Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Najme Lari

10 Sol–Gel Derived Durable Antireflective Multilayered TiO2/SiO2 Coating for Solar Glass

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

In this paper, multilayer TiO2-SiO2 containing PDMS coatings were produced. Also, the effect of triton as a porosity maker on single and multilayer silica and titania coatings was investigated. The results showed stability of optical triton containing coatings disappears with time. Because of the presence of triton in solution improve the wetting properties of PDMS sols and helps lead to instability by water absorption. However; without triton, antireflective multilayer coatings with high transmittance 98% and excellent durability were prepared by sol–gel process using poly dimethyl siloxane as additive. This coating can be used as well as in solar applications.

Keywords: thin film, sol-gel, PDMS, anti-reflective, titania-silica, triton

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9 Nanostructure Antireflective Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Solar Collectors

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Sol-gel technology is a promising manufacturing method to produce anti reflective silica thin films for solar energy applications. So to improve the properties of the films, controlling parameter of the sol - gel method is very important. In this study, soaking treatment effect on optical properties of silica anti reflective thin films was investigated. UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy was used for the characterization of silica thin films. Results showed that all nanoporous silica layers cause to considerable reduction of light reflections compared with uncoated glasses. With single layer deposition, the amount of reduction depends on the dipping time of coating and has an optimal time. Also, it was found that solar transmittance increased from 91.5% for the bare slide up to 97.5% for the best made sample corresponding to two deposition cycles.

Keywords: Optical Properties, sol–gel, silica thin films, anti reflective coatings, soaking treatment

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8 Anti-Reflective Nanostructured TiO2/SiO2 Multilayer Coatings

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and also nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: Thin Films, Multilayer, Optical Properties, sol-gel

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7 Sol-Gel SiO2-TiO2 Multilayer Coatings for Anti-Reflective Applications

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: Thin Films, Multilayer, Optical Properties, sol-gel

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6 Influence of TEOS Concentration and Triton Additive on the Nanostructured Silica Sol-Gel Antireflective Coatings

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Nanostructure silica antireflective surfaces were fabricated on glasses by Sol-Gel technique. Various silica sols (varying in composition: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) concentration and Triton additive) were synthesized by the polymeric process and then subsequently coated on substrates. Silica thin films were investigated by using UV-Visible Spectroscopy; Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer and Filed Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy were used. Results indicated that dense silica layers, obtained from the polymeric method, permit a considerable reduction of these light reflections compared with uncoated glasses in all the cases studied, but the degree of reduction is different depending on the composition of the precursor solution. It was found that the transmittance increased from 0.915 for the bare slide up to 0.96 for the best made sample corresponding to the Triton-doped silica. The addition of Triton x-100 to the silica sols improved the optical property of thin film because of it helps to create nanoporous in the coating. Also the results showed SiO2 content is an effective parameter to prepare the antireflective films. Loss of SiO2 cause to rapid the reactions and Si-O-Si bonding form better under this condition.

Keywords: Optical Properties, sol–gel, silica thin films, triton, antireflective coatings

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5 Report of Happiness in the Iranian Educational System: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Babak Shamshiri, Najme Dastouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the current situation of happiness in the Iranian educational system from the perspective of students, teachers and educational administrators. This research is done in qualitative paradigm. Data collection is done by in-depth interview method. Research participants were selected purposively according to sampling rules, with maximum variation and reaching the saturation point. According to most participants in this study, schools in Iran are not usually happy. This lack of happiness is associated with and related to the educational system, curriculum, teaching method, physical environment of schools and their facilities.

Keywords: Happiness, Iran, qualitative study, educational system

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4 Fractal-Wavelet Based Techniques for Improving the Artificial Neural Network Models

Authors: Reza Bazargan Lari, Mohammad H. Fattahi

Abstract:

Natural resources management including water resources requires reliable estimations of time variant environmental parameters. Small improvements in the estimation of environmental parameters would result in grate effects on managing decisions. Noise reduction using wavelet techniques is an effective approach for pre-processing of practical data sets. Predictability enhancement of the river flow time series are assessed using fractal approaches before and after applying wavelet based pre-processing. Time series correlation and persistency, the minimum sufficient length for training the predicting model and the maximum valid length of predictions were also investigated through a fractal assessment.

Keywords: Wavelet, ANN, de-noising, predictability, time series fractal analysis, valid length

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3 The Construction of a Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Expressing Acid-Resistant Phytase Enzyme

Authors: R. Majidzadeh Heravi, M. Sankian, H. Kermanshahi, M. R. Nassiri, A. Heravi Moussavi, S. A. Lari, A. R. Varasteh

Abstract:

The use of probiotics engineered to express specific enzymes has been the subject of considerable attention in poultry industry because of increased nutrient availability and reduced cost of enzyme supplementation. Phytase enzyme is commonly added to poultry feed to improve digestibility and availability of phosphorus from plant sources. To construct a probiotic with potential of phytate degradation, phytase gene (appA) from E. coli was cloned and transformed into two probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. L. salivarous showed plasmid instability, unable to express the gene. The expression of appA gene in L. lactis was analyzed by detecting specific RNA and zymography assay. Phytase enzyme was isolated from cellular extracts of recombinant L. lactis, showing a 46 kDa band upon the SDS-PAGE analysis. Zymogram also confirmed the phytase activity of the 46 kDa band corresponding to the enzyme. An enzyme activity of 4.9U/ml was obtained in cell extracts of L. lactis. The growth of native and recombinant L. lactis was similar in the presence of two concentrations of ox bile.

Keywords: Poultry, phytase, recombinant, Lactobacillus salivarus, Lactococcuslactis

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2 Campylobacteriosis as a Zoonotic Disease

Authors: A. Jafarzadeh, G. R. Hashemi Tabar

Abstract:

Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter organisms. This is most commonly caused by C. jejuni, It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain. It is found in cattle, swine, and birds, where it is non-pathogenic. But the illness can also be caused by C. coli (also found in cattle, swine, and birds) C. upsaliensis (found in cats and dogs) and C. lari (present in seabirds in particular). Infection with a Campylobacter species is one of the most common causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis. For instance, an estimated 2 million cases of Campylobacter enteritis occur annually in the U.S., accounting for 5-7% of cases of gastroenteritis. Furthermore, in the United Kingdom during 2000 Campylobacter jejuni was involved in 77.3% in all cases of foodborne illness. 15 out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with campylobacteriosis every year, and with many cases going unreported, up to 0.5% of the general population may unknowingly harbor Campylobacter in their gut annually. A large animal reservoir is present as well, with up to 100% of poultry, including chickens, turkeys, and waterfowl, having asymptomatic infections in their intestinal tracts. An infected chicken may contain up to 109 bacteria per 25 grams, and due to the installations, the bacteria is rapidly spread to other chicken. This vastly exceeds the infectious dose of 1000-10,000 bacteria for humans. In this article this disease is fully discussed in human and animals.

Keywords: Human, Animal, Zoonosis, campylobacteriosis

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1 Rapid Identification of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species from Retail Poultry Meat Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Graziella Ziino, Filippo Giarratana, Stefania Maria Marotta, Alessandro Giuffrida, Antonio Panebianco

Abstract:

In Europe, North America and Japan, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial illnesses, often related to the consumption of poultry meats and/or by-products. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Campylobacter contamination of poultry meats marketed in Sicily (Italy) using both traditional methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). MALDI-TOF MS is considered a promising rapid (less than 1 hour) identification method for food borne pathogens bacteria. One hundred chicken and turkey meat preparations (no. 68 hamburgers, no. 21 raw sausages, no. 4 meatballs and no. 7 meat rolls) were taken from different butcher’s shops and large scale retailers and submitted to detection/enumeration of Campylobacter spp. according to EN ISO 10272-1:2006 and EN ISO 10272-2:2006. Campylobacter spp. was detected with general low counts in 44 samples (44%), of which 30 from large scale retailers and 14 from butcher’s shops. Chicken meats were significantly more contaminated than turkey meats. Among the preparations, Campylobacter spp. was found in 85.71% of meat rolls, 50% of meatballs, 44.12% of hamburgers and 28.57% of raw sausages. A total of 100 strains, 2-3 from each positive samples, were isolated for the identification by phenotypic, biomolecular and MALDI-TOF MS methods. C. jejuni was the predominant strains (63%), followed by C. coli (33%) and C. lari (4%). MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 98% of the strains at the species level, only 1% of the tested strains were not identified. In the last 1%, a mixture of two different species was mixed in the same sample and MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified at least one of the strains. Considering the importance of rapid identification of pathogens in the food matrix, this method is highly recommended for the identification of suspected colonies of Campylobacteria.

Keywords: Food microbiology, campylobacter spp, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, rapid microbial identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 157