Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 350

Search results for: electro spinning

350 The Research of 'Rope Coiling' Effect in Near-Field Electrospinning

Authors: Feiyu Fang, Han Wang, Xin Chen, Jun Zeng, Feng Liang, Peixuan Wu

Abstract:

The 'rope coiling' effect is a normal instability phenomenon widespread exists in viscous fluid, elastic rods and polymeric fibers owing to compressive stress when they fall into a moving belt. Near-field electro-spinning is the modified electro-spinning technique has the ability to direct write micro fibers. In this research, we study the “rope coiling” effect in near-field electro-spinning. By changing the distance between nozzle and collector or the speed ratio between the charge jet speed and the platform moving speed, we obtain a pile of different models coils including the meandering, alternating and coiling patterns. Therefore, this instability can be used to direct write micro structured fibers with a one-step process.

Keywords: rope coiling effects, near-field electrospinning, direct write, micro structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
349 Electro Spinning in Nanotechnology

Authors: Mahoud Alfama, Meloud Yones, Abdelbaset Zroga, Abdelati Elalem

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Electrospinning has been recognized as an efficient technique for the fabrication of polymer nanofibers. Various polymers have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers in recent years mostly in solvent solution and some in melt form. Potential applications based on such fibers specifically their use as reinforcement in nanocomposite development have been realized. In this paper we examine -electrospinning by providing a brief description of the theory behind the process examining the effect of changing the process parameters on fiber morphology, and discussing the potential applications and impacts of electrospinning on the field of tissue engineering.

Keywords: nanotechnology, electro spinning, reinforced materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
348 Analysis for Shear Spinning of Tubes with Hard-To-Work Materials

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Jolly

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Metal spinning is one such process in which the stresses are localized to a small area and the material is made to flow or move over the mandrel with the help of spinning tool. Spinning of tubular products can be performed by two techniques, forward spinning and backward spinning. Many researchers have studied the process both experimentally and analytically. An effort has been made to apply the process to the spinning of thin wall, highly precision, small bore long tube in hard-to-work materials such as titanium.

Keywords: metal spinning, hard-to-work materials, roller diameter, power consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
347 A Systamatic Review on Experimental, FEM Analysis and Simulation of Metal Spinning Process

Authors: Amol M. Jadhav, Sharad S. Chudhari, S. S. Khedkar

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This review presents a through survey of research paper work on the experimental analysis, FEM Analysis & simulation of the metal spinning process. In this literature survey all the papers being taken from Elsevier publication and most of the from journal of material processing technology. In a last two decade or so, metal spinning process gradually used as chip less formation for the production of engineering component in a small to medium batch quantities. The review aims to provide include into the experimentation, FEM analysis of various components, simulation of metal spinning process and act as guide for research working on metal spinning processes. The review of existing work has several gaps in current knowledge of metal spinning processes. The evaluation of experiment is thickness strain, the spinning force, the twisting angle, the surface roughness of the conventional & shear metal spinning process; the evaluation of FEM of metal spinning to path definition with sufficient fine mesh to capture behavior of work piece; The evaluation of feed rate of roller, direction of roller,& type of roller stimulated. The metal spinning process has the more flexible to produce a wider range of product shape & to form more challenge material.

Keywords: metal spinning, FEM analysis, simulation of metal spinning, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
346 Physical Properties of Alkali Resistant-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

Authors: Ji-Sun Lee, Soong-Keun Hyun, Jin-Ho Kim

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In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt% zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured, and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

Keywords: glass composition, fiber diameter, continuous filament fiber, continuous spinning, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
345 Parameter Study for TPU Nanofibers Fabricated via Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Electrospinning is the most common method to produce nanofibers. However, low production rate is still a big challenge for industrial applications of this method. In this study, morphology of nanofibers obtained from namely centrifugal spinning was investigated. Dominant process parameters acting on the fiber diameter and fiber orientation were discussed.

Keywords: centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, nanofiber, TPU nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
344 Color Conversion Films with CuInS2/ZnS Quantum Dots Embedded Polystyrene Nanofibers by Electrospinning Process

Authors: Wonkyung Na, Namhun Kim, Heeyeop Chae

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QDs) are getting attentions due to their excellent optical properties in display, solar cell, biomolecule detection and lighting applications. Energy band gap can be easilty controlled by controlling their size and QDs are proper to apply in light-emitting-diode(LED) and lighting application, especially. Typically cadmium (Cd) containing QDs show a narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and high quantum yield. However, Cd is classified as a hazardous materials and the use of Cd is being tightly regulated under 100ppm level in many countries.InP and CuInS2 (CIS) are being investigated as Cd-free QD materials and it is recently demonstrated that the performance of those Cd-free QDs is comparable to their Cd-based rivals.Due to a broad emission spectrum, CuInS2 QDs are also proper to be applied to white LED.4 For the lighting applications, the QD should be made in forms of color conversion films. Various film processes are reported with QDs in polymer matrixes. In this work, we synthesized the CuInS2 (CIS) QDs and QD embedded polystyrene color conversion films were fabricated for white color emission with electro-spinning process. As a result, blue light from blue LED is converted to white light with high color rendering index (CRI) of 72 by the color conversion films.

Keywords: CuInS2/ZnS, electro-spinning, color conversion films, white light emitting diodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 641
343 Experimental Investigation Of Membrane Performance

Authors: Ali Serhat Ersoyoğlu, Kevser Dincer, Salih Yayla, Derya Saygılı

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In this study, performance of membrane was experimentally investigated. A solution having 1,5 gr Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ)+ 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a spinning syringe. 6 grill-shaped wires having the sizes of 2x2 cm2’were cladded with YSZ + methanol solution by using the spinning method. After coating, the grill-shaped wires were left to dry. The dry wires were then weighed on a precision scale to determine the amount of coating imposed. The grill-shaped wires were mounted on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell membrane. Effects of the coating on the wires on current, power and resistance performances in the PEM fuel cells were determined experimentally and compared for every case. The highest current occurred at the 1st second on current #1, while the lowest current occurred at the 1171th second on current #6. The highest resistance was recorded at the 1171th second on resistance # 6, the lowest occurred at the 1st second on resistance # 1, whereas the highest power took place at the 1st second on power #1, the lowest power appeared at the 1171th second on power #5.

Keywords: membrane, electro-spinning method, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia, fuel cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
342 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani

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A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
341 Electro Magnetic Tractor (E. M. Tractor)

Authors: Sijo Varghese

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A space craft (E. M. Tractor) which is intended to deflect or tug the asteroids which possesses threat towards the planets is the whole idea behind this paper. In this case "Electro Magnetic Induction" is used where it is known that when two separate circuits are connected to the electro magnet and on application of electric current through the one circuit in to the coil induces magnetic fields which repels the other circuit.( Faraday's law of Electromagnetic Induction). Basically a Spacecraft is used to attach a large sheet of aluminum on to the surface of the asteroid, the Spacecraft acts as an electro magnet and the induced magnetic field would eventually repel the aluminum intern repelling the asteroid. This method would take less time as compared to use of gravity( which requires a larger spacecraft and process will take a long time).

Keywords: asteroids, electro magnetic induction, gravity, electro magnetic tractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
340 Effect of Incremental Forming Parameters on Titanium Alloys Properties

Authors: P. Homola, L. Novakova, V. Kafka, M. P. Oscoz

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Shear spinning is closely related to the asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) that could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex aeronautical components with a minimal environmental impact. The spinning experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2) and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. Three forming modes were used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of different spinning parameters. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and micro-hardness measurements. The highest value wall angle failure limit was achieved using spinning parameters mode for both materials. The feed rate effect was observed only in the samples from the Ti-Gr2 material, when a refinement of the grain microstructure with lower feed rate and higher tangential speed occurred. Ti-Gr5 alloy exhibited a decrease of the micro-hardness at higher straining due to recovery processes.

Keywords: incremental forming, metallography, shear spinning, titanium alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
339 Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization of Process Parameters of Metal Spinning

Authors: B. Ravi Kumar, S. Gajanana, K. Hemachandra Reddy, K. Udayani

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Physically into various derived shapes and sizes under the effect of externally applied forces. The spinning process is an advanced plastic working technology and is frequently used for manufacturing axisymmetric shapes. Over the last few decades, Sheet metal spinning has developed significantly and spun products have widely used in various industries. Nowadays the process has been expanded to new horizons in industries, since tendency to use minimum tool and equipment costs and also using lower forces with the output of excellent surface quality and good mechanical properties. The automation of the process is of greater importance, due to its wider applications like decorative household goods, rocket nose cones, gas cylinders, etc. This paper aims to gain insight into the conventional spinning process by employing experimental and numerical methods. The present work proposes an approach for optimizing process parameters are mandrel speed (rpm), roller nose radius (mm), thickness of the sheet (mm). Forming force, surface roughness and strain are the responses.in spinning of Aluminum (2024-T3) using DOE-Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The FEA software is used for modeling and analysis. The process parameters considered in the experimentation.

Keywords: FEA, RSM, process parameters, sheet metal spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
338 Recycling of Post-Industrial Cotton Wastes: Quality and Rotor Spinning of Reclaimed Fibers

Authors: Béchir Wanassi, Béchir Azzouz, Taher Halimi, Mohamed Ben Hassen

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Mechanical recycling of post-industrial cotton yarn wastes, as well as the effects of passage number on the properties of reclaimed fibers, have been investigated. A new Modified Fiber Quality Index (MFQI) and Spinning Consistency Index (MSCI) for the characterization of the quality are presented. This index gives the real potential of spinnability according to its physical properties. The best quality of reclaimed fibers (after 7th passage) was used to produce rotor yarns. 100% recycling cotton yarns were produced in open-end spinning system with different rotor speed (i.e. 65000, 70000, and 80000 rpm), opening roller speed (i.e. 7700, 8200, and 8700 rpm) and twist factor (i.e. 137, 165, and 183). The effects of spinning parameters were investigated to evaluate a 100% recycling cotton yarns quality (TQI, hairiness, thin places, and thick places) using DOE method.

Keywords: cotton wastes, DOE, mechanical recycling, rotor spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
337 Analysis of Stall Angle Delay in Airfoil Coupled with Spinning Cylinder

Authors: N. Kiran, S. A. Vikas, Yatish Chandra, S. Srinivasan

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Several Centuries ago, the aerodynamic studies on rotating cylinders and spheres have started. From the observation, the rotation of a cylinder has a remarkable effect on the aerodynamic characteristics is noticed. In case of airfoils as the angle of attack increases, the drag increases with reduction in lift i.e at the critical angle of attack. If at this point a strong impulse is imparted to the boundary layer by means of a spinning cylinder, the re-energisation of boundary layer is achieved and hence delaying the boundary layer separation and stalling characteristics. Analysis of aerodynamic effects spinning cylinder either at leading edge or at trailing edge of the airfoil is carried in the past, the positioning of cylinder close to trailing edge and its effects in delaying the stall are yet to be analyzed in depth. This paper aim is to understand the combined aerodynamic effects of coupling the spinning cylinder with the airfoil closer to the Trailing edge, by considering different spin ratio of the cylinder, its location and geometrical parameters in relation to the chord of the airfoil. From the analysis, it was observed that the spinning cylinder speed of rotation and location had a impact on stalling characteristics for a prescribed free stream condition. The results predicted through CFD analysis and experimental analysis showed a raise in aerodynamic efficiency and as the spin ratio increases, increase in stalling angle of attack is noticed when compared to the airfoil without spinning cylinder.

Keywords: aerodynamics, airfoil, spinning cylinder, stalling

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
336 Power Reduction of Hall-Effect Sensor by Pulse Width Modulation of Spinning-Current

Authors: Hyungil Chae

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This work presents a method to reduce spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor for low-power magnetic sensor applications. Spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor changes the direction of bias current periodically and can separate signals from DC-offset. The bias current is proportional to the sensor sensitivity but also increases the power consumption. To achieve both high sensitivity and low power consumption, the bias current can be pulse-width modulated. When the bias current duration Tb is reduced by a factor of N compared to the spinning current period of Tₛ/2, the total power consumption can be saved by N times. N can be large as long as the Hall-effect sensor settles down within Tb. The proposed scheme is implemented and simulated in a 0.18um CMOS process, and the power saving factor is 9.6 when N is 10. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (20160001360022003, Development of Hall Semi-conductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: chopper stabilization, Hall-effect sensor, pulse width modulation, spinning current

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
335 Potential of High Performance Ring Spinning Based on Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

Authors: M. Hossain, A. Abdkader, C. Cherif, A. Berger, M. Sparing, R. Hühne, L. Schultz, K. Nielsch

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Due to the best quality of yarn and the flexibility of the machine, the ring spinning process is the most widely used spinning method for short staple yarn production. However, the productivity of these machines is still much lower in comparison to other spinning systems such as rotor or air-jet spinning process. The main reason for this limitation lies on the twisting mechanism of the ring spinning process. In the ring/traveler twisting system, each rotation of the traveler along with the ring inserts twist in the yarn. The rotation of the traveler at higher speed includes strong frictional forces, which in turn generates heat. Different ring/traveler systems concerning with its geometries, material combinations and coatings have already been implemented to solve the frictional problem. However, such developments can neither completely solve the frictional problem nor increase the productivity. The friction free superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) system can be a right alternative replacing the existing ring/traveler system. The unique concept of SMB bearings is that they possess a self-stabilizing behavior, i.e. they remain fully passive without any necessity for expensive position sensing and control. Within the framework of a research project funded by German research foundation (DFG), suitable concepts of the SMB-system have been designed, developed, and integrated as a twisting device of ring spinning replacing the existing ring/traveler system. With the help of the developed mathematical model and experimental investigation, the physical limitations of this innovative twisting device in the spinning process have been determined. The interaction among the parameters of the spinning process and the superconducting twisting element has been further evaluated, which derives the concrete information regarding the new spinning process. Moreover, the influence of the implemented SMB twisting system on the yarn quality has been analyzed with respect to different process parameters. The presented work reveals the enormous potential of the innovative twisting mechanism, so that the productivity of the ring spinning process especially in case of thermoplastic materials can be at least doubled for the first time in a hundred years. The SMB ring spinning tester has also been presented in the international fair “International Textile Machinery Association (ITMA) 2015”.

Keywords: ring spinning, superconducting magnetic bearing, yarn properties, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
334 Electro-Oxidation of Glycerol Using Nickel Deposited Carbon Ceramic Electrode and Product Analysis Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Mulatu Kassie Birhanu

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Electro-oxidation of glycerol is an important process to convert the less price glycerol into other expensive (essential) and energy-rich chemicals. In this study, nickel was electro-deposited on laboratory-made carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) substrate using electrochemical techniques that is cyclic voltammetry (CV) to prepare an electro-catalyst (Ni/CCE) for electro-oxidation of glycerol. Carbon ceramic electrode was prepared from graphite and methyl tri-methoxy silane (MTMOS) through the processes called hydrolysis and condensation with methanol in acidic media (HCl) by a sol-gel technique. Physico-chemical characterization of bare CCE and modified (deposited) CCE (Ni/CCE) was measured and evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electro-oxidation of glycerol was performed in 0.1 M glycerol in alkaline media (0.5 M NaOH). High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique was used to identify and determine the concentration of glycerol, reaction intermediates and oxidized products of glycerol after its electro-oxidation is performed. The conversion (%) of electro-oxidation of glycerol during 9-hour oxidation was 73% and 36% at 1.8V and 1.6V vs. RHE, respectively. Formate, oxalate, glycolate and glycerate are the main oxidation products of glycerol with selectivity (%) of 75%, 8.6%, 1.1% and 0.95 % at 1.8 V vs. RHE and 55.4%, 2.2%, 1.0% and 0.6% at 1.6 V vs. RHE respectively. The result indicates that formate is the main product in the electro-oxidation of glycerol on Ni/CCE using the indicated applied potentials.

Keywords: carbon-ceramic electrode, electrodeposition, electro-oxidation, Methyltrimethoxysilane

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
333 Investigation of Operational Conditions for Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Contaminated with Pesticides Using Electro-Fenton Process

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm

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This study aims to investigate various operating conditions that affect the performance of the electro-Fenton process for degradation of pesticides. Stainless steel electrodes were utilized in the electro-Fenton cell due to their relatively low cost. The favored conditions of current intensity, pH, iron loading, and pesticide concentration were deeply discussed. Complete removal of pesticide was attained at the optimum conditions. The degradation kinetics were described by pseudo- first-order pattern. In addition, a response surface model was developed to describe the performance of electro-Fenton process under different operational conditions. The model indicated that the coefficient of determination was (R² = 0.995).

Keywords: electro-Fenton, stainless steel, pesticide, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
332 Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil to Biodiesel in a Continuous Spinning Disc Reactor

Authors: Weerinda Appamana, Jirapong Keawkoon, Yamonporn Pacthong, Jirathiti Chitsanguansuk, Yanyong Sookklay

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In the present work, spinning disc reactor has been used for the intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from refined palm oil (RPO) based on the transesterification reaction. Experiments have been performed using different spinning disc surface and under varying operating parameters viz. molar ratio of oil to methanol (over the range of 1:4.5–1:9), rotational speed (over the range of 500–2,000 rpm), total flow rate (over the range of 260-520 ml/min), and KOH catalyst loading of 1.50% by weight of oil. Maximum FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) yield (97.5 %) of biodiesel from RPO was obtained at oil to methanol ratio of 1:6, temperature of 60 °C, and rotational speed of 1500 rpm and flow rate of 520 mL/min using groove disc at KOH catalyst loading of 1.5 wt%. Also, higher yield efficiency (biodiesel produced per unit energy consumed) was obtained for using the spinning disc reactor based approach as compared to the ultrasound hydrodynamic cavitation and conventional mechanical stirrer reactors. It obviously offers a significant reduction in the reaction time for the transesterification, especially when compared with the reaction time of 90 minutes required for the conventional mechanical stirrer. It can be concluded that the spinning disk reactor is a promising alternative method for continuous biodiesel production.

Keywords: spinning disc reactor, biodiesel, process intensification, yield efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
331 Electro-Winning of Dilute Solution of Copper Metal from Sepon Mine, Lao PDR

Authors: S. Vasailor, C. Rattanakawin

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Electro-winning of copper metal from dilute sulfate solution (13.7 g/L) was performed in a lab electrolytic cell with stainless-steel cathode and lead-alloy anode. The effects of various parameters including cell voltage, electro-winning temperature and time were studied in order to acquire an appropriate current efficiency of copper deposition. The highest efficiency is about 95% obtaining from electro-winning condition of 3V, 55°C and 3,600 s correspondingly. The cathode copper with 95.5% Cu analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry can be obtained from this single-winning condition. In order to increase the copper grade, solvent extraction should be used to increase the sulfate concentration, say 50 g/L, prior to winning the cathode copper effectively.

Keywords: copper metal, current efficiency, dilute sulfate solution, electro-winning

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
330 Conceptual Design of a Customer Friendly Variable Volume and Variable Spinning Speed Washing Machine

Authors: C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, V. R. Sanal Kumar

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In this paper using smart materials we have proposed a specially manufactured variable volume spin tub for loading clothes for negating the vibration to a certain extent for getting better operating performance. Additionally, we have recommended a variable spinning speed rotor for handling varieties of garments for an efficient washing, aiming for increasing the life span of both the garments and the machine. As a part of the conflicting dynamic constraints and demands of the customer friendly design optimization of a lucrative and cosmetic washing machine we have proposed a drier and a desalination system capable to supply desirable heat and a pleasing fragrance to the garments. We thus concluded that while incorporating variable volume and variable spinning speed tub integrated with a drier and desalination system, the washing machine could meet the varieties of domestic requirements of the customers cost-effectively.

Keywords: customer friendly washing machine, drier design, quick cloth cleaning, variable tub volume washing machine, variable spinning speed washing machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
329 The Effect of Parameters on Production of NİO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: F. Sevim, E. Sevimli, F. Demir, T. Çalban

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For the first time, nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters of 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by TG/DTA, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: nano fibers, NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite, sol-gel processing, electro spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
328 Enhanced Method of Conceptual Sizing of Aircraft Electro-Thermal De-Icing System

Authors: Ahmed Shinkafi, Craig Lawson

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There is a great advancement towards the All-Electric Aircraft (AEA) technology. The AEA concept assumes that all aircraft systems will be integrated into one electrical power source in the future. The principle of the electro-thermal system is to transfer the energy required for anti/de-icing to the protected areas in electrical form. However, powering a large aircraft anti-icing system electrically could be quite excessive in cost and system weight. Hence, maximising the anti/de-icing efficiency of the electro-thermal system in order to minimise its power demand has become crucial to electro-thermal de-icing system sizing. In this work, an enhanced methodology has been developed for conceptual sizing of aircraft electro-thermal de-icing System. The work factored those critical terms overlooked in previous studies which were critical to de-icing energy consumption. A case study of a typical large aircraft wing de-icing was used to test and validate the model. The model was used to optimise the system performance by a trade-off between the de-icing peak power and system energy consumption. The optimum melting surface temperatures and energy flux predicted enabled the reduction in the power required for de-icing. The weight penalty associated with electro-thermal anti-icing/de-icing method could be eliminated using this method without under estimating the de-icing power requirement.

Keywords: aircraft, de-icing system, electro-thermal, in-flight icing

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
327 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications

Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit

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Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.

Keywords: carbon fiber, conductive textiles, electrostatic dissipative materials, hybrid yarns

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
326 A Comparative Study of Photo and Electro-Fenton Reactions Efficiency in Degradation of Cationic Dyes Mixture

Authors: S. Bouafia Chergui, Nihal Oturan, Hussein Khalaf, Mehmet A. Oturan

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The aim of this work was to compare the degradation of a mixture of three cationic dyes by advanced oxidation processes (electro-Fenton, photo-Fenton) in aqueous solution. These processes are based on the in situ production of hydroxyl radical, a highly strong oxidant, which allows the degradation of organic pollutants until their mineralization into CO2 and H2O. Under optimal operating conditions, the evolution of total organic carbon (TOC) and electrical energy efficiency have been investigated for the two processes.

Keywords: photo-fenton, electro-fenton, energy efficiency, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
325 Advantages of a New Manufacturing Facility for the Production of Nanofiber

Authors: R. Knizek, D. Karhankova

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The production of nanofibers and the machinery for their production is a current issue. The pioneer, in the industrial production of nanofibers, is the machinery with the sales descriptions NanospiderTM from the company Elmarco, which came into being in 2008. Most of the production facilities, like NanospiderTM, use electrospinning. There are also other methods of industrial production of nanofibers, such as the centrifugal spinning process, which is used by FibeRio Technology Corporation. However, each method and machine has its advantages, but also disadvantages and that is the reason why a new machine called as Nanomachine, which eliminates the disadvantages of other production facilities producing nanofibers, has been developed.

Keywords: nanomachine, nanospider, spinning slat, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
324 Making of Alloy Steel by Direct Alloying with Mineral Oxides during Electro-Slag Remelting

Authors: Vishwas Goel, Kapil Surve, Somnath Basu

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In-situ alloying in steel during the electro-slag remelting (ESR) process has already been achieved by the addition of necessary ferroalloys into the electro-slag remelting mold. However, the use of commercially available ferroalloys during ESR processing is often found to be financially less favorable, in comparison with the conventional alloying techniques. However, a process of alloying steel with elements like chromium and manganese using the electro-slag remelting route is under development without any ferrochrome addition. The process utilizes in-situ reduction of refined mineral chromite (Cr₂O₃) and resultant enrichment of chromium in the steel ingot produced. It was established in course of this work that this process can become more advantageous over conventional alloying techniques, both economically and environmentally, for applications which inherently demand the use of the electro-slag remelting process, such as manufacturing of superalloys. A key advantage is the lower overall CO₂ footprint of this process relative to the conventional route of production, storage, and the addition of ferrochrome. In addition to experimentally validating the feasibility of the envisaged reactions, a mathematical model to simulate the reduction of chromium (III) oxide and transfer to chromium to the molten steel droplets was also developed as part of the current work. The developed model helps to correlate the amount of chromite input and the magnitude of chromium alloying that can be achieved through this process. Experiments are in progress to validate the predictions made by this model and to fine-tune its parameters.

Keywords: alloying element, chromite, electro-slag remelting, ferrochrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
323 The Effectiveness of Pretreatment Methods on COD and Ammonia Removal from Landfill Leachate

Authors: M. Poveda, S. Lozecznik, J. Oleszkiewicz, Q. Yuan

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The goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of different leachate pre-treatment options in terms of COD and ammonia removal. This research focused on the evaluation of physical-chemical methods for pre-treatment of leachate that would be effective and rapid in order to satisfy the requirements of the sewer discharge by-laws. The four pre-treatment options evaluated were: air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation and advanced oxidation with sodium ferrate. Chemical coagulation reported the best COD removal rate at 43%, compared to 18 % for both air stripping and electro-coagulation, and 20 % for oxidation with sodium ferrate. On the other hand, air stripping was far superior to the other treatment options in terms of ammonia removal with 86 %. Oxidation with sodium ferrate reached only 16 %, while chemical coagulation and electro-coagulation removed less than 10 %. When combined, air stripping and chemical coagulation removed up to 50 % COD and 85 % ammonia.

Keywords: leachate pretreatment, air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation, oxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 731
322 Wet Spun Graphene Fibers With Silver Nanoparticles For Flexible Electronic Applications

Authors: Syed W. Hasan, Zhiqun Tian

Abstract:

Wet spinning provides a facile and economic route to fabricate graphene nanofibers (GFs) on mass scale. Nevertheless, the pristine GFs exhibit significantly low electrical and mechanical properties owing to stacked graphene sheets and weak inter-atomic bonding. In this report, we present highly conductive Ag-decorated-GFs (Ag/GFs). The SEM micrographs show Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (dia ~10 nm) are homogeneously distributed throughout the cross-section of the fiber. The Ag NPs provide a conductive network for the electrons flow raising the conductivity to 1.8(10^4) S/m which is 4 times higher than the pristine GFs. Our results surpass the conductivities of graphene fibers doped with CNTs, Nanocarbon, fullerene, and Cu. The chemical and structural attributes of Ag/GFs are further elucidated through XPS, AFM and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles, Conductive fibers, Graphene, Wet spinning

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321 Integration of the Electro-Activation Technology for Soy Meal Valorization

Authors: Natela Gerliani, Mohammed Aider

Abstract:

Nowadays, the interest of using sustainable technologies for protein extraction from underutilized oilseeds is growing. Currently, a major disposal problem for the oil industry is by-products of plant food processing such as soybean meal. That is why valorization of soybean meal is important for the oil industry since it contains high-quality proteins and other valuable components. Generally, soybean meal is used in livestock and poultry feed but is rarely used in human feed. Though chemical composition of this meal compensate nutritional deficiency and can be used to balance protein in human food. Regarding the efficiency of soybean meal valorization, extraction is a key process for obtaining enriched protein ingredient, which can be incorporated into the food matrix. However, most of the food components such as proteins extracted from oilseeds by-products imply the utilization of organic and inorganic chemicals (e.g. acids, bases, TCA-acetone) having a significant environmental impact. In a context of sustainable production, the use of an electro-activation technology seems to be a good alternative. Indeed, the electro-activation technology requires only water, food grade salt and electricity as main materials. Moreover, this innovative technology helps to avoid special equipment and trainings for workers safety as well as transport and storage of hazardous materials. Electro-activation is a technology based on applied electrochemistry for the generation of acidic and alkaline solutions on the basis of the oxidation-reduction reactions that occur at the vicinity electrode/solution interfaces. It is an eco-friendly process that can be used to replace the conventional acidic and alkaline extraction. In this research, the electro-activation technology for protein extraction from soybean meal was carried out in the electro-activation reactor. This reactor consists of three compartments separated by cation and anion exchange membranes that allow creating non-contacting acidic and basic solutions. Different current intensities (150 mA, 300 mA and 450 mA) and treatment durations (10 min, 30 min and 50 min) were tested. The results showed that the extracts obtained by the electro-activation method have good quality in comparison to conventional extracts. For instance, extractability obtained with electro-activation method was 55% whereas with the conventional method it was only 36%. Moreover, a maximum protein quantity of 48 % in the extract was obtained with the electro-activation technology comparing to the maximum amount of protein obtained by conventional extraction of 41 %. Hence, the environmentally sustainable electro-activation technology seems to be a promising type of protein extraction that can replace conventional extraction technology.

Keywords: by-products, eco-friendly technology, electro-activation, soybean meal

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