Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1809

Search results for: nano titanium dioxide

1809 One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Porous Microspheres by Picosecond Pulsed Laser Welding

Authors: Huiwu Yu, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng

Abstract:

Porous spheres have been widely used in many fields due to their attractive features. In this work, an approach for fabricating porous spheres of nanoparticles was presented, in which the nanoparticles were welded together to form micro spheres by simply irradiating the nanoparticles in liquid medium by a picosecond laser. As an example, anatase titanium dioxide was chosen as a typical material on account of its metastability. The structure and morphologies of the products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that, anatase titanium dioxide micro spheres (2-10 μm) with macroporous (10-100 nm) were prepared from nano-anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10-100 nm). The formation process of polycrystalline anatase titanium dioxide microspheres was investigated with different liquid mediums and the input laser fluences. Thus, this facile laser irradiation approach might provide a way for the fabrication of porous microspheres without phase-transition.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, porous microspheres, picosecond laser, nano-welding

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1808 GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower

Authors: Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi, Mehdi Mohebodini

Abstract:

Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

Keywords: drought stress, nano-silicon dioxide, oil content, TiO2 nanoparticles

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1807 Photocatalytic Self-Cleaning Concrete Production Using Nano-Size Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh, Halla Elea, Lawrence Benzmiller

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to evaluate the possibility of using nano-sized materials, mainly titanium dioxide (TiO2), in producing economic self-cleaning concrete using photo-catalysis process. In photo-catalysis, the nano-particles react and dissolve smog, dust, and dirt particles in the presence of sunlight, resulting in a cleaned concrete surface. To-date, the Italian cement company (Italcementi) produces a proprietary self-cleaning cementitious material that is currently used in government buildings and major highways in Europe. The high initial cost of the proprietary product represents a major obstacle to the wide spread of the self-cleaning concrete in industrial and commercial projects. In this research project, titanium dioxide nano-sized particles are infused to the top layer of a concrete pour before the concrete surface is finished. Once hardened, a blue dye is applied to the concrete surface to simulate smog and dirt effect. The concrete surface is subjected to direct light to investigate the effectiveness of the nano-sized titanium dioxide in cleaning the concrete surface. The outcome of this research project proved that the titanium dioxide can be successfully used in reducing smog and dirt particles attached to the concrete when infused to the surface concrete layer. The majority of cleansing effect due to photocatalysis happens within 24 hours of photocatalysis process. The non-proprietary mix can be used in highway, industrial, and commercial projects due to its economy and ease of production.

Keywords: self-cleaning concrete, photocatalysis, Smog-eating concrete, titanium dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1806 Characterization of Iron Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Ability for Congo Red Dye

Authors: Vishakha Parihar

Abstract:

This study reports the preparation of iron metal-doped nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide by the sol-gel process and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. Nano-particles were characterized by SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed study confirmed that nanoparticles have grown in high density and have good optical properties. The photocatalytic batch experiment was performed in an aqueous solution where congo red dye was used as a dye pollutant under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays created by using a mercury lamp source. Total degradation efficiency achieved was approximately 85% to 93% in the duration of 100-120 minutes of irradiation under an ultraviolet light source. The decolorization ability of this process was measured by absorbance at a maximum wavelength of 498nm. The results indicated that the iron-doped Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic response to the degradation of dye under the ultraviolet light source within a very short period of time.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nano-particles iron dope, photocatalytic degradation, Congo red dye, sol-gel process

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1805 Tensile strength and Elastic Modulus of Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Ismail Ghasemi, Sajad Daneshpayeh

Abstract:

In this study, tensile strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites based on polypropylene/ linear low density polyethylene/ nano titanium dioxide (PP/LLDPE/TiO2) were studied. The samples were produced using a co-rotating twin screw extruder including 0, 2, 4 Wt .% of nano particles, and 20, 40, 60 Wt.% of LLDPE. The styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) was used as comptabiliser. Tensile strength and elastic modulus were evaluated. The results showed that modulus was increased by 7% with addition of nano particles in comparison to PP/LLDPE. In addition, tensile strength was decreased.

Keywords: PP/LLDPE/TiO2, nanocomposites, elastic modulus, tensile strength

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1804 Characterization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Containing Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nanoparticles

Authors: Emi Govorčin Bajsića, Vesna Ocelić Bulatović, Miroslav Slouf, Ana Šitum

Abstract:

Composites based on a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing and the effect of filler type and contents on the thermal properties, dynamic-mechanical behaviour and morphology were investigated. Measurements of storage modulus and loss modulus by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed better results for microfilled PCL/TiO2 composites than nanofilled composites, with the same filler content. DSC analysis showed that the Tg and Tc of micro and nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of neat PCL. The crystallinity of the PCL increased with the addition of TiO2 micro and nanoparticles; however, the c for the PCL was unchanged with micro TiO2 content. The thermal stability of PCL/TiO2 composites were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initial weight loss (5 wt %) occurs at slightly higher temperature with micro and nano TiO2 addition and with increasing TiO2 content.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, titanium dioxide, thermal properties, morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1803 Investigation on Polymer Based Nano-Silver as Food Packaging Materials

Authors: A. M. Metak, T. T. Ajaal, Amal Metak, Tawfik Ajaal

Abstract:

Commercial nanocomposite food packaging type nano-silver containers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX). The presence of nanoparticles consistent with the incorporation of 1% nano-silver (Ag) and 0.1% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle into polymeric materials formed into food containers was confirmed. Both nanomaterials used in this type of packaging appear to be embedded in a layered configuration within the bulk polymer. The dimensions of the incorporated nanoparticles were investigated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and determined by calculation using the Scherrer Formula; these were consistent with Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in the size range 20-70nm both were spherical shape nanoparticles. Antimicrobial assessment of the nanocomposite container has also been performed and the results confirm the antimicrobial activity of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles in food packaging containers. Migration assessments were performed in a wide range of food matrices to determine the migration of nanoparticles from the packages. The analysis was based on the relevant European safety directives and involved the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to identify the range of migration risk. The data pertain to insignificance levels of migration of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles into the selected food matrices.

Keywords: nano-silver, antimicrobial food packaging, migration, titanium dioxide

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1802 Moisture Absorption Analysis of LLDPE-NR Nanocomposite for HV Insulation

Authors: M. S. Kamarulzaman, N. A. Muhamad, N. A. M. Jamail, M. A. M. Piah, N. F. Kasri

Abstract:

Insulation for high voltage application that has been service for a very long time is subjected to several types of degradation. The degradation can lead to premature breakdown and definitely will spent highly cost to replace the cable. Thus, there are many research on nano composite material get serious attention attention due to their abilities to enhance electrical performance by addition of nano filler. In this paper, water absorption of Low Linear Density Polyethyelene (LLDPE) with different amount of nano filler added is studied. This study is necessary to be conducted since most of electrical apparatus such as cable insulation are dominant used especially in high voltage application. The cable insulation are continuously exposed in uncontrolled environment may suffer degradation process. Three type of nano fillers, was used in this study are: Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Monmorillonite (MMT). The percentage absorption of water was measured by weighted using high precision scales for absorption process up to 92 days. Experimental result demonstrate that SiO2 absorb less water than other filler while, the MMT has hydrophilic properties which it absorbs more water compare to another sample.

Keywords: nano composite, nano filler, water absorption, hydrophilic properties

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1801 Effect of Dyeing on the Cotton/Polyester Blended Fabric Treated by Tetra Carboxylic Acid (BTCA) and Nano TiO2

Authors: Aryan Azad, Sun Jae Kim

Abstract:

Cotton fabric is particularly prone to wrinkling. BTCA has been confirmed as the most effective reagent with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst for decreasing the wrinkle issue. Using nano TiO2 as aco-catalyst could improve the catalytic reaction of the BTCA as well. In this study, the effect of dying process using reactive/disperse on the cotton/polyester blended fabric (65/35%) which is previously treated by nano TiO2 and BTCA, were investigated. Results were compared by samples which were not treated by nano TiO2 and BTCA by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Results showed, samples which were treated by mixing nano TiO2 and BTCA have not absorbed dye as much as untreated samples.

Keywords: cotton/polyester, dyeing process, nano titanium dioxide (TiO2), sodium hypophosphite (SHP), Tetra carboxylic acid (BTCA)

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1800 Effect of Thermal Annealing Used in the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide on Its Electrochemical Properties As Li-Ion Electrode

Authors: Gabouze Nourredine, Saloua Merazga

Abstract:

Due to their exceptional durability, low-cost, high-power density, and reliability, cathodes based on titanium dioxide, and more specifically spinel LTO (Li4Ti5O12), present an attractive alternative to conventional lithium cathode materials for multiple applications. The aim of this work is to synthesize and characterize the nanopowders of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) and lithium titanate (Li₄Ti5O₁₂) by the hydrothermal method and to use them as a cathode in a lithium-ion battery. The structural and morphological characterizations of the synthesized powders were performed by XRD, SEM, EDS, and FTIR-ATR. Nevertheless, the study of the electrochemical performances of the elaborated electrode materials was carried out by: cyclic voltametry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge (CDG). The prepared electrode by the powder annealed at 800 °C has a good specific capacity of about 173 mAh/g and a good cyclic stability

Keywords: lithuim-ion, battery, LTO, tio2, capacity

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1799 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were water, SBF and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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1798 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were: water, SBF, and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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1797 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In this study, photo-catalytic degradation of phenol by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol, benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2 significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photo-catalytic degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photo-catalytic, titanium dioxide

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1796 Thermodynamics of Chlorination of Acid-Soluble Titanium Slag in Molten Salt for Preparation of TiCl4

Authors: Li Liang

Abstract:

Chinese titanium iron ore reserves with high calcium and magnesium accounted for more than 90% of the total reserves, and acid-soluble titanium slag which is produced by titanium iron ore always used to produce titanium dioxide through sulphate process. To broad the application range of acid-soluble titanium slag, the feasibility and thermodynamics of chlorinated reaction for preparation TiCl4 by titanium slag chlorination in molten slat were conducted in this paper. The analysis results show that TiCl4 can be obtained by chlorinate the acid-dissolved titanium slag with carbon. Component’s thermodynamics reaction trend is: CaO>MnO>FeO(FeCl2)>MgO>V2O5>Fe2O3>FeO(FeCl3)>TiO2>Al2O3>SiO2 in the standard state. Industrial experimental results are consistent with the thermodynamics analysis, the content of TiCl4 is more than 98% in the production. Fe, Si, V, Al, and other impurity content can satisfy the requirements of production.

Keywords: thermodynamics, acid-soluble titanium slag, preparation of TiCl4, chlorination

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1795 Impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 Nanoparticles on Biological Phosphorus Removal

Authors: H. Shiu, M.S. Lu, Y.P. Tsai

Abstract:

This study explored the impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles on biological phosphorus removal. Experimental results showed that the phosphorus removal ability of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) was initially inhibited when CuO nanoparticle concentration was 5 mgl-1. The inhibition of phosphorus removal for 1000 mgl-1 of TiO2 with sunlight was higher than without sunlight case. The inhibition of phosphorus removal began at 500 mgl-1 SiO2 nanoparticle concentration. Inhibition became apparent when SiO2 nanoparticle concentration was up to 1000 mgl-1.

Keywords: nano copper oxide, nano titanium dioxide, nano silica, enhanced biological phosphate removal

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1794 Free and Encapsulated (TiO2)2 Dimers into Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: S. Dargouthi, S. Boughdiri, B. Tangour

Abstract:

This work invoked two complementary parts. In the first, we performed a theoretical study of various dimers of molecular of titanium dioxide. Five structures were examined. Three among them, the (T), (C) and (T/P) isomers, may be considered as stable compounds because they represent absolute minima on their potential energy surfaces. (T) and (C) may coexist because they are separted by only 6.5 kcal mol-1 but (T/P) dimer is in a metastable state from an energetic point of view. Non bonded dimer (P) transforms into its homologue (O) which has been considered as transitory specie with low lifetime which evolves to (T) structure. In the second part, we highlight the possible stabilization of (T), (C) and (P) dimers by encapsulation in carbon nanotubes. This indicates the probable role that plays this transitory specie the polymerization process of molecular TiO2. Confinement is suitable to control the fast evolution process and could towards the synthesis of new titanium dioxide nanostructured materials. An alternative description of TiO2 polymorphs (Rutie, anatase et Brookite) is proposed from (T), (C) and (T/P) dimmers motifs.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, carbon nanotube, confinement. encapsulation, transitory specie

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1793 Down Regulation of Smad-2 Transcription and TGF-B1 Signaling in Nano Sized Titanium Dioxide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry

Abstract:

Although it is known that nano-TiO2 and other nanoparticles can induce liver toxicity, the mechanisms and the molecular pathogenesis are still unclear. The present study investigated some biochemical indices of nano-sized Titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) toxicity in mice liver and the ameliorative efficacy of individual and combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E. Nano-anatase TiO2 (21 nm) was administered as a total oral dose of 2.2 gm/Kg daily for 2 weeks followed by the afore-mentioned antioxidants daily either individually or in combination for 1month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxides (LP), and nitric oxide levels (NOX), while it significantly reduced glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase(GPX) levels. Moreover the quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that nano-anatase TiO2 can significantly alter the mRNA and protein expressions of the fibrotic factors TGF-B1, VEGFand Smad-2. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue reinforced the previous biochemical results. Our results also implied that inflammatory responses and liver injury may be involved in nano-anatase TiO2-induced liver toxicity Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation -2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated previously mentioned parameters with variable degrees with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: Nano-anatase TiO2, TGF-B1, SMAD-2

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1792 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Vanja Gilja, Marijana Kraljić Roković, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić

Abstract:

The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.

Keywords: composite, photocatalysis, polypyrrole, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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1791 Amelioration of Over-Expression of bax, Nrf2 and NFК–β in Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide-Intoxicated Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry

Abstract:

The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products has aroused global concern regarding their fate in biological systems resulting in demand for parallel risk assessment. The objective of this study is investigating either the effect of individual or combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E on amelioration of some biochemical indices of nano sized titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) induced metabolic disorders in mice liver. TiO2-NPS was administered in an oral dose of 150 mg/kg for consecutive 14 days followed by oral daily doses of the aforementioned antioxidants for 1 month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum level of ALT and AST, hepatic inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover, mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation-2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down-regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion, idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated parameters with a variable degree with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: idebenone, carnosine, vitamin E, TiO2 NPS, caspase-3, NrF2, NF-KB

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1790 Sustainable Approach to Fabricate Titanium Nitride Film on Steel Substrate by Using Automotive Plastics Waste

Authors: Songyan Yin, Ravindra Rajarao, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Automotive plastics waste (widely known as auto-fluff or ASR) is a complicated mixture of various plastics incorporated with a wide range of additives and fillers like titanium dioxide, magnesium oxide, and silicon dioxide. Automotive plastics waste is difficult to recycle and its landfilling poses the significant threat to the environment. In this study, a sustainable technology to fabricate protective nanoscale TiN thin film on a steel substrate surface by using automotive waste plastics as titanium and carbon resources is suggested. When heated automotive plastics waste with steel at elevated temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere, titanium dioxide contented in ASR undergo carbothermal reduction and nitridation reactions on the surface of the steel substrate forming a nanoscale thin film of titanium nitride on the steel surface. The synthesis of TiN film on steel substrate under this technology was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, high resolution X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, a high resolution transmission electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. This sustainably fabricated TiN film was verified of dense, well crystallized and could provide good oxidation resistance to the steel substrate. This sustainable fabrication technology is maneuverable, reproducible and of great economic and environmental benefit. It not only reduces the fabrication cost of TiN coating on steel surface, but also provides a sustainable environmental solution to recycling automotive plastics waste. Moreover, high value copper droplets and char residues were also extracted from this unique fabrication process.

Keywords: automotive plastics waste, carbonthermal reduction and nitirdation, sustainable, TiN film

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1789 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: phenol, photocatalytic, solar, titanium dioxide

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1788 Elaboration and Characterization of MEH-PPV/PCBM Composite Film Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Wided Zerguine, Farid Habelhames

Abstract:

The performance of photovoltaic devices with a light absorber consisting of a single-type conjugated polymer is poor, due to a low photo-generation yield of charge carriers, strong radiative recombination’s and low mobility of charge carriers. Recently, it has been shown that ultra-fast photoinduced charge transfer can also occur between a conjugated polymer and a metal oxide semiconductor such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO, Nb2O5, etc. This has led to the fabrication of photovoltaic devices based on composites of oxide semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a conjugated polymer matrix. In this work, Poly [2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (n-type) were dissolved, mixed and deposited by physical methods (spin-coating) on indium tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. The incorporation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles changed the morphology and increased the roughness of polymers film (MEH-PPV/PCBM), and the photocurrent density of the composite (MEH-PPV/PCBM +n-TiO2) was higher than that of single MEHPPV/ PCBM film. The study showed that the presence of n-TiO2 particles in the polymeric film improves the photoelectrochemical properties of MEH-PPV/PCBM composite.

Keywords: photocurrent density, organic nanostructures, hybrid coating, conducting polymer, titanium dioxide

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1787 Bio-Nano Mask: Antivirus and Antimicrobial Mouth Mask Coating with Nano-TiO2 and Anthocyanin Utilization as an Effective Solution of High ARI Patients in Riau

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan

Abstract:

Indonesia placed in sixth rank total Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) patient in the world and Riau as one of the province with the highest number of people with respiratory infection in Indonesia reached 37 thousand people. Usually society using a mask as prevention action. Unfortunately the commercial mouth mask only can work maximum for 4 hours and the pores are too large to filter out microorganisms and viruses carried by infectious droplets nucleated 1-5 μm. On the other hand, Indonesia is rich with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and purple sweet potato anthocyanin pigment. Therefore, offered Bio-nano-mask which is a antimicrobial and antiviral mouth mask with Nano-TiO2 coating and purple sweet potato anthocyanins utilization as an effective solution to high ARI patients in Riau, which has the advantage of the mask surface can’t be attached by infectious droplets, self-cleaning and have anthocyanins biosensors that give visual response can be understood easily by the general public in the form of a mask color change from blue/purple to pink when acid levels increase. Acid level is an indicator of microorganisms accumulation in the mouth and surrounding areas. Bio-nano mask making process begins with the preparation (design, Nano-TiO2 liquid preparation, anthocyanins biosensors manufacture) and then superimposing the Nano-TiO2 on the outer surface of spunbond color using a sprayer, then superimposing anthocyanins biosensors film on the Meltdown surface, making bio nano-mask and it pack. Bio-nano mask has the advantage is effectively preventing pathogenic microorganisms and infectious droplets and has accumulated indicator microorganisms that color changes which easily observed by the common people though.

Keywords: anthocyanins, ARI, nano-TiO2 liquid, self cleaning

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1786 Photocatalytic Active Surface of LWSCC Architectural Concretes

Authors: P. Novosad, L. Osuska, M. Tazky, T. Tazky

Abstract:

Current trends in the building industry are oriented towards the reduction of maintenance costs and the ecological benefits of buildings or building materials. Surface treatment of building materials with photocatalytic active titanium dioxide added into concrete can offer a good solution in this context. Architectural concrete has one disadvantage – dust and fouling keep settling on its surface, diminishing its aesthetic value and increasing maintenance e costs. Concrete surface – silicate material with open porosity – fulfils the conditions of effective photocatalysis, in particular, the self-cleaning properties of surfaces. This modern material is advantageous in particular for direct finishing and architectural concrete applications. If photoactive titanium dioxide is part of the top layers of road concrete on busy roads and the facades of the buildings surrounding these roads, exhaust fumes can be degraded with the aid of sunshine; hence, environmental load will decrease. It is clear that options for removing pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx) must be found. Not only do these gases present a health risk, they also cause the degradation of the surfaces of concrete structures. The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide can in the long term contribute to the enhanced appearance of surface layers and eliminate harmful pollutants dispersed in the air, and facilitate the conversion of pollutants into less toxic forms (e.g., NOx to HNO3). This paper describes verification of the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide and presents the results of mechanical and physical tests on samples of architectural lightweight self-compacting concretes (LWSCC). The very essence of the use of LWSCC is their rheological ability to seep into otherwise extremely hard accessible or inaccessible construction areas, or sections thereof where concrete compacting will be a problem, or where vibration is completely excluded. They are also able to create a solid monolithic element with a large variety of shapes; the concrete will at the same meet the requirements of both chemical aggression and the influences of the surrounding environment. Due to their viscosity, LWSCCs are able to imprint the formwork elements into their structure and thus create high quality lightweight architectural concretes.

Keywords: photocatalytic concretes, titanium dioxide, architectural concretes, Lightweight Self-Compacting Concretes (LWSCC)

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1785 Solar Photocatalysis of Methyl Orange Using Multi-Ion Doped TiO2 Catalysts

Authors: Victor R. Thulari, John Akach, Haleden Chiririwa, Aoyi Ochieng

Abstract:

Solar-light activated titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium (IV) isopropoxide with thiourea, followed by calcinations at 450 °C. The experiments demonstrated that methyl orange in aqueous solutions were successfully degraded under solar light using doped TiO2. The photocatalytic oxidation of a mono azo methyl-orange dye has been investigated in multi ion doped TiO2 and solar light. Solutions were irradiated by solar-light until high removal was achieved. It was found that there was no degradation of methyl orange in the dark and in the absence of TiO2. Varieties of laboratory prepared TiO2 catalysts both un-doped and doped using titanium (IV) isopropoxide and thiourea as a dopant were tested in order to compare their photoreactivity. As a result, it was found that the efficiency of the process strongly depends on the working conditions. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was obtained at optimum dosage using commercially produced TiO2. Our work focused on laboratory synthesized catalyst and the maximum methyl orange removal was achieved at 81% with catalyst loading of 0.04 g/L, initial pH of 3 and methyl orange concentration of 0.005 g/L using multi-ion doped catalyst. The kinetics of photocatalytic methyl orange dye stuff degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The presence of the multi-ion dopant (thiourea) enhanced the photoefficiency of the titanium dioxide catalyst.

Keywords: degradation, kinetics, methyl orange, photocatalysis

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1784 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium

Authors: J. Palán, M. Zemko

Abstract:

COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.

Keywords: CONFORM, ECAP, rotary swaging, titanium

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1783 Precision Grinding of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloy Using Nanolubrication

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Hong Wan Ping, M. Sayuti

Abstract:

In this current era of competitive machinery productions, the industries are designed to place more emphasis on the product quality and reduction of cost whilst abiding by the pollution-preventing policy. In attempting to delve into the concerns, the industries are aware that the effectiveness of existing lubrication systems must be improved to achieve power-efficient and pollution-preventing machining processes. As such, this research is targeted to study on a plausible solution to the issue in grinding titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) by using nanolubrication, as an alternative to flood grinding. The aim of this research is to evaluate the optimum condition of grinding force and surface roughness using MQL lubricating system to deliver nano-oil at different level of weight concentration of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) mixed normal mineral oil. Taguchi Design of Experiment (DoE) method is carried out using a standard Taguchi orthogonal array of L16(43) to find the optimized combination of weight concentration mixture of SiO2, nozzle orientation and pressure of MQL. Surface roughness and grinding force are also analyzed using signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio to determine the best level of each factor that are tested. Consequently, the best combination of parameters is tested for a period of time and the results are compared with conventional grinding method of dry and flood condition. The results show a positive performance of MQL nanolubrication.

Keywords: grinding, MQL, precision grinding, Taguchi optimization, titanium alloy

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1782 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport

Abstract:

Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

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1781 Thermal Analysis of Automobile Radiator Using Nanofluids

Authors: S. Sumanth, Babu Rao Ponangi, K. N. Seetharamu

Abstract:

As the technology is emerging day by day, there is a need for some better methodology which will enhance the performance of radiator. Nanofluid is the one area which has promised the enhancement of the radiator performance. Currently, nanofluid has got a well effective solution for enhancing the performance of the automobile radiators. Suspending the nano sized particle in the base fluid, which has got better thermal conductivity value when compared to a base fluid, is preferably considered for nanofluid. In the current work, at first mathematical formulation has been carried out, which will govern the performance of the radiator. Current work is justified by plotting the graph for different parameters. Current work justifies the enhancement of radiator performance using nanofluid.

Keywords: nanofluid, radiator performance, graphene, gamma aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

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1780 The Role of Graphene Oxide on Titanium Dioxide Performance for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Abdelmajid Timoumi, Salah Alamri, Hatem Alamri

Abstract:

TiO₂ Graphene Oxide (TiO₂-GO) nanocomposite was prepared using the spin coating technique of suspension of Graphene Oxide (GO) nanosheets and Titanium Tetra Isopropoxide (TIP). The prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to examine their structures and morphologies. UV-vis transmittance and reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band gap energies. From the TiO₂-GO samples, a 0.25 μm thin layer on a piece of glass 2x2 cm was created. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the as-deposited layers are amorphous in nature. The surface morphology images demonstrate that the layers grew in distributed with some spherical/rod-like and partially agglomerated TiGO on the surface of the composite. The Atomic Force Microscopy indicated that the films are smooth with slightly larger surface roughness. The analysis of optical absorption data of the layers showed that the values of band gap energy decreased from 3.46 eV to 1.40 eV, depending on the grams of GO doping. This reduction might be attributed to electron and/or hole trapping at the donor and acceptor levels in the TiO₂ band structure. Observed results have shown that the inclusion of GO in the TiO₂ matrix have exhibited significant and excellent properties, which would be promising for application in the photovoltaic application.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, graphene oxide, thin films, solar cells

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