDS (total dissolved solids), ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectroscopy), CHNS (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and sulfur) analyzer, and FT-IR (fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy). It was observed that it contains high sulfur (S=11.37±0.15%), organic compounds (C=4±0.1%, H=70.25±0.1%, N=10±0.1%), heavy metals, and other dissolved solids (60 g/L). However, the organo-sulfur industrial effluent was degraded by photocatalysis with the industrial mineralogical product TiO₂. In this study, the industrial effluent pH value (2.5 to 10), catalyst concentration (50 to 150 mg) were varied, and effluent concentration (0.5 Abs) and light exposure time (2 h) were maintained constant. The best degradation is about 80% of industrial effluent was achieved at pH 5 with a concentration of 150 mg - TiO₂. The FT-IR results and CHNS analyzer confirmed that the sulfur and organic compounds were degraded.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, industrial mineralogical product TiO₂, photocatalysis, organo-sulfur industrial effluent

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90 Green Synthesis of Spinach Derived Carbon Dots for Photocatalytic Generation of Hydrogen from Sulfide Wastewater

Authors: Priya Ruban, Thirunavoukkarasu Manikkannan, Sakthivel Ramasamy


Sulfide is one of the major pollutants of tannery effluent which is mainly generated during the process of unhairing. Recovery of Hydrogen green fuel from sulfide wastewater using photocatalysis is a ‘Cleaner Production Method’, since renewable solar energy is utilized. It has triple advantages of the generation of H2, waste minimization and odor or pollution control. Designing of safe and green photocatalysts and developing suitable solar photoreactor is important for promoting this technology to large-scale application. In this study, green photocatalyst i.e., spinach derived carbon dots (SCDs 5 wt % and 10 wt %)/TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized for generation of H2 from sulfide wastewater using lab-scale solar photocatalytic reactor. The physical characterization of the synthesized solar light responsive nanocomposites were studied by using DRS UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR and FESEM analysis. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles is extended to visible region by the incorporation of SCDs, which was used for converting noxious pollutant sulfide into eco-friendly solar fuel H2. The SCDs (10 wt%)-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibits enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production i.e. ~27 mL of H2 (180 min) from simulated sulfide wastewater under LED visible light irradiation which is higher as compared to SCDs. The enhancement in the photocatalytic generation of H2 is attributed to combining of SCDs which increased the charge mobility. This work may provide new insights to usage of naturally available and cheap materials to design novel nanocomposite as a visible light active photocatalyst for the generation of H2 from sulfide containing wastewater.

Keywords: carbon dots, hydrogen fuel, hydrogen sulfide, photocatalysis, sulfide wastewater

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89 Polymer Nanostructures Based Catalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

Authors: S. Ghosh, L. Ramos, A. N. Kouamé, A.-L. Teillout, H. Remita


Catalytic materials have attracted continuous attention due to their promising applications in a variety of energy and environmental applications including clean energy, energy conversion and storage, purification and separation, degradation of pollutants and electrochemical reactions etc. With the advanced synthetic technologies, polymer nanostructures and nanocomposites can be directly synthesized through soft template mediated approach using swollen hexagonal mesophases and modulate the size, morphology, and structure of polymer nanostructures. As an alternative to conventional catalytic materials, one-dimensional PDPB polymer nanostructures shows high photocatalytic activity under visible light for the degradation of pollutants. These photocatalysts are very stable with cycling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and AFM-IR characterizations reveal that the morphology and structure of the polymer nanostructures do not change after photocatalysis. These stable and cheap polymer nanofibers and metal polymer nanocomposites are easy to process and can be reused without appreciable loss of activity. The polymer nanocomposites formed via one pot chemical redox reaction with 3.4 nm Pd nanoparticles on poly(diphenylbutadiyne) (PDPB) nanofibers (30 nm). The reduction of Pd (II) ions is accompanied by oxidative polymerization leading to composites materials. Hybrid Pd/PDPB nanocomposites used as electrode materials for the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol without using support of proton exchange Nafion membrane. Hence, these conducting polymer nanofibers and nanocomposites offer the perspective of developing a new generation of efficient photocatalysts for environmental protection and in electrocatalysis for fuel cell applications.

Keywords: conducting polymer, swollen hexagonal mesophases, solar photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, water depollution

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88 Rational Design and Synthesis of 2D/3D Conjugated Porous Polymers via Facile and 'Greener' Direct Arylation Polycondensation

Authors: Hassan Bohra, Mingfeng Wang


Conjugated porous polymers (CPPs) are amorphous, insoluble and highly robust organic semiconductors that have been largely synthesized by traditional transition-metal catalyzed reactions. The distinguishing feature of CPP materials is that they combine microporosity and high surface areas with extended conjugation, making them ideal for versatile applications such as separation, catalysis and energy storage. By applying a modular approach to synthesis, chemical and electronic properties of CPPs can be tailored for specific applications making these materials economical alternatives to inorganic semiconductors. Direct arylation - an environmentally benign alternative to traditional polymerization reactions – is one such reaction that extensively over the last decade for the synthesis of linear p-conjugated polymers. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new series of robust conjugated porous polymers synthesized by facile direct arylation polymerization of thiophene-flanked acceptor building blocks with multi-brominated aryls with different geometries. We observed that the porosities and morphologies of the polymers are determined by the chemical structure of the aryl bromide used. Moreover, good control of the optical bandgap in the range 2.53 - 1.3 eV could be obtained by using different building blocks. Structure-property relationships demonstrated in this study suggest that direct arylation polymerization is an attractive synthetic tool for the rational design of porous organic materials with tunable photo-physical properties for applications in photocatalysis, energy storage and conversion.

Keywords: direct arylation, conjugated porous polymers, triazine, photocatalysis

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87 Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Ibuprofen in Ultrapure Water, Municipal and Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewaters Using a TiO2/UV-LED System

Authors: Nabil Jallouli, Luisa M. Pastrana-Martínez, Ana R. Ribeiro, Nuno F. F. Moreira, Joaquim L. Faria, Olfa Hentati, Adrián M. T. Silva, Mohamed Ksibi


Degradation and mineralization of ibuprofen (IBU) were investigated using Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in TiO2 photocatalysis. Samples of ultrapure water (UP) and a secondary treated effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), both spiked with IBU, as well as a highly concentrated IBU (230 mgL-1) pharmaceutical industry wastewater (PIWW), were tested in the TiO2/UV-LED system. Three operating parameters, namely, pH, catalyst load and number of LEDs were optimized. The process efficiency was evaluated in terms of IBU removal using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Additionally, the mineralization was investigated by determining the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The chemical structures of transformation products were proposed based on the data obtained using liquid chromatography with a high resolution mass spectrometer ion trap/time-of-flight (LC-MS-IT-TOF). A possible pathway of IBU degradation was accordingly proposed. Bioassays were performed using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri to evaluate the potential acute toxicity of original and treated wastewaters. TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis was efficient to remove IBU from UP and from PIWW, and less efficient in treating the wastewater from the municipal WWTP. The acute toxicity decreased by ca. 40% after treatment, regardless of the studied matrix.

Keywords: acute toxicity, Ibuprofen, UV-LEDs, wastewaters

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86 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production, Effect of Metal Particle Size and Their Electronic/Optical Properties on the Reaction

Authors: Hicham Idriss


Hydrogen production from water is one of the most promising methods to secure renewable sources or vectors of energy for societies in general and for chemical industries in particular. At present over 90% of the total amount of hydrogen produced in the world is made from non-renewable fossil fuels (via methane reforming). There are many methods for producing hydrogen from water and these include reducible oxide materials (solar thermal production), combined PV/electrolysis, artificial photosynthesis and photocatalysis. The most promising of these processes is the one relying on photocatalysis; yet serious challenges are hindering its success so far. In order to make this process viable considerable improvement of the photon conversion is needed. Among the key studies that our group has been conducting in the last few years are those focusing on synergism between the semiconductor phases, photonic band gap materials, pn junctions, plasmonic resonance responses, charge transfer to metal cations, in addition to metal dispersion and band gap engineering. In this work results related to phase transformation of the anatase to rutile in the case of TiO2 (synergism), of Au and Ag dispersion (electron trapping and hydrogen-hydrogen recombination centers) as well as their plasmon resonance response (visible light conversion) are presented and discussed. It is found for example that synergism between the two common phases of TiO2 (anatase and rutile) is sensitive to the initial particle size. It is also found, in agreement with previous results, that the rate is very sensitive to the amount of metals (with similar particle size) on the surface unlike the case of thermal heterogeneous catalysis.

Keywords: photo-catalysis, hydrogen production, water splitting, plasmonic

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85 Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

Authors: P. Acosta-Santamaría, A. Ibatá-Soto, A. López-Vásquez


Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.

Keywords: black sand mineral, methyl orange, oxidation, photocatalysis, reduction

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84 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Cuprous Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite

Authors: Bekan Bogale, Tsegaye Girma Asere, Tilahun Yai, Fekadu Melak


Aims: To study photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite. Background: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are among the metal oxides that demonstrated photocatalytic activity. However, the stability of Cu2O nanoparticles due to the fast recombination rate of electron/hole pairs remains a significant challenge in their photocatalytic applications. This, in turn, leads to mismatching of the effective bandgap separation, tending to reduce the photocatalytic activity of the desired organic waste (MB). To overcome these limitations, graphene has been combined with cuprous oxides, resulting in cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite as a promising photocatalyst. Objective: In this study, Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated for its photocatalytic performance of methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. Method: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized from graphite powder and copper nitrate using the facile sol-gel method. Batch experiments have been conducted to assess the applications of the nanocomposites for MB degradation. Parameters such as contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH of the solution were optimized for maximum MB degradation. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites was compared against Cu2O nanoparticles for cationic MB dye degradation. Results: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for MB degradation (with a degradation efficiency of 94%) than pure Cu2O nanoparticles (67%). This has been accomplished after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. The kinetics of MB degradation by Cu2O/graphene composites can be demonstrated by the second-order kinetic model. The synthesized nanocomposite can be used for more than three cycles of photocatalytic MB degradation. Conclusion: This work indicated new insights into Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite as high-performance in photocatalysis to degrade MB, playing a great role in environmental protection in relation to MB dye.

Keywords: methylene blue, photocatalysis, cuprous oxide, graphene nanocomposite

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