Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 742

Search results for: heterogeneous catalysis

742 Evaluation of Esters Production by Oleic Acid Epoxidation Reaction

Authors: Flavio A. F. Da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, Monica C. G. Albuquerque


In recent years a worldwide interest in renewable resources from the biomass has spurred the industry. In this work the chemical structure of oleic acid chains was modified by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis in order to produce esters. The homogeneous epoxidation was carried out at H2O2 to oleic acid unsaturation molar ratio of 20:1. The reaction temperature was 338 K and reaction time 16 h. Formic acid was used as catalyst. For heterogeneous catalysis reaction temperature was 343 K and reaction time 24 h. The esters production was carried out by heterogeneous catalysis of the epoxidized oleic acid and butanol using Mg/SBA-15 as catalyst. The resulting products were confirmed by NMR (1H and 13C) and FTIR spectroscopy. The products were characterized before and after each reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and BET surface areas. The results were satisfactory for the bioproducts formed.

Keywords: acid oleic, bioproduct, esters, epoxidation

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741 Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue by Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xs Nanomaterials

Authors: Horiya Boukhatem, Lila Djouadi, Hussein Khalaf, Rufino Manuel Navarro Yerga, Fernando Vaquero Gonzalez


Heterogeneous photo catalysis is an alternative method for the removal of organic pollutants in water. The photo excitation of a semi-conductor under ultra violet (UV) irradiation entails the production of hydroxyl radicals, one of the most oxidative chemical species. The objective of this study is the synthesis of nano materials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) and their application in photocatalysis of a cationic dye: methylene blue. The synthesized nano materials and montmorillonite were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Test results of photo catalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nano materials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increase with the increasing of Cu concentration and it is significantly higher compared to that of sodium montmorillonite alone. The application of the kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) to the photocatalytic test results showed that the reaction rate obeys to the first-order kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photo catalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nano material

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740 Effectiveness of Catalysis in Ozonation for the Removal of Herbizide 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid from Contaminated Water

Authors: S. Shanthi


Catalyzed oxidation processes show extraordinary guarantee for application in numerous wastewater treatment ranges. Advanced oxidation processes are emerging innovation that might be utilized for particular objectives in wastewater treatment. This research work provides a solution for removal a refractory organic compound 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid a common water pollutant. All studies were done in batch mode in a constantly stirred reactor. Alternative ozonation processes catalysed by transition metals or granular activated carbon have been investigated for degradation of organics. Catalytic ozonation under study are homogeneous catalytic ozonation, which is based on ozone activation by transition metal ions present in aqueous solution, and secondly as heterogeneous catalytic ozonation in the presence of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The present studies reveal that heterogeneous catalytic ozonation using GAC favour the ozonation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid by increasing the rate of ozonation and a much higher degradation of substrates were obtained in a given time. Be that it may, Fe2+and Fe3+ ions decreased the rate of degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid indicating that it acts as a negative catalyst. In case of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation using GAC catalyst it was found that during the initial 5 minutes of contact solution concentration decreased significantly as the pollutants were adsorbed initially. Thereafter the substrate started getting oxidized and ozonation became a dominates the treatment process. The exhausted GAC was found to be regenerated in situ. The percentage reduction of the substrate was maximum achieved in minimum possible time when GAC catalyst is employed.

Keywords: ozonation, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, granular activated carbon

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739 Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 10 in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Merouani Djilali Redha, F. Abdelmalek, A. A. Addou


Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) utilizing Homogenous photocatalysis (Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions), and Heterogeneous photocatalyse (TiO2 and ZnO) were investigated for the degradation of commercial azo dye ‘Orange G’ wastewater. Fenton and photo-Fenton experimental conditions were: Hydrogen peroxide concentration (10-2 M), Ferrous ions concentration (5.10-4 M), pH (2.8 – 3), UV lamp power (6 watt). Adding more ferrous ions enhanced the oxidation rate for the H2O2/Fe2+ and UV/H2O2/Fe2+ processes. The optimum catalyst loading was found 2.0 g.L-1 in our case for both catalysts TiO2 and ZnO. A comparative study of the photocatalytic degradation showed that these two catalysts have a comparable reactivity; it follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The degradation trends followed the order: UV365/Fenton > UV365/TiO2 > Solar Fenton > Solar TiO2 > Fenton ~UV365/ZnO. Among AOPs, processes using Fenton type reagent are relatively cheap and easy to operate and maintain. Moreover, UV365/Fenton process has been shown as effective in the treatment of OG dye. Dye was degraded following second-order kinetics. The rate constants was 0,041 .10+6 L.M-1.min-1. The degradation was followed by spectrophotometric method, chemical oxygen demand (COD) measures and high performance liquid chromatography analyses (HPLC). Some aromatic and aliphatic degradation compounds were identified. Degradation of Orange G by UV Fenton mechanism was also proposed.

Keywords: AOPs, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, acid orange 10, hydroxyl radical

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738 Investigation of Flow Behavior inside the Single Channel Catalytic Combustor for Lean Mixture

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustor substantially reduces emission entailing fuel-air premixing at very low equivalence ratios. The catalytic combustion of natural gas has the potential to become sufficiently active at light off temperature by the convection of heat from the catalyst surface. Only one channel is selected to investigate both the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed because of the honeycomb structure of the catalytic combustor. The objective of the present study is to find the methane catalytic combustion behavior inside the catalytic combustor, where the gas phase kinetics is employed by homogeneous methane combustion and surface chemistry is described with the heterogeneous catalysis of the oxidation of methane on a platinum catalyst. The reaction of the premixed mixture in the catalytic regime improves flame stability with complete combustion for lower operating flame temperature. An overview of the flow behavior is presented inside the single channel catalytic combustor including the operation of catalytic combustion with various F/A ratios and premixed inlet temperature.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, equivalence ratios, flame temperature, heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous combustion

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737 Biodiesel Production Using Eggshells as a Catalyst

Authors: Leva Gaide, Violeta Makareviciene


Increasing environmental pollution is caused by various factors, including the usage of vehicles. Legislation is focused on the increased usage of renewable energy sources for fuel production. Electric car usage is also important; however, it is relatively new and expensive transport. It is necessary to increase the amount of renewable energy in the production of diesel fuel, whereas many agricultural machinery is powered by diesel, as are water vehicles. For this reason, research on biodiesel production is relevant. The majority of studies globally are related to the improvement of conventional biofuel production technologies by applying the transesterification process of oil using alcohol and catalyst. Some of the more recent methods to produce biodiesel are based on heterogeneous catalysis, which has the advantage of easy separation of catalyst from the final product. It is known that a large amount of the eggshells is treated as waste, therefore, it is eliminated in landfills without any or with minimal pre-treatment. CaO, which is known as a good catalyst for biodiesel synthesis, is a key component of eggshells. In the present work, we evaluated the catalytic efficiency of eggshells and determined the optimal transesterification conditions to obtain biodiesel that meets the standards. Content CaO in eggshells were investigated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal reaction conditions. Three independent variables were investigated: the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, the amount of the catalyst and the duration of the reaction. It was obtained that the optimum transesterification conditions when the methanol and eggshells as a heterogeneous catalyst are used and the process temperature is 64 °C are the following: the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio 10.93:1, the reaction duration 9.48 h and the catalyst amount 6.80 wt%. Under these conditions, 97.79 wt% of the ester yield was obtained.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, eggshells, biodiesel, oil

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736 Near Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of CO Oxidation on Spinel Co3O4 Surfaces: Electronic Structure and Mechanistic Aspects of Wet and Dry CO Oxidation

Authors: Ruchi Jain, Chinnakonda S. Gopinath


The CO oxidation is a primary reaction in heterogeneous catalysis due to its potential to overcome the air pollution caused by various reasons. Indeed, in the study of sustainable catalysis, the role played by water is very important. The present work is focused on studying the effect of moisture on the sustainability of Co3O4 NR catalyst for CO oxidation reaction at ambient temperature. The catalytic activity, electronic structure and the mechanistic aspects of spinel Co3O4 nanorod surfaces have been explored in dry and wet atmosphere by near-ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopic techniques (NAP-PES) with conventional x-ray (Al kα) and ultraviolet sources (He-I).Comparative NAPPES studies have been employed to understand the elucidation of the catalytic reaction pathway and the evolution of various surface species. The presence of water with CO+O2 plummet the catalytic activity due to the change in electronic nature from predominantly oxidic (without water in the feed) to few intermediates covered Co3O4 surface. However, ≥ 375 K Co3O4 surface recovers and regain oxidation activity, at least partially, even in the presence of water. Above mentioned observations are fully supported by the changes observed in the work function of Co3O4 in the presence of wet (H2O+CO+O2) compared to dry (CO+O2) conditions. Various type of surface species, such as CO(ads), carbonate, formate, are found to be on the catalyst surface depending on the reaction conditions. Under dry condition, CO couples with labile O atoms to form CO2, however under wet conditions it also interacts with surface OH groups results in the formation carbonate and formate intermediate. The carbonate acts at reaction inhibitor at room temperature, however proves as active intermediate at temperature 375 K or above. On the other hand, formate has proved to be reaction spectator due to its high stability. The intrinsic role of these species to suppress the oxidation has been demonstrated through a possible reaction mechanism under different reaction conditions.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, surface chemistry, photoelectron spectroscopy, ambient oxidation

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735 Heterogeneous Artifacts Construction for Software Evolution Control

Authors: Mounir Zekkaoui, Abdelhadi Fennan


The software evolution control requires a deep understanding of the changes and their impact on different system heterogeneous artifacts. And an understanding of descriptive knowledge of the developed software artifacts is a prerequisite condition for the success of the evolutionary process. The implementation of an evolutionary process is to make changes more or less important to many heterogeneous software artifacts such as source code, analysis and design models, unit testing, XML deployment descriptors, user guides, and others. These changes can be a source of degradation in functional, qualitative or behavioral terms of modified software. Hence the need for a unified approach for extraction and representation of different heterogeneous artifacts in order to ensure a unified and detailed description of heterogeneous software artifacts, exploitable by several software tools and allowing to responsible for the evolution of carry out the reasoning change concerned.

Keywords: heterogeneous software artifacts, software evolution control, unified approach, meta model, software architecture

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734 Study of Biofuel Produced by Babassu Oil Fatty Acids Esterification

Authors: F. A. F. da Ponte, J. Q. Malveira, I. A. Maciel, M. C. G. Albuquerque


In this work aviation, biofuel production was studied by fatty acids (C6 to C16) esterification. The process variables in heterogeneous catalysis were evaluated using an experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the studied parameters, and the methyl esters content was the response of the experimental design. An ion exchange resin was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The process optimization was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and polynomial model of second order. Results show that the most influential variables on the linear coefficient of each effect studied were temperature and reaction time. The best result of methyl esters conversion in the experimental design was under the conditions: 10% wt of catalyst; 100 °C and 4 hours of reaction. The best-achieved conversion was 96.5% wt of biofuel.

Keywords: esterification, ion-exchange resins, response surface methodology, biofuel

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733 Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based on Opnet

Authors: Wafa Benaatou, Adnane Latif


In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS and WiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.

Keywords: vertical handoff, WLAN, UMTS, WIMAX, heterogeneous

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732 Enhancement of Indexing Model for Heterogeneous Multimedia Documents: User Profile Based Approach

Authors: Aicha Aggoune, Abdelkrim Bouramoul, Mohamed Khiereddine Kholladi


Recent research shows that user profile as important element can improve heterogeneous information retrieval with its content. In this context, we present our indexing model for heterogeneous multimedia documents. This model is based on the combination of user profile to the indexing process. The general idea of our proposal is to operate the common concepts between the representation of a document and the definition of a user through his profile. These two elements will be added as additional indexing entities to enrich the heterogeneous corpus documents indexes. We have developed IRONTO domain ontology allowing annotation of documents. We will present also the developed tool validating the proposed model.

Keywords: indexing model, user profile, multimedia document, heterogeneous of sources, ontology

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731 Human Tracking across Heterogeneous Systems Based on Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Tappei Yotsumoto, Atsushi Nomura, Kozo Tanigawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara


In a human tracking system, expanding a monitoring range of one system is complicating the management of devices and increasing its cost. Therefore, we propose a method to realize a wide-range human tracking by connecting small systems. In this paper, we examined an agent deploy method and information contents across the heterogeneous human tracking systems. By implementing the proposed method, we can construct a human tracking system across heterogeneous systems, and the system can track a target continuously between systems.

Keywords: human tracking system, mobile agent, monitoring, heterogeneous systems

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730 Research of Seepage Field and Slope Stability Considering Heterogeneous Characteristics of Waste Piles: A Less Costly Way to Reduce High Leachate Levels and Avoid Accidents

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong, Gan Lei, Xu Liqun


Due to the characteristics of high-heap and large-volume, the complex layers of waste and the high-water level of leachate, environmental pollution, and slope instability are easily produced. It is therefore of great significance to research the heterogeneous seepage field and stability of landfills. This paper focuses on the heterogeneous characteristics of the landfill piles and analyzes the seepage field and slope stability of the landfill using statistical and numerical analysis methods. The calculated results are compared with the field measurement and literature research data to verify the reliability of the model, which may provide the basis for the design, safe, and eco-friendly operation of the landfill. The main innovations are as follows: (1) The saturated-unsaturated seepage equation of heterogeneous soil is derived theoretically. The heterogeneous landfill is regarded as composed of infinite layers of homogeneous waste, and a method for establishing the heterogeneous seepage model is proposed. Then the formation law of the stagnant water level of heterogeneous landfills is studied. It is found that the maximum stagnant water level of landfills is higher when considering the heterogeneous seepage characteristics, which harms the stability of landfills. (2) Considering the heterogeneity weight and strength characteristics of waste, a method of establishing a heterogeneous stability model is proposed, and it is extended to the three-dimensional stability study. It is found that the distribution of heterogeneous characteristics has a great influence on the stability of landfill slope. During the operation and management of the landfill, the reservoir bank should also be considered while considering the capacity of the landfill.

Keywords: heterogeneous characteristics, leachate levels, saturated-unsaturated seepage, seepage field, slope stability

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729 Gold–M Heterobimetallic Complexes: Synthesis and Initial Reactivity Studies

Authors: Caroline Alice Rouget-Virbel, F. Dean Toste


Heterobimetallic systems have been precedented in a wide array of bioinorganic and heterogeneous catalytic settings, in which cooperative bond-breaking and bond-forming events mediated by neighboring metal sites have been proposed but are challenging to study and characterize. Heterodinuclear transition-metal catalysis has recently emerged as a promising strategy to tackle challenging chemical transformations, including C−C and C−X couplings as well as small molecule activation. It has been shown that these reactions can traverse nontraditional mechanisms, reactivities, and selectivities when homo- and heterobimetallic systems are employed. Moreover, stoichiometric studies of transmetallation from gold complexes have demonstrated that R transfer from PPh3–Au(I)R to Cp- and Cp*-ligated group 8/9 complexes is a viable elementary step. With these considerations in mind, we hypothesized that heterobimetallic Au–M complexes could serve as a viable and tunable catalyst platform to explore mechanisms and reactivity. In this work, heterobimetallic complexes containing Au(I) centers tethered to Ir(III) and Rh(III) piano stool moieties were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary application of these complexes to a catalytic allylic arylation reaction demonstrates bimetallic cooperativity relative to their monomeric metal components.

Keywords: heterobimetallic, catalysis, gold, rhodium

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728 Heuristic for Accelerating Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs

Authors: M. K. Benhaoua, A. K. Singh, A. E. H. Benyamina, A. Kumar, P. Boulet


In this paper, we propose a new packing strategy to find free resources for run-time mapping of application tasks on NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoCs. The proposed strategy minimizes the task mapping time in addition to placing the communicating tasks close to each other. To evaluate our approach, a comparative study is carried out. Experiments show that our strategy provides better results when compared to latest dynamic mapping strategies reported in the literature.

Keywords: heterogeneous MPSoCs, NoC, dynamic mapping, routing

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727 Treatment of Cyanide Effluents with Platinum Impregned on Mg-Al Layered Hydroxides

Authors: María R. Contreras, Diana Endara


Cyanide leaching is the most used technology for gold mining industry, which produces large amounts of effluents requiring treatment. In Ecuador the development of gold mining industry has increased, causing significant environmental impacts due to the highly use of cyanide, it is estimated that 10 gr of extracted gold generates 7000 liters of water contaminated with 300mg/L of free cyanide. The most common methods used nowadays are the treatment with peroxodisulfuric acid, ozonation, H₂O₂ and other reactants which are expensive and present disadvantages. Several methods have been developed to treat this contaminant such as heterogeneous catalysts. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have received much attention due to their wide applications like a catalysis support. Therefore, in this study, Mg-Al/ LDH was synthetized by coprecipitation method and then platinum was impregned on it, in order to enhance its catalytic activity. Two methods of impregnation were used, the first one, called incipient wet impregnation and the second one was developed by continuous agitation of LDH in contact with chloroplatinic acid solution for 24 h. The support impregnated was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, FTIR and SEM. Finally, the oxidation of cyanide ion was performed by preparing synthetic solutions of sodium cyanide (NaCN) with an initial concentration of 500 mg/L at pH 10,5 and air flow of 180 NL/h. After 8 hours of treatment, an 80% of oxidation of ion cyanide was achieved.

Keywords: catalysis, cyanide, LDHs, mining

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726 Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Chedly Tizaoui, Hussain Mohammed, Lobna Mansouri, Nidal Hilal, Latifa Bousselmi


The degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was studied using heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Activated carbon was used as a catalyst. The degradation of DEP with ozone alone was slow while catalytic ozonation increased degradation rates. Second-order reaction kinetics was used to describe the experimental data, and the corresponding rate constant values were 1.19 and 3.94 M-1.s-1 for ozone and ozone/activated carbon respectively.

Keywords: ozone, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, diethyl phthalate, endocrine disrupting chemicals

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725 Top-Down Approach for Fabricating Hematite Nanowire Arrays

Authors: Seungmin Shin, Jin-Baek Kim


Hematite (α-Fe2O3) has very good semiconducting properties with a band gap of 2.1 eV and is antiferromagnetic. Due to its electrochemical stability, low toxicity, wide abundance, and low-cost, hematite, it is a particularly attractive material for photoelectrochemical cells. Additionally, hematite has also found applications in gas sensing, field emission, heterogeneous catalysis, and lithium-ion battery electrodes. Here, we discovered a new universal top-down method for the synthesis of one-dimensional hematite nanowire arrays. Various shapes and lengths of hematite nanowire have been easily fabricated over large areas by sequential processes. The obtained hematite nanowire arrays are promising candidates as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical solar cells.

Keywords: hematite, lithography, nanowire, top-down process

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724 An Adaptive CFAR Algorithm Based on Automatic Censoring in Heterogeneous Environments

Authors: Naime Boudemagh


In this work, we aim to improve the detection performances of radar systems. To this end, we propose and analyze a novel censoring technique of undesirable samples, of priori unknown positions, that may be present in the environment under investigation. Therefore, we consider heterogeneous backgrounds characterized by the presence of some irregularities such that clutter edge transitions and/or interfering targets. The proposed detector, termed automatic censoring constant false alarm (AC-CFAR), operates exclusively in a Gaussian background. It is built to allow the segmentation of the environment to regions and switch automatically to the appropriate detector; namely, the cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR), the censored mean level CFAR (CMLD-CFAR) or the order statistic CFAR (OS-CFAR). Monte Carlo simulations show that the AC-CFAR detector performs like the CA-CFAR in a homogeneous background. Moreover, the proposed processor exhibits considerable robustness in a heterogeneous background.

Keywords: CFAR, automatic censoring, heterogeneous environments, radar systems

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723 Kinetic and Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Typical Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Water by Using Carbon Nanodots/C₃N₄ Composite and Ultrasonic Irradiation

Authors: Miao Yang


PPCPs (pharmaceutical and personal care products) in water, as an environmental pollutant, becomes an issue of increasing concern. Therefore, the techniques for degradation of PPCPs has been a hotspot in water pollution control field. Since there are several disadvantages for common degradation techniques of PPCPs, such as low degradation efficiency for certain PPCPs (ibuprofen and Carbamazepine) this proposal will adopt a combined technique by using CDs (carbon nanodots)/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation to mitigate or overcome these shortages. There is a significant scientific problem that the mechanism including PPCPs, major reactants, and interfacial active sites is not clear yet in the study of PPCPs degradation. This work aims to solve this problem by using both theoretical and experimental methodologies. Firstly, optimized parameters will be obtained by evaluating the kinetics and oxidation efficiency under different conditions. The competition between H₂O₂ and PPCPs with HO• will be elucidated, after which the degradation mechanism of PPCPs by the synergy of CDs/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation will be proposed. Finally, a sonolysis-adsorption-catalysis coupling mechanism will be established which is the theoretical basis and technical support for developing new efficient degradation techniques for PPCPs in the future.

Keywords: carbon nanodots/C₃N₄, pharmaceutical and personal care products, ultrasonic irradiation, hydroxyl radical, heterogeneous catalysis

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722 Event Monitoring Based On Web Services for Heterogeneous Event Sources

Authors: Arne Koschel


This article discusses event monitoring options for heterogeneous event sources as they are given in nowadays heterogeneous distributed information systems. It follows the central assumption, that a fully generic event monitoring solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, event source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Following from this, the core result of the work presented here is the extension of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service for a variety of event sources. A service approach allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.

Keywords: event monitoring, ECA, CEP, SOA, web services

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721 Communication in a Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Network

Authors: C. Benjbara, A. Habbani


Wireless networks are getting more and more used in every new technology or feature, especially those without infrastructure (Ad hoc mode) which provide a low cost alternative to the infrastructure mode wireless networks and a great flexibility for application domains such as environmental monitoring, smart cities, precision agriculture, and so on. These application domains present a common characteristic which is the need of coexistence and intercommunication between modules belonging to different types of ad hoc networks like wireless sensor networks, mesh networks, mobile ad hoc networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. This vision to bring to life such heterogeneous networks will make humanity duties easier but its development path is full of challenges. One of these challenges is the communication complexity between its components due to the lack of common or compatible protocols standard. This article proposes a new patented routing protocol based on the OLSR standard in order to resolve the heterogeneous ad hoc networks communication issue. This new protocol is applied on a specific network architecture composed of MANET, VANET, and FANET.

Keywords: Ad hoc, heterogeneous, ID-Node, OLSR

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720 TiO2 Nanowires as Efficient Heterogeneous Photocatalysts for Waste-Water Treatment

Authors: Gul Afreen, Sreedevi Upadhyayula, Mahendra K. Sunkara


One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures like nanowires, nanotubes, and nanorods find variety of practical application owing to their unique physico-chemical properties. In this work, TiO2 nanowires were synthesized by direct oxidation of titanium particles in a unique microwave plasma jet reactor. The prepared TiO2 nanowires manifested the flexible features, and were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, UV-Visible and FTIR spectrophotometers, Scanning electron microscope, and Transmission electron microscope. Further, the photodegradation efficiency of these nanowires were tested against toxic organic dye like methylene blue (MB) and the results were compared with the commercial TiO2. It was found that TiO2 nanowires exhibited superior photocatalytic performance (89%) as compared to commercial TiO2 (75%) after 60 min of reaction. This is attributed to the lower recombination rate and increased interfacial charge transfer in TiO2 nanowire. Pseudo-first order kinetic modelling performed with the experimental results revealed that the rate constant of photodegradation in case of TiO2 nanowire was 1.3 times higher than that of commercial TiO2. Superoxide radical (O2˙) was found to be the major contributor in the photodegradation mechanism. Based on the trapping experiments, a plausible mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction is discussed.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, photodegradation, reactive oxygen species, TiO₂ nanowires

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719 Oxalate Method for Assessing the Electrochemical Surface Area for Ni-Based Nanoelectrodes Used in Formaldehyde Sensing Applications

Authors: S. Trafela, X. Xua, K. Zuzek Rozmana


In this study, we used an accurate and precise method to measure the electrochemically active surface areas (Aecsa) of nickel electrodes. Calculated Aecsa is really important for the evaluation of an electro-catalyst’s activity in electrochemical reaction of different organic compounds. The method involves the electrochemical formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH in the presence of adsorbed oxalate in alkaline media. The studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry with polycrystalline nickel as a reference material and electrodeposited nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films. From cyclic voltammograms, the charge (Q) values for the formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH surface oxides were calculated under various conditions. At sufficiently fast potential scan rates (200 mV s⁻¹), the adsorbed oxalate limits the growth of the surface hydroxides to a monolayer. Although the Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH oxidation peak overlaps with the oxygen evolution reaction, in the reverse scan, the NiOOH/ Ni(OH)₂ reduction peak is well-separated from other electrochemical processes and can be easily integrated. The values of these integrals were used to correlate experimentally measured charge density with an electrochemically active surface layer. The Aecsa of the nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were calculated to be Aecsa-NiNWs = 4.2066 ± 0.0472 cm², Aecsa-homNi = 1.7175 ± 0.0503 cm² and Aecsa-hetNi = 2.1862 ± 0.0154 cm². These valuable results were expanded and used in electrochemical studies of formaldehyde oxidation. As mentioned nickel nanowires, heterogeneous and homogeneous nickel films were used as simple and efficient sensor for formaldehyde detection. For this purpose, electrodeposited nickel electrodes were modified in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ solution of KOH in order to expect electrochemical activity towards formaldehyde. The investigation of the electrochemical behavior of formaldehyde oxidation in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ NaOH solution at the surface of modified nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were carried out by means of electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric methods. From investigations of effect of different formaldehyde concentrations (from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L⁻¹) on electrochemical signal - current we provided catalysis mechanism of formaldehyde oxidation, detection limit and sensitivity of nickel electrodes. The results indicated that nickel electrodes participate directly in the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde. In the overall reaction, formaldehyde in alkaline aqueous solution exists predominantly in form of CH₂(OH)O⁻, which is oxidized to CH₂(O)O⁻. Taking into account the determined (Aecsa) values we have been able to calculate the sensitivities: 7 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for nickel nanowires, 3.5 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film and 2 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film. The detection limit was 0.2 mM for nickel nanowires, 0.5 mM for porous Ni film and 0.8 mM for homogeneous Ni film. All of these results make nickel electrodes capable for further applications.

Keywords: electrochemically active surface areas, nickel electrodes, formaldehyde, electrocatalytic oxidation

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718 A Secure System for Handling Information from Heterogeous Sources

Authors: Shoohira Aftab, Hammad Afzal


Information integration is a well known procedure to provide consolidated view on sets of heterogeneous information sources. It not only provides better statistical analysis of information but also facilitates users to query without any knowledge on the underlying heterogeneous information sources The problem of providing a consolidated view of information can be handled using Semantic data (information stored in such a way that is understandable by machines and integrate-able without manual human intervention). However, integrating information using semantic web technology without any access management enforced, will results in increase of privacy and confidentiality concerns. In this research we have designed and developed a framework that would allow information from heterogeneous formats to be consolidated, thus resolving the issue of interoperability. We have also devised an access control system for defining explicit privacy constraints. We designed and applied our framework on both semantic and non-semantic data from heterogeneous resources. Our approach is validated using scenario based testing.

Keywords: information integration, semantic data, interoperability, security, access control system

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717 Effect of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions on Peristaltic Flow of a Jeffrey Fluid in an Asymmetric Channel

Authors: G. Ravi Kiran, G. Radhakrishnamacharya


In this paper, the dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic flow of a Jeffrey fluid in the presence of both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions has been discussed. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor's limiting condition under long wavelength approximation. It is observed that the average dispersion coefficient increases with amplitude ratio which implies that dispersion is more in the presence of peristalsis. The average effective dispersion coefficient increases with Jeffrey parameter in the cases of both homogeneous and combined homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. Further, dispersion decreases with a phase difference, homogeneous reaction rate parameters, and heterogeneous reaction rate parameter.

Keywords: peristalsis, dispersion, chemical reaction, Jeffrey fluid, asymmetric channel

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716 Performance Analysis of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Multiple Connectivity

Authors: Sungkyung Kim, Jee-Hyeon Na, Dong-Seung Kwon


Future mobile networks following 5th generation will be characterized by one thousand times higher gains in capacity; connections for at least one hundred billion devices; user experience capable of extremely low latency and response times. To be close to the capacity requirements and higher reliability, advanced technologies have been studied, such as multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, heterogeneous networking, and advanced interference and mobility management. This paper is focused on the multiple connectivity in heterogeneous cellular networks. We investigate the performance of coverage and user throughput in several deployment scenarios. Using the stochastic geometry approach, the SINR distributions and the coverage probabilities are derived in case of dual connection. Also, to compare the user throughput enhancement among the deployment scenarios, we calculate the spectral efficiency and discuss our results.

Keywords: heterogeneous networks, multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, stochastic geometry

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715 MOF [(4,4-Bipyridine)₂(O₂CCH₃)₂Zn]N as Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts for the Transesterification of Canola Oil

Authors: H. Arceo, S. Rincon, C. Ben-Youssef, J. Rivera, A. Zepeda


Biodiesel has emerged as a material with great potential as a renewable energy replacement to current petroleum-based diesel. Recently, biodiesel production is focused on the development of more efficient, sustainable process with lower costs of production. In this sense, a “green” approach to biodiesel production has stimulated the use of sustainable heterogeneous acid catalysts, that are better alternatives to conventional processes because of their simplicity and the simultaneous promotion of esterification and transesterification reactions from low-grade, highly-acidic and water containing oils without the formation of soap. The focus of this methodology is the development of new heterogeneous catalysts that under ordinary reaction conditions could reach yields similar to homogeneous catalysis. In recent years, metal organic frameworks (MOF) have attracted much interest for their potential as heterogeneous acid catalysts. They are crystalline porous solids formed by association of transition metal ions or metal–oxo clusters and polydentate organic ligands. This hybridization confers MOFs unique features such as high thermal stability, larger pore size, high specific area, high selectivity and recycling potential. Thus, MOF application could be a way to improve the biodiesel production processes. In this work, we evaluated the catalytic activity of MOF [(4,4-bipyridine)2(O₂CCH₃)2Zn]n (MOF Zn-I) for the synthesis of biodiesel from canola oil. The reaction conditions were optimized using the response surface methodology with a compound design central with 24. The variables studied were: Reaction temperature, amount of catalyst, molar ratio oil: MetOH and reaction time. The preparation MOF Zn-I was performed by mixing 5 mmol 4´4 dipyridine dissolved in 25 mL methanol with 10 mmol Zn(O₂CCH₃)₂ ∙ 2H₂O in 25 mL water. The crystals were obtained by slow evaporation of the solvents at 60°C for 18 h. The prepared catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The prepared catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). Experiments were performed using commercially available canola oil in ace pressure tube under continuous stirring. The reaction was filtered and vacuum distilled to remove the catalyst and excess alcohol, after which it was centrifuged to separate the obtained biodiesel and glycerol. 1H NMR was used to calculate the process yield. GC-MS was used to quantify the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The results of this study show that the acid catalyst MOF Zn-I could be used as catalyst for biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of canola oil with FAME yield 82 %. The optimum operating condition for the catalytic reaction were of 142°C, 0.5% catalyst/oil weight ratio, 1:30 oil:MeOH molar ratio and 5 h reaction time.

Keywords: fatty acid methyl ester, heterogeneous acid catalyst, metal organic framework, transesterification

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714 Heterogeneous Intelligence Traders and Market Efficiency: New Evidence from Computational Approach in Artificial Stock Markets

Authors: Yosra Mefteh Rekik


A computational agent-based model of financial markets stresses interactions and dynamics among a very diverse set of traders. The growing body of research in this area relies heavily on computational tools which by-pass the restrictions of an analytical method. The main goal of this research is to understand how the stock market operates and behaves how to invest in the stock market and to study traders’ behavior within the context of the artificial stock markets populated by heterogeneous agents. All agents are characterized by adaptive learning behavior represented by the Artificial Neuron Networks. By using agent-based simulations on artificial market, we show that the existence of heterogeneous agents can explain the price dynamics in the financial market. We investigate the relation between market diversity and market efficiency. Our empirical findings demonstrate that greater market heterogeneity play key roles in market efficiency.

Keywords: agent-based modeling, artificial stock market, heterogeneous expectations, financial stylized facts, computational finance

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713 Optimizing Communications Overhead in Heterogeneous Distributed Data Streams

Authors: Rashi Bhalla, Russel Pears, M. Asif Naeem


In this 'Information Explosion Era' analyzing data 'a critical commodity' and mining knowledge from vertically distributed data stream incurs huge communication cost. However, an effort to decrease the communication in the distributed environment has an adverse influence on the classification accuracy; therefore, a research challenge lies in maintaining a balance between transmission cost and accuracy. This paper proposes a method based on Bayesian inference to reduce the communication volume in a heterogeneous distributed environment while retaining prediction accuracy. Our experimental evaluation reveals that a significant reduction in communication can be achieved across a diverse range of dataset types.

Keywords: big data, bayesian inference, distributed data stream mining, heterogeneous-distributed data

Procedia PDF Downloads 64