Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1668

Search results for: electrochemical sensor

1668 Electrodeposited Silver Nanostructures: A Non-Enzymatic Sensor for Hydrogen Peroxide

Authors: Mandana Amiri, Sima Nouhi, Yashar Azizan-Kalandaragh


Silver nanostructures have been successfully fabricated by using electrodeposition method onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) techniques were employed for characterization of silver nanostructures. The results show nanostructures with different morphology and electrochemical properties can be obtained by various the deposition potentials and times. Electrochemical behavior of the nanostructures has been studied by using cyclic voltammetry. Silver nanostructures exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. The presented electrode can be employed as sensing element for hydrogen peroxide.

Keywords: electrochemical sensor, electrodeposition, hydrogen peroxide, silver nanostructures

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1667 1-Butyl-2,3-Dimethylimidazolium Bis (Trifluoromethanesulfonyl) Imide and Titanium Oxide Based Voltammetric Sensor for the Quantification of Flunarizine Dihydrochloride in Solubilized Media

Authors: Rajeev Jain, Nimisha Jadon, Kshiti Singh


Titanium oxide nanoparticles and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethane- sulfonyl) imide modified glassy carbon electrode (TiO2/IL/GCE) has been fabricated for electrochemical sensing of flunarizine dihydrochloride (FRH). The electrochemical properties and morphology of the prepared nanocomposite were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The response of the electrochemical sensor was found to be proportional to the concentrations of FRH in the range from 0.5 µg mL-1 to 16 µg mL-1. The detection limit obtained was 0.03 µg mL-1. The proposed method was also applied to the determination of FRH in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum with good recoveries.

Keywords: flunarizine dihydrochloride, ionic liquid, nanoparticles, voltammetry, human serum

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1666 Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Detection of Glucose in Disposable Paper-Based Sensor Using a Graphene and Cobalt Phthalocyanine Composite

Authors: Sudkate Chaiyo, Weena Siangproh, Orawon Chailapakul, Kurt Kalcher


In the present work, a simple and sensitive non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in disposable paper-based sensor was developed at ionic liquid/graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite (IL/G/CoPc) modified electrode. The morphology of the fabricated composite was characterized and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectroscopy results confirmed that the G/CoPc composite formed via the strong π–π interaction between CoPc and G. Amperometric i-t technique was used for the determination of glucose. The response of glucose was linear over the concentration ranging from 10 µM to 1.5 mM. The response time of the sensor was found as 30 s with a limit of detection of 0.64 µM (S/N=3). The fabricated sensor also exhibited its good selectivity in the presence of common interfering species. In addition, the fabricated sensor exhibited its special advantages such as low working potential, good sensitivity along with good repeatability and reproducibility for the determination of glucose.

Keywords: glucose, paper-based sensor, ionic liquid/graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite, electrochemical detection

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1665 Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation Synthesis of TiO2 nanotube as Perspective Electrode for the Detection of Phenyl Hydrazine

Authors: Sadia Ameen, M. Nazim, Hyumg-Kee Seo, Hyung-Shik Shin


TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were grown on titanium (Ti) foil substrate by electrochemical anodic oxidation and utilized as working electrode to fabricate a highly sensitive and reproducible chemical sensor for the detection of harmful phenyl hydrazine chemical. The fabricated chemical sensor based on TiO2 NT arrays electrode exhibited high sensitivity of ~40.9 µ and detection limit of ~0.22 µM with short response time (10s).

Keywords: TiO2 NT, phenyl hydrazine, chemical sensor, sensitivity, electrocatalytic properties

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1664 Electrochemical Response Transductions of Graphenated-Polyaniline Nanosensor for Environmental Anthracene

Authors: O. Tovide, N. Jahed, N. Mohammed, C. E. Sunday, H. R. Makelane, R. F. Ajayi, K. M. Molapo, A. Tsegaye, M. Masikini, S. Mailu, A. Baleg, T. Waryo, P. G. Baker, E. I. Iwuoha


A graphenated–polyaniline (GR-PANI) nanocomposite sensor was constructed and used for the determination of anthracene. The direct electro-oxidation behavior of anthracene on the GR-PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as the sensing principle. The results indicate thatthe response profile of the oxidation of anthracene on GR-PANI-modified GCE provides for the construction of sensor systems based onamperometric and potentiometric signal transductions. A dynamic linear range of 0.12- 100 µM anthracene and a detection limit of 0.044 µM anthracene were established for the sensor system.

Keywords: electrochemical sensors, environmental pollutants, graphenated-polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon

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1663 Development of a Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Dots and Graphitic Carbon Nitride for the Detection of 2-Chlorophenol and Arsenic

Authors: Theo H. G. Moundzounga


Arsenic and 2-chlorophenol are priority pollutants that pose serious health threats to humans and ecology. An electrochemical sensor, based on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C₃N₄) and carbon dots (CDs), was fabricated and used for the determination of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol. The g-C₃N₄/CDs nanocomposite was prepared via microwave irradiation heating method and was dropped-dried on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS) were used for the characterization of structure and morphology of the nanocomposite. Electrochemical characterization was done by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochemical behaviors of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol on different electrodes (GCE, CDs/GCE, and g-C₃N₄/CDs/GCE) was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results demonstrated that the g-C₃N₄/CDs/GCE significantly enhanced the oxidation peak current of both analytes. The analytes detection sensitivity was greatly improved, suggesting that this new modified electrode has great potential in the determination of trace level of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol. Experimental conditions which affect the electrochemical response of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol were studied, the oxidation peak currents displayed a good linear relationship to concentration for 2-chlorophenol (R²=0.948, n=5) and arsenic (R²=0.9524, n=5), with a linear range from 0.5 to 2.5μM for 2-CP and arsenic and a detection limit of 2.15μM and 0.39μM respectively. The modified electrode was used to determine arsenic and 2-chlorophenol in spiked tap and effluent water samples by the standard addition method, and the results were satisfying. According to the measurement, the new modified electrode is a good alternative as chemical sensor for determination of other phenols.

Keywords: electrochemistry, electrode, limit of detection, sensor

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1662 Fe-BTC Based Electrochemical Sensor for Anti-Psychotic and Anti-Migraine Drugs: Aripiprazole and Rizatriptan

Authors: Sachin Saxena, Manju Srivastava


The present study describes a stable, highly sensitive and selective analytical sensor. Fe-BTC was synthesized at room temperature using the noble Iron-trimesate system. The high surface area of as synthesized Fe-BTC proved MOFs as ideal modifiers for glassy carbon electrode. The characterization techniques such as TGA, XRD, FT-IR, BET (BET surface area= 1125 m2/gm) analysis explained the electrocatalytic behaviour of Fe-BTC towards these two drugs. The material formed is cost effective and exhibit higher catalytic behaviour towards analyte systems. The synergism between synthesized Fe-BTC and electroanalytical techniques helped in developing a highly sensitive analytical method for studying the redox fate of ARP and RZ, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry of ferricyanide system proved Fe-BTC/GCE with an increase in 132% enhancement in peak current value as compared to that of GCE. The response characteristics of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) revealed that the ARP and RZ could be effectively accumulated at Fe-BTC/GCE. On the basis of the electrochemical measurements, electrode dynamics parameters have been evaluated. Present study opens up new field of applications of MOFs modified GCE for drug sensing.

Keywords: MOFs, anti-psychotic, electrochemical sensor, anti-migraine drugs

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1661 Open Reading Frame Marker-Based Capacitive DNA Sensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Potable Water

Authors: Rehan Deshmukh, Sunil Bhand, Utpal Roy


We report the label-free electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) in potable water using a DNA probe as a sensing molecule targeting the open reading frame marker. Indium tin oxide (ITO) surface was modified with organosilane and, glutaraldehyde was applied as a linker to fabricate the DNA sensor chip. Non-Faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) behavior was investigated at each step of sensor fabrication using cyclic voltammetry, impedance, phase, relative permittivity, capacitance, and admittance. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed significant changes in surface topographies of DNA sensor chip fabrication. The decrease in the percentage of pinholes from 2.05 (Bare ITO) to 1.46 (after DNA hybridization) suggested the capacitive behavior of the DNA sensor chip. The results of non-Faradic EIS studies of DNA sensor chip showed a systematic declining trend of the capacitance as well as the relative permittivity upon DNA hybridization. DNA sensor chip exhibited linearity in 0.5 to 25 pg/10mL for E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The limit of detection (LOD) at 95% confidence estimated by logistic regression was 0.1 pg DNA/10mL of E. coli O157:H7 (equivalent to 13.67 CFU/10mL) with a p-value of 0.0237. Moreover, the fabricated DNA sensor chip used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 showed no significant cross-reactivity with closely and distantly related bacteria such as Escherichia coli MTCC 3221, Escherichia coli O78:H11 MTCC 723 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 736. Consequently, the results obtained in our study demonstrated the possible application of developed DNA sensor chips for E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in real water samples as well.

Keywords: capacitance, DNA sensor, Escherichia coli O157:H7, open reading frame marker

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1660 Peptide Aptasensor for Electrochemical Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Shah Abbas


Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease, affecting an overall 1% of the global population. Despite being tremendous efforts by scientists, early diagnosis of RA still has not been achieved. In the current study, a Graphene oxide (GO) based electrochemical sensor has been developed for early diagnosis of RA through Cyclic voltammetry. Chitosan (CHI), a CPnatural polymer has also been incorporated along with GO in order to enhance the biocompatibility and functionalization potential of the biosensor. CCPs are known antigens for Anti Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (ACPAs) which can be detected in serum even 14 years before the appearance of symptoms, thus they are believed to be an ideal target for the early diagnosis of RA. This study has yielded some promising results regarding the binding and detection of ACPAs through changes in the electrochemical properties of biosensing material. The cyclic voltammogram of this biosensor reflects the binding of ACPAs to the biosensor surface, due to its shifts observed in the current flow (cathodic current) as compared to the when no ACPAs bind as it is absent in RA negative patients.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, peptide sensor, graphene oxide, anti citrullinated peptide antibodies, cyclic voltammetry

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1659 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha


This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol

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1658 Fabrication of Gold Nanoparticles Self-Assembled Functionalized Improved Graphene on Carbon Paste Electrode for Electrochemical Determination of Levodopa in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hossein Tavallali, Abdolhamid Hatefi-Mehrjardi


In this study, an electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized improved graphene (AuNPs-IGE) was fabricated for selective determination of L-dopa in the presence of ascorbic acid by a novel self-assembly method. The AuNP IGE modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-IGE/CPE) utilized for investigation of the electrochemical behavior of L-dopa in phosphate buffer solution. Compared to bare CPE, AuNPs-IGE/CPE shows novel properties towards the electrochemical redox of levodopa (L-dopa) in phosphate buffer solution at pH 4.0. The oxidation potential of L-dopa shows a significant decrease at the AuNPs-IGE/CPE. The oxidation current of L-dopa is higher than that of the unmodified CPE. AuNPs-IG/CPE shows excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method, the oxidation current is well linear with L-dopa concentration in the range of 0.4–50 µmol L-1, with a detection limit of about 1.41 nmol L-1 (S/N = 3). Therefore, it was applied to measure L-dopa from real samples that recoveries are 94.6-106.2%. The proposed electrode can also effectively avoid the interference of ascorbic acid, making the proposed sensor suitable for the accurate determination of L-dopa in both pharmaceutical preparations and human body fluids.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, improved graphene, L-dopa, self-assembly

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1657 A Turn-on Fluorescent Sensor for Pb(II)

Authors: Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, Soner Çubuk, Neşe Taşci, M. Vezir Kahraman


Lead(II) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants in the world, due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability. Lead exposure causes severe risks to human health such as central brain damages, convulsions, kidney damages, and even death. To determine lead(II) in environmental or biological samples, scientists use atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), fluorescence spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. Among these systems the fluorescence spectrometry and fluorescent chemical sensors have attracted considerable attention because of their good selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescent polymers usually contain covalently bonded fluorophores. In this study imidazole based UV cured polymeric film was prepared and designed to act as a fluorescence chemo sensor for lead (II) analysis. The optimum conditions such as influence of pH value and time on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor have also been investigated. The sensor was highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 1.87 × 10−8 mol L-1 and it was successful in the determination of Pb(II) in water samples.

Keywords: fluorescence, lead(II), photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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1656 Implementation of Sensor Fusion Structure of 9-Axis Sensors on the Multipoint Control Unit

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we study the sensor fusion structure on the multipoint control unit (MCU). Sensor fusion using Kalman filter for 9-axis sensors is considered. The 9-axis inertial sensor is the combination of 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We implement the sensor fusion structure among the sensor hubs in MCU and measure the execution time, power consumptions, and total energy. Experiments with real data from 9-axis sensor in 20Mhz show that the average power consumptions are 44mW and 48mW on Cortx-M0 and Cortex-M3 MCU, respectively. Execution times are 613.03 us and 305.6 us respectively.

Keywords: 9-axis sensor, Kalman filter, MCU, sensor fusion

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1655 Electrochemical Regeneration of GIC Adsorbent in a Continuous Electrochemical Reactor

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, H. Sattar, E. P. L. Roberts


Arvia™ introduced a novel technology consisting of adsorption followed by electrochemical regeneration with a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent that takes place in a single unit. The adsorbed species may lead to the formation of intermediate by-products products due to incomplete mineralization during electrochemical regeneration. Therefore, the investigation of breakdown products due to incomplete oxidation is of great concern regarding the commercial applications of this process. In the present paper, the formation of the chlorinated breakdown products during continuous process of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration based on a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent has been investigated.

Keywords: GIC, adsorption, electrochemical regeneration, chlorphenols

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1654 Carboxylic Acid-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Polyindole/Ti2O3 Nanocomposite: Electrochemical Nanomolar Detection of α-Lipoic Acid in Vegetables

Authors: Ragu Sasikumar, Palraj Ranganathan, Shen-Ming Chen, Syang-Peng Rwei


A highly sensitive, and selective α-Lipoic acid (ALA) sensor based on a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes-polyindole/Ti2O3 (f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed. The fabricated f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3/GCE displayed an enhanced voltammetric response for oxidation towards ALA relative to that of a f-MWCNTs/GCE, f-MWCNTs-PIN/GCE, Ti2O3/GCE, and a bare GCE. Under optimum conditions, the f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3/GCE showed a wide linear range at ALA concentrations of 0.39-115.8 µM. The limit of detection of 12 nM and sensitivity of about 6.39 µA µM-1cm-2. The developed sensor showed anti-interference, reproducibility, good repeatability, and operational stability. Applied possibility of the sensor has been confirmed in vegetable samples.

Keywords: f-MWCNT, polyindole, Ti2O3, Alzheimer’s diseases, ALA sensor

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1653 Development of Sulfite Biosensor Based on Sulfite Oxidase Immobilized on 3-Aminoproplytriethoxysilane Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

Authors: Pawasuth Saengdee, Chamras Promptmas, Ting Zeng, Silke Leimkühler, Ulla Wollenberger


Sulfite has been used as a versatile preservative to limit the microbial growth and to control the taste in some food and beverage. However, it has been reported to cause a wide spectrum of severe adverse reactions. Therefore, it is important to determine the amount of sulfite in food and beverage to ensure consumer safety. An efficient electrocatalytic biosensor for sulfite detection was developed by immobilizing of human sulfite oxidase (hSO) on 3-aminoproplytriethoxysilane (APTES) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of the hSO modified ITO electrode for various pretreatment and binding conditions. Amperometry was also utilized to demonstrate the current responses of the sulfite sensor toward sodium sulfite in an aqueous solution at a potential of 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl 1 M KCl). The proposed sulfite sensor has a linear range between 0.5 to 2 mM with a correlation coefficient 0.972. Then, the additional polymer layer of PVA was introduced to extend the linear range of sulfite sensor and protect the enzyme. The linear range of sulfite sensor with 5% coverage increases from 2.8 to 20 mM at a correlation coefficient of 0.983. In addition, the stability of sulfite sensor with 5% PVA coverage increases until 14 days when kept in 0.5 mM Tris-buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 8C. Therefore, this sensor could be applied for the detection of sulfite in the real sample, especially in food and beverage.

Keywords: sulfite oxidase, bioelectrocatalytsis, indium tin oxide, direct electrochemistry, sulfite sensor

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1652 Zinc Nanoparticles Modified Electrode as an Insulin Sensor

Authors: Radka Gorejova, Ivana Sisolakova, Jana Shepa, Frederika Chovancova, Renata Orinakova


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Often, the symptoms are not sufficiently observable at early stages, and so hyperglycemia causes pathological and functional changes before the diagnosis of the DM. Therefore, the development of an electrochemical sensor that will be fast, accurate, and instrumentally undemanding is currently needful. Screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) can be considered as the most suitable matrix material for insulin sensors because of the small size of the working electrode. It leads to the analyst's volume reduction to only 50 µl for each measurement. The surface of bare SPCE was modified by a combination of chitosan, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) to obtain better electrocatalytic activity towards insulin oxidation. ZnNPs were electrochemically deposited on the chitosan-MWCNTs/SPCE surface using the pulse deposition method. Thereafter, insulin was determined on the prepared electrode using chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The chronoamperometric measurement was performed by adding a constant amount of insulin in 0.1 M NaOH and PBS (2 μl) with the concentration of 2 μM, and the current response of the system was monitored after a gradual increase in concentration. Subsequently, the limit of detection (LOD) of the prepared electrode was determined via the Randles-Ševčík equation. The LOD was 0.47 µM. Prepared electrodes were studied also as the impedimetric sensors for insulin determination. Therefore, various insulin concentrations were determined via EIS. Based on the performed measurements, the ZnNPs/chitosan-MWCNTs/SPCE can be considered as a potential candidate for novel electrochemical sensor for insulin determination. Acknowledgments: This work has been supported by the projects Visegradfund project number 22020140, VEGA 1/0095/21 of the Slovak Scientific Grant Agency, and APVV-PP-COVID-20-0036 of the Slovak Research and Development Agency.

Keywords: zinc nanoparticles, insulin, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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1651 Carbon-Nanodots Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Electroanalysis of Selenium in Water

Authors: Azeez O. Idris, Benjamin O. Orimolade, Potlako J. Mafa, Alex T. Kuvarega, Usisipho Feleni, Bhekie B. Mamba


We report a simple and cheaper method for the electrochemical detection of Se(IV) using carbon nanodots (CNDTs) prepared from oat. The carbon nanodots were synthesised by green and facile approach and characterised using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The CNDT was used to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for the quantification of Se(IV) in water. The modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanodots led to an increase in the electroactive surface area of the electrode, which enhances the redox current peak of [Fe(CN)₆]₃₋/₄‒ in comparison to the bare GCE. Using the square wave voltammetry, the detection limit and quantification limit of 0.05 and 0.167 ppb were obtained under the optimised parameters using deposition potential of -200 mV, 0.1 M HNO₃ electrolyte, electrodeposition time of 60 s, and pH 1. The results further revealed that the GCE-CNDT was not susceptible to many interfering cations except Cu(II) and Pb(II), and Fe(II). The sensor fabrication involves a one-step electrode modification and was used to detect Se(IV) in a real water sample, and the result obtained is in agreement with the inductively coupled plasma technique. Overall, the electrode offers a cheap, fast, and sensitive way of detecting selenium in environmental matrices.

Keywords: carbon nanodots, square wave voltammetry, nanomaterials, selenium, sensor

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1650 Mesoporous Carbon Ceramic SiO2/C Prepared by Sol-Gel Method and Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine and Used as an Electrochemical Sensor for Nitrite

Authors: Abdur Rahim, Lauro Tatsuo Kubota, Yoshitaka Gushikem


Carbon ceramic mesoporous SiO2/50wt%C (SBET= 170 m2g-1), where C is graphite, was prepared by the sol gel method. Scanning electron microscopy images and the respective element mapping showed that, within the magnification used, no phase segregation was detectable. It presented the electric conductivities of 0.49 S cm-1. This material was used to support cobalt phthalocyanine, prepared in situ, to assure a homogeneous dispersion of the electro active complex in the pores of the matrix. The surface density of cobalt phthalocyanine, on the matrix surfaces was 0.015 mol cm-2. Pressed disk, made with SiO2/50wt%C/CoPc, was used to fabricate an electrode and tested as sensors for nitrite determination by electro chemical technique. A linear response range between 0.039 and 0.42 mmol l−1,and correlation coefficient r=0.9996 was obtained. The electrode was chemically very stable and presented very high sensitivity for this analyte, with a limit of detection, LOD = 1.087 x 10-6 mol L-1.

Keywords: SiO2/C/CoPc, sol-gel method, electrochemical sensor, nitrite oxidation, carbon ceramic material, cobalt phthalocyanine

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1649 Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-Functionalized Indium Tin Oxide Electrode for Electrochemical Sulfide Detection

Authors: Md. Abdul Aziz


Sulfide ion is water soluble, highly corrosive, toxic and harmful to the human beings. As a result, knowing the exact concentration of sulfide in water is very important. However, the existing detection and quantification methods have several shortcomings, such as high cost, low sensitivity, and massive instrumentation. Consequently, the development of novel sulfide sensor is relevant. Nevertheless, electrochemical methods gained enormous popularity due to a vast improvement in the technique and instrumentation, portability, low cost, rapid analysis and simplicity of design. Successful field application of electrochemical devices still requires vast improvement, which depends on the physical, chemical and electrochemical aspects of the working electrode. The working electrode made of bulk gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) are quite common, being very robust and endowed with good electrocatalytic properties. High cost, and electrode poisoning, however, have so far hindered their practical application in many industries. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a sulfide sensor based on an indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITONP)-modified ITO electrode. To prepare ITONP-modified ITO, various methods were tested. Drop-drying of ITONPs (aq.) on aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized ITO (APTMS/ITO) was found to be the best method on the basis of voltammetric analysis of the sulfide ion. ITONP-modified APTMS/ITO (ITONP/APTMS/ITO) yielded much better electrocatalytic properties toward sulfide electro-οxidation than did bare or APTMS/ITO electrodes. The ITONPs and ITONP-modified ITO were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Optimization of the type of inert electrolyte and pH yielded an ITONP/APTMS/ITO detector whose amperometrically and chronocoulοmetrically determined limits of detection for sulfide in aqueous solution were 3.0 µM and 0.90 µM, respectively. ITONP/APTMS/ITO electrodes which displayed reproducible performances were highly stable and were not susceptible to interference by common contaminants. Thus, the developed electrode can be considered as a promising tool for sensing sulfide.

Keywords: amperometry, chronocoulometry, electrocatalytic properties, ITO-nanoparticle-modified ITO, sulfide sensor

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1648 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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1647 An Introductory Study on Optimization Algorithm for Movable Sensor Network-Based Odor Source Localization

Authors: Yossiri Ariyakul, Piyakiat Insom, Poonyawat Sangiamkulthavorn, Takamichi Nakamoto


In this paper, the method of optimization algorithm for sensor network comprised of movable sensor nodes which can be used for odor source localization was proposed. A sensor node is composed of an odor sensor, an anemometer, and a wireless communication module. The odor intensity measured from the sensor nodes are sent to the processor to perform the localization based on optimization algorithm by which the odor source localization map is obtained as a result. The map can represent the exact position of the odor source or show the direction toward it remotely. The proposed method was experimentally validated by creating the odor source localization map using three, four, and five sensor nodes in which the accuracy to predict the position of the odor source can be observed.

Keywords: odor sensor, odor source localization, optimization, sensor network

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1646 Performance Comparison of a Low Cost Air Quality Sensor with a Commercial Electronic Nose

Authors: Ünal Kızıl, Levent Genç, Sefa Aksu, Ahmet Tapınç


The Figaro AM-1 sensor module which employs TGS 2600 model gas sensor in air quality assessment was used. The system was coupled with a microprocessor that enables sensor module to create warning message via telephone. This low cot sensor system’s performance was compared with a Diagnose II commercial electronic nose system. Both air quality sensor and electronic nose system employ metal oxide chemical gas sensors. In the study experimental setup, data acquisition methods for electronic nose system, and performance of the low cost air quality system were evaluated and explained.

Keywords: air quality, electronic nose, environmental quality, gas sensor

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1645 AFM Probe Sensor Designed for Cellular Membrane Components

Authors: Sarmiza Stanca, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp


Independent of the cell type a thin layer of a few nanometers thickness surrounds the cell interior as the cellular membrane. The transport of ions and molecules through the membrane is achieved in a very precise way by pores. Understanding the process of opening and closing the pores due to an electrochemical gradient across the membrane requires knowledge of the pore constitutive proteins. Recent reports prove the access to the molecular level of the cellular membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This technique also permits an electrochemical study in the immediate vicinity of the tip. Specific molecules can be electrochemically localized in the natural cellular membrane. Our work aims to recognize the protein domains of the pores using an AFM probe as a miniaturized amperometric sensor, and to follow the protein behavior while changing the applied potential. The intensity of the current produced between the surface and the AFM probe is amplified and detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. The AFM probe plays the role of the working electrode and the substrate, a conductive glass on which the cells are grown, represent the counter electrode. For a better control of the electric potential on the probe, a third electrode Ag/AgCl wire is mounted in the circuit as a reference electrode. The working potential is applied between the electrodes with a programmable source and the current intensity in the circuit is recorded with a multimeter. The applied potential considers the overpotential at the electrode surface and the potential drop due to the current flow through the system. The reported method permits a high resolved electrochemical study of the protein domains on the living cell membrane. The amperometric map identifies areas of different current intensities on the pore depending on the applied potential. The reproducibility of this method is limited by the tip shape, the uncontrollable capacitance, which occurs at the apex and a potential local charge separation.

Keywords: AFM, sensor, membrane, pores, proteins

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1644 Development of Polymeric Fluorescence Sensor for the Determination of Bisphenol-A

Authors: Neşe Taşci, Soner Çubuk, Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, M. Vezir Kahraman


Bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenly)propane, is one of the highest usage volume chemicals in the world. Studies showed that BPA maybe has negative effects on the central nervous system, immune and endocrine systems. Several of analytical methods for the analysis of BPA have been reported including electrochemical processes, chemical oxidation, ozonization, spectrophotometric, chromatographic techniques. Compared with other conventional analytical techniques, optic sensors are reliable, providing quick results, low cost, easy to use, stands out as a much more advantageous method because of the high precision and sensitivity. In this work, a new photocured polymeric fluorescence sensor was prepared and characterized for Bisphenol-A (BPA) analysis. Characterization of the membrane was carried out by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. The response characteristics of the sensor including dynamic range, pH effect and response time were systematically investigated. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant 115Y469.

Keywords: bisphenol-a, fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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1643 Design of Permanent Sensor Fault Tolerance Algorithms by Sliding Mode Observer for Smart Hybrid Powerpack

Authors: Sungsik Jo, Hyeonwoo Kim, Iksu Choi, Hunmo Kim


In the SHP, LVDT sensor is for detecting the length changes of the EHA output, and the thrust of the EHA is controlled by the pressure sensor. Sensor is possible to cause hardware fault by internal problem or external disturbance. The EHA of SHP is able to be uncontrollable due to control by feedback from uncertain information, on this paper; the sliding mode observer algorithm estimates the original sensor output information in permanent sensor fault. The proposed algorithm shows performance to recovery fault of disconnection and short circuit basically, also the algorithm detect various of sensor fault mode.

Keywords: smart hybrid powerpack (SHP), electro hydraulic actuator (EHA), permanent sensor fault tolerance, sliding mode observer (SMO), graphic user interface (GUI)

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1642 Adding Protelium Gas Sensor for Smartphone to Reduce Explosion in Indonesia

Authors: Alfi Al Fahreizy


By using LPG (Liquid Protelium Gas), it is very difficult to detect gas leak. Consequently, there is so many incident of gas leak that makes explosion which is occurred in many regions of Indonesia. In this paper, the researcher tries to overcome with it by adding gas sensor for LPG in a smartphone. The aim is to choose the best sensor and how to use it . The methode is to choose sensor by selecting from sensor data sheet qualitatively by giving grade from 1 to 5. Flow chart is shown to make best steps notification that possible to implemented in smartphone.

Keywords: energy conversion, gas leak, smartphone, explosion, LPG

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1641 SFO-ECRSEP: Sensor Field Optimızation Based Ecrsep For Heterogeneous WSNS

Authors: Gagandeep Singh


The sensor field optimization is a serious issue in WSNs and has been ignored by many researchers. As in numerous real-time sensing fields the sensor nodes on the corners i.e. on the segment boundaries will become lifeless early because no extraordinary safety is presented for them. Accordingly, in this research work the central objective is on the segment based optimization by separating the sensor field between advance and normal segments. The inspiration at the back this sensor field optimization is to extend the time spam when the first sensor node dies. For the reason that in normal sensor nodes which were exist on the borders may become lifeless early because the space among them and the base station is more so they consume more power so at last will become lifeless soon.

Keywords: WSNs, ECRSEP, SEP, field optimization, energy

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1640 Fabrication of a New Electrochemical Sensor Based on New Nanostructured Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole for Selective and Sensitive Determination of Morphine

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Arash Ghoorchian, Maryam Shanesaz, Reza Naderi


Morphine (MO), the most effective painkiller, is considered the reference by which analgesics are assessed. It is very necessary for the biomedical applications to detect and maintain the MO concentrations in the blood and urine with in safe ranges. To date, there are many expensive techniques for detecting MO. Recently, many electrochemical sensors for direct determination of MO were constructed. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is a polymeric material, which has a built-in functionality for the recognition of a particular chemical substance with its complementary cavity.This paper reports a sensor for MO using a combination of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electropolymerization of MO doped polypyrrole yielded poor quality, but a well-doped, nanostructure and increased impregnation has been obtained in the pH=12. Above a pH of 11, MO is in the anionic forms. The effect of various experimental parameters including pH, scan rate and accumulation time on the voltammetric response of MO was investigated. At the optimum conditions, the concentration of MO was determined using DPV in a linear range of 7.07 × 10−6 to 2.1 × 10−4 mol L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and a detection limit of 13.3 × 10-8 mol L−1, respectively. The effect of common interferences on the current response of MO namely ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is studied. The modified electrode can be used for the determination of MO spiked into urine samples, and excellent recovery results were obtained. The nanostructured polypyrrole films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and furrier transforms infrared (FTIR).

Keywords: morphine detection, sensor, polypyrrole, nanostructure, molecularly imprinted polymer

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1639 Electrochemiluminescent Detection of DNA Damage Induced by Tetrachloro-1,4- Benzoquinone Using DNA Sensor

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Xue Sun


DNA damage induced by tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), a reactive metabolite of pentachloro-phenol (PCP), was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) in this work. DNA modified films were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polycationic poly(diallyldimethyl- ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged ds-DNA on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The DNA intercalator [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)]2+ (bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine, dppz0dipyrido [3, 2-a: 2′,3′-c] phenazine) was chosen as an electrochemical probe to detect DNA damage. After the sensor was incubated in 0.1 M pH 7.3 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 30min, the intact PDDA/DNA film produced a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal. However, after the sensor was incubated in 100 μM TCBQ or a mixed solution of 100 μM TCBQ and 2 mM H2O2, ECL signal decreased significantly. During the incubation of DNA in TCBQ or TCBQ-H2O2 solution, the double-helix of DNA was damaged, which resulted in the decrease of Ru-dppz bound to DNA. Additionally, the results were verified independently by fluorescence experiments. This paper provides a sensitive method to directly screen DNA damage induced by chemicals in the environment.

Keywords: DNA damage, detection, electrochemiluminescence, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 345