Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: polycarbonate

32 Thermal Ageing Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Polycarbonate

Authors: H. Babou, S. Ridjla, B. Amerate, R. Ferhoum, M. Aberkane

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the experimental study of thermal ageing effect on the mechanical and micro structural behavior of polycarbonate (PC). A simple compression tests, micro hardness and an IRTF analysis were completed in order to characterize the response of material on specimens after ageing at a temperature of order 100 C° and for serval maintain duration 72, 144 and 216 hours. These investigations showed a decrease of the intrinsic properties of polycarbonate (Young modulus, yield stress, etc.); the superposition of spectra IRTF shows that the intensity of chemical connections C=C, C-O, CH3 and C-H are influenced by the duration of thermal ageing; in addition, an increase of 30 % of micro hardness was detected after 216 hour of ageing.

Keywords: amorphous polymer, polycarbonate, mechanical behavior, compression test, thermal ageing

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31 Surface Modification of Polycarbonate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Staining with Methylene Blue

Authors: Haruka Kaji, Jae-Ho Kim, Yonezawa Susumu

Abstract:

The surface of polycarbonate (PC) was modified with fluorine gas at 25℃ and 10-380 Torr for one h. The surface roughness of the fluorinated PC samples was approximately five times larger than that (1.2 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds (e.g., -C=O and C-Hx) derived from raw PC decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) after surface fluorination. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. Fluorinated PC could be strained with the methylene blue basic dye because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: dyeable layer, polycarbonate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

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30 Effect of Depressurization Rate in Batch Foaming of Porous Microcellular Polycarbonate on Microstructure Development

Authors: Indrajeet Singh, Abhishek Gandhi, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

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In this article, a focused study has been performed to comprehend the influence of change in depressurization rate on microcellular polycarbonate foamed morphological attributes. The depressurization rate considered in this study were 0.5, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.005 MPa/sec and the physical blowing agent utilized was carbon dioxide owing to its high solubility in polycarbonate at room temperature. The study was performed on two distinct saturation pressures, i.e., 3 MPa and 6 MPa to understand if saturation pressure has any effects on it. It is reported that with increase in depressurization rate, a higher amount of thermodynamic instability was induced which resulted in generation of larger number of smaller sized cells. This article puts forward an understanding of how depressurization rate control could be well exploited during the batch foaming process to develop high quality microcellular foamed products with exceedingly well controlled cell size.

Keywords: depressurization, porous polymer, foaming, microcellular

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
29 Fire Characteristic of Commercial Retardant Flame Polycarbonate under Different Oxygen Concentration: Ignition Time and Heat Blockage

Authors: Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu, Changhai Li

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The commercial retardant flame polycarbonate samples as the main high speed train interior carriage material with different thicknesses were investigated in Fire Propagation Apparatus with different external heat fluxes under different oxygen concentration from 12% to 40% to study the fire characteristics and quantitatively analyze the ignition time, mass loss rate and heat blockage. The additives of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate were intumescent and maintained a steady height before ignition when heated. The results showed the transformed ignition time (1/t_ig)ⁿ increased linearly with external flux under different oxygen concentration after deducting the heat blockage due to pyrolysis products, the mass loss rate was taken on linearly with external heat fluxes and the slop of the fitting line for mass loss rate and external heat fluxes decreased with the enhanced oxygen concentration and the heat blockage independent on external heat fluxes rose with oxygen concentration increasing. The inquired data as the input of the fire simulation model was the most important to be used to evaluate the fire risk of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate.

Keywords: ignition time, mass loss rate, heat blockage, fire characteristic

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28 Preparation and Characterization of TiO₂-SiO₂ Composite Films on Plastics Using Aqueous Peroxotitanium Acid Solution

Authors: Ayu Minamizawa, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa

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Aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution was prepared by the reaction between H₂O₂ solution and TiO₂ fluorinated using F₂ gas. The coating of TiO₂/SiO₂ multilayer on the surface of polycarbonate (PC) resin was carried out step by step using the TEOS solution and aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution. We confirmed each formation of SiO₂ and TiO₂ layer by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. The formation of a TiO₂ thin layer on SiO₂ coated on polycarbonate (PC) was carried out at 120 ℃ and for 15 min ~ 3 h with aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution using a hydrothermal synthesis autoclave reactor. The morphology TiO₂ coating layer largely depended on the reaction time, as shown in the results of SEM-EDS analysis. Increasing the reaction times, the TiO₂ layer expanded uniformly. Moreover, the surface fluorination of the SiO₂ layer can promote the formation of the TiO₂ layer on the surface.

Keywords: aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution, photocatalytic activity, polycarbonate, surface fluorination

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27 Raman Line Mapping on Melt Spun Polycarbonate/MWNT Fiber-Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Raman spectroscopy was used for characterization of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and Polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotube (PC/MWNT) based fibers with 0.55% and 0.75% of MWNT (PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75). PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75 fibers was prepared by melt spinning device using nanocomposites made by two different route, viz., solvent casting and melt extrusion. Fibers prepared from melt extruded nanocomposites showed smooth and uniform morphology as compared to solvent casting based nanocomposites. The Raman mapping confirmed that the melt extruded based nanocomposites had better dispersion of MWNT in Polycarbonate (PC) than solvent casting carbon nanotube.

Keywords: dispersion, melt extrusion, multi-wall carbon nanotube, mapping

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26 Investigating the Characteristics of Multi-Plastic Composites Prepared from a Mixture of Silk Fibers and Recycled Polycarbonate

Authors: Razieh Shamsi, Mehdi Faezipour, Ali Abdolkhani

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In this research, the characteristics of composites prepared from waste silk fibers and recycled polycarbonate polymer (used compacted boards) at four levels of 0, 10, 20, and 30% (silk fibers) and using 2% N- 2-Aminoethyl-3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was investigated as a coupling agent and melt process method. Silk fibers (carpet weaving waste) with dimensions of 8-18 mm were prepared, and recycled polymer with 9 mesh grading was ground. Production boards in 3 thicknesses, 3 mm (tensile test samples), 5 mm (bending test samples, water absorption, and thickness shrinkage), 7 mm (impact resistance test samples) ) with a specific weight of 1 gram per cubic centimeter, hot pressing time and temperature of 12 minutes and 190 degrees Celsius with a pressure of 130 bar, cold pressing time of 6 minutes with a pressure of 50 bar and using the coupling agent N- (2- Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was prepared in a constant amount of 2% of the dry weight of the filler. The results showed that, in general, by adding silk fibers to the base polymer, compared to the control samples (pure recycled polycarbonate polymer) and also by increasing the amount of silk fibers, almost all the resistances increased. The amount of water absorption of the constructed composite increased with the increase in the amount of silk fibers, and the thickness absorption was equal to 0% even after 72 hours of immersion in water. The thermal resistance of the pure recycled polymer was higher than the prepared composites, and by adding silk fibers to the base polymer and also by increasing the amount of silk fibers from 10 to 30%, the thermal resistance of the composites decreased.

Keywords: wood composite, recycled polycarbonate, silk fibers, polymer

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25 Preparation and Evaluation of Calcium Fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) as a Fluorinating Agent

Authors: Natsumi Murakami, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa

Abstract:

The calcium fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) was prepared from calcium silicate (CaSiO₃) with fluorine gas at 25 ~ 200 ℃ and 760 Torr for 1~24 h. Especially, the pure CaSiF₆ could be prepared at 25 ℃ for 24 h with F₂ gas from the results of X-ray diffraction. Increasing temperature to higher than 100 ℃, the prepared CaSiF₆ was decomposed into CaF₂ and SiF₄. The release of SiF₄ gas was confirmed by the results of gas-phase infrared spectroscopy. In this study, we tried to modify the surface of polycarbonate (PC) resin using the SiF₄ gas released from CaSiF₆ particles. By using the prepared CaSiF₆, the surface roughness of fluorinated PC samples was approximately four times larger than that (1.4 nm) of the untreated sample. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the formation of fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) on the surface of PC after surface fluorination. Consequently, the CaSiF₆ particles can be useful for a new fluorinating agent.

Keywords: calcium fluorosilicate, fluorinating agent, polycarbonate, surface fluorination

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24 Teratogenic Effect of Bisphenol A in Development of Balb/C Mouse

Authors: Nazihe Sedighi, Mohsen Nokhbatolphoghaei

Abstract:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Due to having properties such as transparency, heat and impact resistance, it is used widely in medicine, sorts, electronic components, and food containers. It is also used in the production of resins which is applied for lining cans. BPA releases from resins and polycarbonate when it is heated or continuously used the containers from which BPA can enter the body. There are several reports indicating the presence of BPA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and the embryo itself. While researchers investigated the teratogenic effect of BPA on embryos, very limited work has been done on the effects of BPA when applied from early stages of development. In this study, The teratogenic effect of BPA was investigated at earliest preimplantation (day zero) through day 15.5 of the development of Balb/C mouse embryos. After ensuring the pregnancy via observing vaginal plug, Pregnant mice were divided into five groups. For the three experimental groups, the amount of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg/d Bisphenol A was given orally according to body weight. The sham group that was treated with sesame oil, which was used as vehicle and control group remained intact. On day 18.5 of gestation, embryos were removed from the uterus. Randomly half of the embryo were fixed in Bouin for tissue analysis. The other half were prepared for skeletal system staining using Alizarin Red and alcian blue dies. The results showed that the embryonic weight and the crown-rump length of embryos decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all experimental groups compared to the control group and the sham. In this study, skeletal abnormalities such as delay in ossification of skull and limbs as well as the deviation in the backbone were seen. This research suggests that pregnant mothers need to be aware of possible teratogenic effects of BPA at any stage of pregnancy especially from early to mid stages. In this case, pregnant mothers may need to stop using any manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, as a container for food or drinking.

Keywords: bisphenol A, development, polycarbonate plastic, skeletal system, teratogenicity

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23 Influence of UV Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Polycarbonate

Authors: S. Redjala, N. Ait Hocine, M. Gratton, N. Poirot, R. Ferhoum, S. Azem

Abstract:

Polycarbonate (PC) is a promising polymer with high transparency in the range of the visible spectrum and is used in various fields, for example medical, electronic, automotive. Its low weight, chemical inertia, high impact resistance and relatively low cost are of major importance. In recent decades, some materials such as metals and ceramics have been replaced by polymers because of their superior advantages. However, some characteristics of the polymers are highly modified under the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. The changes induced in the material by such aging depend on the exposure time, the wavelength of the UV radiation and the temperature level. The UV energy is sufficient to break the chemical bonds leading to a cleavage of the molecular chains. This causes changes in the mechanical, thermal, optical and morphological properties of the material. The present work is focused on the study of the effects of aging under ultraviolet (UV) radiation and under different temperature values on the physical-chemical and mechanical properties of a PC. Thus, various investigations, such as FTIR and XRD analyses, SEM and optical microscopy observations, micro-hardness measurements and monotonic and cyclic tensile tests, were carried out on the PC in the initial state and after aging. Results have shown the impact of aging on the properties of the PC studied. In fact, the MEB highlighted changes in the superficial morphology of the material by the presence of cracks and material de-bonding in the form of debris. The FTIR spectra reveal an attenuation of the peaks like the hydroxyl (OH) groups located at 3520 cm-1. The XRD lines shift towards a larger angle, reaching a maximum of 3°. In addition, Vickers micro-hardness measurements show that aging affects the surface and the core of the material, which results in different mechanical behaviours under monotonic and cyclic tensile tests. This study pointed out effects of aging on the macroscopic properties of the PC studied, in relationship with its microstructural changes.

Keywords: mechanical properties, physical-chemical properties, polycarbonate, UV aging, temperature aging

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22 Evaluation of Greenhouse Covering Materials

Authors: Mouustafa A. Fadel, Ahmed Bani Hammad, Faisal Al Hosany, Osama Iwaimer

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Covering materials of greenhouses is the most governing component of the construction which controls two major parameters the amount of light and heat diffused from the surrounding environment into the internal space. In hot areas, balancing between inside and outside the greenhouse consumes most of the energy spent in production systems. In this research, a special testing apparatus was fabricated to simulate the structure of the greenhouse provided with a 400W full spectrum light. Tests were carried out to investigate the effectiveness of different commercial covering material in light and heat diffusion. Twenty one combinations of Fiberglass, Polyethylene, Polycarbonate, Plexiglass and Agril (PP nonwoven fabric) were tested. It was concluded that Plexiglass was the highest in light transparency of 87.4% where the lowest was 33% and 86.8% for Polycarbonate sheets. The enthalpy of the air moving through the testing rig was calculated according to air temperature differences between inlet and outlet openings. The highest enthalpy value was for one layer of Fiberglass and it was 0.81 kj/kg air while it was for both Plexiglass and blocked Fiberglass with a value of 0.5 kj/kg air. It is concluded that, although Plexiglass has high level of transparency which is indeed very helpful under low levels of solar flux, it is not recommended under hot arid conditions where solar flux is available most of the year. On the other hand, it might be a disadvantage to use Plixeglass specially in summer where it helps to accumulate more heat inside the greenhouse.

Keywords: greenhouse, covering materials, aridlands, environmental control

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21 Reduction of Residual Stress by Variothermal Processing and Validation via Birefringence Measurement Technique on Injection Molded Polycarbonate Samples

Authors: Christoph Lohr, Hanna Wund, Peter Elsner, Kay André Weidenmann

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Injection molding is one of the most commonly used techniques in the industrial polymer processing. In the conventional process of injection molding, the liquid polymer is injected into the cavity of the mold, where the polymer directly starts hardening at the cooled walls. To compensate the shrinkage, which is caused predominantly by the immediate cooling, holding pressure is applied. Through that whole process, residual stresses are produced by the temperature difference of the polymer melt and the injection mold and the relocation of the polymer chains, which were oriented by the high process pressures and injection speeds. These residual stresses often weaken or change the structural behavior of the parts or lead to deformation of components. One solution to reduce the residual stresses is the use of variothermal processing. Hereby the mold is heated – i.e. near/over the glass transition temperature of the polymer – the polymer is injected and before opening the mold and ejecting the part the mold is cooled. For the next cycle, the mold gets heated again and the procedure repeats. The rapid heating and cooling of the mold are realized indirectly by convection of heated and cooled liquid (here: water) which is pumped through fluid channels underneath the mold surface. In this paper, the influences of variothermal processing on the residual stresses are analyzed with samples in a larger scale (500 mm x 250 mm x 4 mm). In addition, the influence on functional elements, such as abrupt changes in wall thickness, bosses, and ribs, on the residual stress is examined. Therefore the polycarbonate samples are produced by variothermal and isothermal processing. The melt is injected into a heated mold, which has in our case a temperature varying between 70 °C and 160 °C. After the filling of the cavity, the closed mold is cooled down varying from 70 °C to 100 °C. The pressure and temperature inside the mold are monitored and evaluated with cavity sensors. The residual stresses of the produced samples are illustrated by birefringence where the effect on the refractive index on the polymer under stress is used. The colorful spectrum can be uncovered by placing the sample between a polarized light source and a second polarization filter. To show the achievement and processing effects on the reduction of residual stress the birefringence images of the isothermal and variothermal produced samples are compared and evaluated. In this comparison to the variothermal produced samples have a lower amount of maxima of each color spectrum than the isothermal produced samples, which concludes that the residual stress of the variothermal produced samples is lower.

Keywords: birefringence, injection molding, polycarbonate, residual stress, variothermal processing

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20 Toxicity of Bisphenol-A: Effects on Health and Regulations

Authors: Tuğba Özdal, Neşe Şahin Yeşilçubuk

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Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide in the plastic industry. This compound is mostly used in producing polycarbonate plastics that are often used for food and beverage storage, and BPA is also a component of epoxy resins that are used to line food and beverage containers. Studies performed in this area indicated that BPA could be extracted from such products while they are in contact with food. Therefore, BPA exposure is presumed. In this paper, the chemical structure of BPA, factors affecting BPA migration to food and beverages, effects on health, and recent regulations will be reviewed.

Keywords: BPA, health, regulations, toxicity

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19 A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study to Explore Role of Chain Length in Predicting Useful Characteristic Properties of Commodity and Engineering Polymers

Authors: Lokesh Soni, Sushanta Kumar Sethi, Gaurav Manik

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This work attempts to use molecular simulations to create equilibrated structures of a range of commercially used polymers. Generated equilibrated structures for polyvinyl acetate (isotactic), polyvinyl alcohol (atactic), polystyrene, polyethylene, polyamide 66, poly dimethyl siloxane, poly carbonate, poly ethylene oxide, poly amide 12, natural rubber, poly urethane, and polycarbonate (bisphenol-A) and poly ethylene terephthalate are employed to estimate the correct chain length that will correctly predict the chain parameters and properties. Further, the equilibrated structures are used to predict some properties like density, solubility parameter, cohesive energy density, surface energy, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. The simulated densities for polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polycarbonate are 1.15 g/cm3, 1.125 g/cm3, 1.02 g/cm3, 0.84 g/cm3 and 1.223 g/cm3 respectively are found to be in good agreement with the available literature estimates. However, the critical repeating units or the degree of polymerization after which the solubility parameter showed saturation were 15, 20, 25, 10 and 20 respectively. This also indicates that such properties that dictate the miscibility of two or more polymers in their blends are strongly dependent on the chosen polymer or its characteristic properties. An attempt has been made to correlate such properties with polymer properties like Kuhn length, free volume and the energy term which plays a vital role in predicting the mentioned properties. These results help us to screen and propose a useful library which may be used by the research groups in estimating the polymer properties using the molecular simulations of chains with the predicted critical lengths. The library shall help to obviate the need for researchers to spend efforts in finding the critical chain length needed for simulating the mentioned polymer properties.

Keywords: Kuhn length, Flory Huggins interaction parameter, cohesive energy density, free volume

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18 Detection of Alzheimer's Protein on Nano Designed Polymer Surfaces in Water and Artificial Saliva

Authors: Sevde Altuntas, Fatih Buyukserin

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Alzheimer’s disease is responsible for irreversible neural damage of brain parts. One of the disease markers is Amyloid-β 1-42 protein that accumulates in the brain in the form plaques. The basic problem for detection of the protein is the low amount of protein that cannot be detected properly in body liquids such as blood, saliva or urine. To solve this problem, tests like ELISA or PCR are proposed which are expensive, require specialized personnel and can contain complex protocols. Therefore, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) a good candidate for detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. Because the spectroscopic technique can potentially allow even single molecule detection from liquid and solid surfaces. Besides SERS signal can be improved by using nanopattern surface and also is specific to molecules. In this context, our study proposes to fabricate diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin - T to detect low concentrations of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein in water and artificial saliva medium by the enhancement of protein SERS signal. The nanopatterned PC surface that was used to enhance SERS signal was fabricated by using Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) as a template. It is possible to produce AAMs with different column structures and varying thicknesses depending on voltage and anodization time. After fabrication process, the pore diameter of AAMs can be arranged with dilute acid solution treatment. In this study, two different columns structures were prepared. After a surface modification to decrease their surface energy, AAMs were treated with PC solution. Following the solvent evaporation, nanopatterned PC films with tunable pillared structures were peeled off from the membrane surface. The PC film was then modified with Au and Thioflavin-T for the detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. The protein detection studies were conducted first in water via this biosensor platform. Same measurements were conducted in artificial saliva to detect the presence of Amyloid Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. SEM, SERS and contact angle measurements were carried out for the characterization of different surfaces and further demonstration of the protein attachment. SERS enhancement factor calculations were also completed via experimental results. As a result, our research group fabricated diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin-T to detect low concentrations of Alzheimer’s Amiloid – β protein in water and artificial saliva medium. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No: 214Z167.

Keywords: alzheimer, anodic aluminum oxide, nanotopography, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

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17 Bisphenol-A Concentrations in Urine and Drinking Water Samples of Adults Living in Ankara

Authors: Hasan Atakan Sengul, Nergis Canturk, Bahar Erbas

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Drinking water is indispensable for life. With increasing awareness of communities, the content of drinking water and tap water has been a matter of curiosity. The presence of Bisphenol-A is the top one when content curiosity is concerned. The most used chemical worldwide for production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins is Bisphenol-A. People are exposed to Bisphenol-A chemical, which disrupts the endocrine system, almost every day. Each year it is manufactured an average of 5.4 billion kilograms of Bisphenol-A. Linear formula of Bisphenol-A is (CH₃)₂C(C₆H₄OH)₂, its molecular weight is 228.29 and CAS number is 80-05-7. Bisphenol-A is known to be used in the manufacturing of plastics, along with various chemicals. Bisphenol-A, an industrial chemical, is used in the raw materials of packaging mate-rials in the monomers of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. The pass through the nutrients of Bisphenol-A substance happens by packaging. This substance contaminates with nutrition and penetrates into body by consuming. International researches show that BPA is transported through body fluids, leading to hormonal disorders in animals. Experimental studies on animals report that BPA exposure also affects the gender of the newborn and its time to reach adolescence. The extent to what similar endocrine disrupting effects are on humans is a debate topic in many researches. In our country, detailed studies on BPA have not been done. However, it is observed that 'BPA-free' phrases are beginning to appear on plastic packaging such as baby products and water carboys. Accordingly, this situation increases the interest of the society about the subject; yet it causes information pollution. In our country, all national and international studies on exposure to BPA have been examined and Ankara province has been designated as testing region. To assess the effects of plastic use in daily habits of people and the plastic amounts removed out of the body, the results of the survey conducted with volunteers who live in Ankara has been analyzed with Sciex appliance by means of LC-MS/MS in the laboratory and the amount of exposure and BPA removal have been detected by comparing the results elicited before. The results have been compared with similar studies done in international arena and the relation between them has been exhibited. Consequently, there has been found no linear correlation between the amount of BPA in drinking water and the amount of BPA in urine. This has also revealed that environmental exposure and the habits of daily plastic use have also direct effects a human body. When the amount of BPA in drinking water is considered; minimum 0.028 µg/L, maximum 1.136 µg/L, mean 0.29194 µg/L and SD(standard deviation)= 0.199 have been detected. When the amount of BPA in urine is considered; minimum 0.028 µg/L, maximum 0.48 µg/L, mean 0.19181 µg/L and SD= 0.099 have been detected. In conclusion, there has been found no linear correlation between the amount of BPA in drinking water and the amount of BPA in urine (r= -0.151). The p value of the comparison between drinking water’s and urine’s BPA amounts is 0.004 which shows that there is a significant change and the amounts of BPA in urine is dependent on the amounts in drinking waters (p < 0.05). This has revealed that environmental exposure and daily plastic habits have also direct effects on the human body.

Keywords: analyze of bisphenol-A, BPA, BPA in drinking water, BPA in urine

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16 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

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The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

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15 Solar Architecture of Low-Energy Buildings for Industrial Applications

Authors: P. Brinks, O. Kornadt, R. Oly

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This research focuses on the optimization of glazed surfaces and the assessment of possible solar gains in industrial buildings. Existing window rating methods for single windows were evaluated and a new method for a simple analysis of energy gains and losses by single windows was introduced. Furthermore extensive transient building simulations were carried out to appraise the performance of low cost polycarbonate multi-cell sheets in interaction with typical buildings for industrial applications. Mainly, energy-saving potential was determined by optimizing the orientation and area of such glazing systems in dependency on their thermal qualities. Moreover the impact on critical aspects such as summer overheating and daylight illumination was considered to ensure the user comfort and avoid additional energy demand for lighting or cooling. Hereby the simulated heating demand could be reduced by up to 1/3 compared to traditional architecture of industrial halls using mainly skylights.

Keywords: solar architecture, Passive Solar Building Design, glazing, Low-Energy Buildings, industrial buildings

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14 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter

Authors: Mevlüt Burak Dalmış, Kemal Yaman

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In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Keywords: flutter, plate, subsonic flow, wind tunnel

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13 Modeling and Analysis of a Cycling Prosthetic

Authors: John Tolentino, Yong Seok Park

Abstract:

There are currently many people living with limb loss in the USA. The main causes for amputation can range from vascular disease, to trauma, or cancer. This number is expected increase over the next decade. Many patients have a single prosthetic for the first year but end up getting a second one to accommodate their changing physique. Afterwards, the prosthesis gets replaced every three to five years depending on how often it is used. This could cost the patient up to $500,000 throughout their lifetime. Complications do not end there, however. Due to the absence of nerves, it becomes more difficult to traverse terrain with a prosthetic. Moving on an incline or decline becomes difficult, thus curbs and stairs can be a challenge. Certain physical activities, such as cycling, could be even more strenuous. It will need to be relearned to accommodate for the change in weight, center of gravity, and transfer of energy from the leg to the pedal. The purpose of this research project is to develop a new, alternate below-knee cycling prosthetic using Dieter & Schmidt’s design process approach. It will be subjected to fatigue analysis under dynamic loading to observe the limitations as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the prosthetic. Benchmark comparisons will be made between existing prosthetics and the proposed one, examining the benefits and disadvantages. The resulting prosthetic will be 3D printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC) plastic.

Keywords: 3D Printing, Cycling, Prosthetic design, Synthetic design.

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12 Acrylamide-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi

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Acrylamide (ACR) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of Acrylamide (ACR), 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) housed in polycarbonate boxes as 5 per each, and randomly assigned in 5 groups including 4 exposure groups as A, B, C, and D groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group., total) and were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 mg/kg ACR per day×11days i.p. respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group (E) as control group. Control rats received daily i.p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 12, four rats, were randomly selected, perfused , dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did show no morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and E, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C, and D. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, seems to indicate for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, i.e., acute nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: acrylamide, nephrotoxicity, glomerulonephritis, rats

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11 Mathematical Modeling of the Fouling Phenomenon in Ultrafiltration of Latex Effluent

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi

Abstract:

An efficient and well-planned ultrafiltration process is becoming a necessity for monetary returns in the industrial settings. The aim of the present study was to develop a mathematical model for an accurate prediction of ultrafiltration membrane fouling of latex effluent applied to homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes with uniform and non-uniform pore sizes, respectively. The models were also developed for an accurate prediction of power consumption that can handle the large-scale purposes. The model incorporated the fouling attachments as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling for accurate prediction and scale-up application. Both Polycarbonate and Polysulfone flat membranes, with pore sizes of 0.05 µm and a molecular weight cut-off of 60,000, respectively, were used under a constant feed flow rate and a cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of the simulated paint effluent. Furthermore, hydrophilic ultrafilic and hydrophobic PVDF membranes with MWCO of 100,000 were used to test the reliability of the models. Monodisperse particles of 50 nm and 100 nm in diameter, and a latex effluent with a wide range of particle size distributions were utilized to validate the models. The aggregation and the sphericity of the particles indicated a significant effect on membrane fouling.

Keywords: membrane fouling, mathematical modeling, power consumption, attachments, ultrafiltration

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10 Cationic Surfactants Influence on the Fouling Phenomenon Control in Ultrafiltration of Latex Contaminated Water and Wastewater

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi

Abstract:

The goal of the present study was to minimize the ultrafiltration fouling of latex effluent using Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Hydrophilic Polysulfone and Ultrafilic flat heterogeneous membranes, with MWCO of 60,000 and 100,000, respectively, as well as hydrophobic Polyvinylidene Difluoride with MWCO of 100,000, were used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of latex solution. In addition, a Polycarbonate flat membrane with uniform pore size of 0.05 µm was also used. The effect of CTAB on the latex particle size distribution was investigated at different concentrations, various treatment times, and diverse agitation duration. The effects of CTAB on the zeta potential of latex particles and membrane surfaces were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the particle size distribution of treated latex effluent showed noticeable shifts in the peaks toward a larger size range due to the aggregation of particles. As a consequence, the mass of fouling contributing to pore blocking and the irreversible fouling were significantly reduced. The optimum results occurred with the addition of CTAB at the critical micelle concentration of 0.36 g/L for 10 minutes with minimal agitation. Higher stirring rate had a negative effect on membrane fouling minimization.

Keywords: cationic surfactant, latex particles, membrane fouling, ultrafiltration, zeta potential

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9 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri

Abstract:

One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

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8 Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoaging Pathways of Ultrafine Plastic Particles under UV Irradiation

Authors: Jiajun Duan, Yang Li, Jianan Gao, Runzi Cao, Enxiang Shang, Wen Zhang

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is considered as an important photoaging mechanism of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs). To elucidate the ROS-induced MP/NP aging processes in water under UV365 irradiation, we examined the effects of surface coatings, polymer types, and grain sizes on ROS generation and photoaging intermediates. Bare polystyrene (PS) NPs generated hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and singlet oxygen (¹O₂), while coated PS NPs (carboxyl-modified PS (PS-COOH), amino-modified PS (PS-NH₂)) and PS MPs generated fewer ROS due to coating scavenging or size effects. Polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, and polycarbonate MPs only generated •OH. For aromatic polymers, •OH addition preferentially occurred at benzene rings to form monohydroxy polymers. Excess •OH resulted in H abstraction, C-C scission, and phenyl ring opening to generate aliphatic ketones, esters, aldehydes, and aromatic ketones. For coated PS NPs, •OH preferentially attacked the surface coatings to result in decarboxylation and deamination reactions. For aliphatic polymers, •OH attack resulted in the formation of carbonyl groups from peracid, aldehyde, or ketone via H abstraction and C-C scission. Moreover, ¹O₂ might participate in phenyl ring opening for PS NPs and coating degradation for coated PS NPs. This study facilitates understanding the ROS-induced weathering process of NPs/MPs in water under UV irradiation.

Keywords: microplastics, nanoplastics, photoaging, reactive oxygen species, surface coating

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7 Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol a, Phtalates and Its Metabolites in Human Urine, by Tandem SPE Coupled to GC-MS

Authors: L. Correia-Sá, S. Norberto, Conceição Calhau, C. Delerue-Matos, V. F. Domingues

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic compounds that even though being initially designed for a specific function are now being linked with a wide range of side effects. The list of possible EDCs is growing and includes phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA). Phthalates are one of the most widely used plasticizers to improve the extensibility, elasticity and workability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl acetates, etc. Considered non-toxic and harmless additives for polymers, they were used unrestrainedly all over the world for several decades. However, recent studies have indicated that some phthalates and their metabolic products are reproductive and developmental toxicants in animals and suspected endocrine disruptors in humans. BPA (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) is a high production volume chemical mainly used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Although BPA was initially considered to be a weak environmental estrogen, nowadays it is known that this compound can stimulate several cellular responses at very low levels of concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on tandem SPE to evaluate the presence of phthalates, metabolites and BPA in human urine samples. The analyzed compounds included: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), BPA, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and. mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) (MEOHP). Two SPE cartridges were applied both from Phenomenex, the strata X polymeric reversed phase and the strata X A (Strong anion). Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Thermo GC ULTRA GC-MS/MS. Good recoveries and linear calibration curves were obtained. After validation, the methodology was applied to human urine samples for phthalates, metabolites and BPA evaluation.

Keywords: Bisphenol A (BPA), gas chromatography, metabolites, phtalates, SPE, tandem mode

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6 Acrylamide-Induced Thoracic Spinal Cord Axonopathy

Authors: Afshin Zahedi, Keivan Jamshidi

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the neurotoxic effects of different doses of ACR on the thoracic axons of the spinal cord of rat. To evaluate this hypothesis in the thoracic axons, amino-cupric silver staining technique of the de Olmos was conducted to define the histopathologic characteristic (argyrophilia) of axonal damage following ACR exposure. For this purpose 60 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were selected. Rats were hosed in polycarbonate boxes as two per each. Randomly assigned groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group, total 5 exposure groups as A, B, C, D and E) were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg per day×11days intraperitoneal injection (IP injection) respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group (F) as control group. Control rats received daily injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). As indices of developing neurotoxicity, weight gain, gait scores and landing hindlimb foot splay (LHF) were determined. Weight gains were measured daily prior to injection. Gait scoring involved observation of spontaneous open field locomotion, included evaluations of ataxia, hopping, rearing and hind foot placement, and hindlimb foot splay were determined 3-4 times per week. Gait score was assigned from 1-4. After 11 days, two rats for silver stain, were randomly selected, dissected and proper samples were collected from thoracic portion of the spinal cord of rat. Results did show no neurological behavior in groups A, B and F, whereas severe neurotoxicity was observed in groups C and D. Rats in groups E died within 1-2 hours due to severe toxemia. In histopathological studies based on the de Olmos technique no argyrophilic neurons or processes were observed in stained sections obtained from the thoracic portion of the spinal cord of rats belong to groups A, B and F, while moderate to severe argyrophilic changes were observed in different stained sections obtained from the thoracic portion of the spinal cord of rats belong to groups C and D.

Keywords: acrylamide, rat, axonopathy, argyrophily, de Olmos

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5 Immiscible Polymer Blends with Controlled Nanoparticle Location for Excellent Microwave Absorption: A Compartmentalized Approach

Authors: Sourav Biswas, Goutam Prasanna Kar, Suryasarathi Bose

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In order to obtain better materials, control in the precise location of nanoparticles is indispensable. It was shown here that ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, possessing different characteristics (electrical/magnetic dipoles), in the blend structure can result in excellent microwave absorption. This is manifested from a high reflection loss of ca. -67 dB for the best blend structure designed here. To attenuate electromagnetic radiations, the key parameters i.e. high electrical conductivity and large dielectric/magnetic loss are targeted here using a conducting inclusion [multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs]; ferroelectric nanostructured material with associated relaxations in the GHz frequency [barium titanate, BT]; and a loss ferromagnetic nanoparticles [nickel ferrite, NF]. In this study, bi-continuous structures were designed using 50/50 (by wt) blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The MWNTs was modified using an electron acceptor molecule; a derivative of perylenediimide, which facilitates π-π stacking with the nanotubes and stimulates efficient charge transport in the blends. The nanoscopic materials have specific affinity towards the PVDF phase. Hence, by introducing surface-active groups, ordered arrangement can be tailored. To accomplish this, both BT and NF was first hydroxylated followed by introducing amine-terminal groups on the surface. The latter facilitated in nucleophilic substitution reaction with PC and resulted in their precise location. In this study, we have shown for the first time that by compartmentalized approach, superior EM attenuation can be achieved. For instance, when the nanoparticles were localized exclusively in the PVDF phase or in both the phases, the minimum reflection loss was ca. -18 dB (for MWNT/BT mixture) and -29 dB (for MWNT/NF mixture), and the shielding was primarily through reflection. Interestingly, by adopting the compartmentalized approach where in, the lossy materials were in the PC phase and the conducting inclusion (MWNT) in PVDF, an outstanding reflection loss of ca. -57 dB (for BT and MWNT combination) and -67 dB (for NF and MWNT combination) was noted and the shielding was primarily through absorption. Thus, the approach demonstrates that nanoscopic structuring in the blends can be achieved under macroscopic processing conditions and this strategy can further be explored to design microwave absorbers.

Keywords: barium titanate, EMI shielding, MWNTs, nickel ferrite

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4 Mathematical Modelling of Biogas Dehumidification by Using of Counterflow Heat Exchanger

Authors: Staņislavs Gendelis, Andris Jakovičs, Jānis Ratnieks, Aigars Laizāns, Dāvids Vardanjans

Abstract:

Dehumidification of biogas at the biomass plants is very important to provide the energy efficient burning of biomethane at the outlet. A few methods are widely used to reduce the water content in biogas, e.g. chiller/heat exchanger based cooling, usage of different adsorbents like PSA, or the combination of such approaches. A quite different method of biogas dehumidification is offered and analyzed in this paper. The main idea is to direct the flow of biogas from the plant around it downwards; thus, creating additional insulation layer. As the temperature in gas shell layer around the plant will decrease from ~ 38°C to 20°C in the summer or even to 0°C in the winter, condensation of water vapor occurs. The water from the bottom of the gas shell can be collected and drain away. In addition, another upward shell layer is created after the condensate drainage place on the outer side to further reducing heat losses. Thus, counterflow biogas heat exchanger is created around the biogas plant. This research work deals with the numerical modelling of biogas flow, taking into account heat exchange and condensation on cold surfaces. Different kinds of boundary conditions (air and ground temperatures in summer/winter) and various physical properties of constructions (insulation between layers, wall thickness) are included in the model to make it more general and useful for different biogas flow conditions. The complexity of this problem is fact, that the temperatures in both channels are conjugated in case of low thermal resistance between layers. MATLAB programming language is used for multiphysical model development, numerical calculations and result visualization. Experimental installation of a biogas plant’s vertical wall with an additional 2 layers of polycarbonate sheets with the controlled gas flow was set up to verify the modelling results. Gas flow at inlet/outlet, temperatures between the layers and humidity were controlled and measured during a number of experiments. Good correlation with modelling results for vertical wall section allows using of developed numerical model for an estimation of parameters for the whole biogas dehumidification system. Numerical modelling of biogas counterflow heat exchanger system placed on the plant’s wall for various cases allows optimizing of thickness for gas layers and insulation layer to ensure necessary dehumidification of the gas under different climatic conditions. Modelling of system’s defined configuration with known conditions helps to predict the temperature and humidity content of the biogas at the outlet.

Keywords: biogas dehumidification, numerical modelling, condensation, biogas plant experimental model

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3 Isosorbide Bis-Methyl Carbonate: Opportunities for an Industrial Model Based on Biomass

Authors: Olga Gomez De Miranda, Jose R. Ochoa-Gomez, Stefaan De Wildeman, Luciano Monsegue, Soraya Prieto, Leire Lorenzo, Cristina Dineiro

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The chemical industry is facing a new revolution. As long as processes based on the exploitation of fossil resources emerged with force in the XIX century, Society currently demands a new radical change that will lead to the complete and irreversible implementation of a circular sustainable economic model. The implementation of biorefineries will be essential for this. There, renewable raw materials as sugars and other biomass resources are exploited for the development of new materials that will partially replace their petroleum-derived homologs in a safer, and environmentally more benign approach. Isosorbide, (1,4:3,6-dianhydro-d-glucidol) is a primary bio-based derivative obtained from the plant (poly) saccharides and a very interesting example of a useful chemical produced in biorefineries. It can, in turn, be converted to other secondary monomers as isosorbide bis-methyl carbonate (IBMC), whose main field of application can be as a key biodegradable intermediary substitute of bisphenol-A in the manufacture of polycarbonates, or as an alternative to the toxic isocyanates in the synthesis of new polyurethanes (non-isocyanate polyurethanes) both with a huge application market. New products will present advantageous mechanical or optical properties, as well as improved behavior in non-toxicity and biodegradability aspects in comparison to their petro-derived alternatives. A robust production process of IBMC, a biomass-derived chemical, is here presented. It can be used with different raw material qualities using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as both co-reactant and solvent. It consists of the transesterification of isosorbide with DMC under soft operational conditions, using different basic catalysts, always active with the isosorbide characteristics and purity. Appropriate isolation processes have been also developed to obtain crude IBMC yields higher than 90%, with oligomers production lower than 10%, independently of the quality of the isosorbide considered. All of them are suitable to be used in polycondensation reactions for polymers obtaining. If higher qualities of IBMC are needed, a purification treatment based on nanofiltration membranes has been also developed. The IBMC reaction-isolation conditions established in the laboratory have been successfully modeled using appropriate software programs and moved to a pilot-scale (production of 100 kg of IBMC). It has been demonstrated that a highly efficient IBMC production process able to be up-scaled under suitable market conditions has been obtained. Operational conditions involved the production of IBMC involve soft temperature and energy needs, no additional solvents, and high operational efficiency. All of them are according to green manufacturing rules.

Keywords: biomass, catalyst, isosorbide bis-methyl carbonate, polycarbonate, polyurethane, transesterification

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