Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: nanomaterial

48 Anti-Microbial Activity of Ag-N Co-Doped ZnS and ZnS-Fe2O3 Composite Nanoparticles

Authors: O. P. Yadav

Abstract:

Ag-N co-doped ZnS and ZnS/Fe2O3 composite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and sol-gel methods. As-synthesized nanomaterial have been characterized by XRD and TEM techniques and their antimicrobial effects were studied using paper disc diffusion technique against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As-synthesized nanomaterial showed potent antimicrobial activity against studied bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanomaterial has also been compared with some commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotic, Escherichia coli, nanomaterial, TEM, Staphylococcus aureus

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47 Synthesis of NiNW/ Cellulose Nano Hybrid via Liquid-Phase Reduction

Authors: Siti Rahmah Shamsuri, Eiichiro Matsubara, Shohei Shiomi

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The 1D nanomaterial is far surpassed the 0D nanomaterial. It does not just offer most of the benefit of the 0D nanomaterial such as the large surface area, a great number of active site and an efficient interfacial charge transfer but also can assemble into free-standing and flexible electrode due to their high aspect ratio. Thus, it is essential to develop a simple and ease synthesis of this 1D nanomaterial for the practical application. Here, nickel nanowire/cellulose hybrid has been successfully fabricated via a simple liquid-phase method with the assist of the magnetic field. A finer nickel nanowire was heterogeneously nucleated on the surface of the cellulose fiber, which demonstrated the effect of the hydroxyl group on the cellulose structure. The result of the nickel nanowire size was found to vary from 66-114 nm. A detailed discussion on the mechanism of the nickel nanowire/ cellulose hybrid formation is also shown in this paper.

Keywords: cellulose nanofiber, liquid-phase reduction, metal nanowire, nano hybrid material

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46 Solubility Measurements in the Context of Nanoregulation

Authors: Ratna Tantra

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From a risk assessment point of view, solubility is a property that has been identified as being important. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then its disposal can be treated much in the same way as ‘ordinary’ chemicals, which subsequently will simplify testing and characterization regimes. The measurement of solubility has been highlighted as important in a pan-European project, Framework Programme (FP) 7 NANoREG. Some of the project outputs surrounding this topic will be presented here, in which there are two parts. First, a review on existing methods capable of measuring nanomaterial solubility will be discussed. Second, a case study will be presented based on using colorimetry methods to quantify dissolve zinc from ZnO nanomaterial upon exposure to digestive juices. The main findings are as follows: a) there is no universal method for nanomaterial solubility testing. The method chosen will be dependent on sample type and nano-specific application/scenario. b) The colorimetry results show a positive correlation between particle concentration and amount of [Zn2+] released; this was expected c) results indicate complete dissolution of the ZnO nanomaterial, as a result of the digestion protocol but only a fraction existing as free ions. Finally, what differentiates the F7 NANoREG project over other projects is the need for participating research laboratories to follow a set of defined protocols, necessary to establish quality control and assurance. The methods and results associated with mandatory testing that carried out by all partners in NANoREG will be discussed.

Keywords: nanomaterials, nanotoxicology, solubility, zinc oxide

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45 FT-IR Investigation of the Influence of Acid-Base Sites on Cr-Incorporated MCM-41 Nanoparticle in C-C Bond Formation

Authors: Dilip K. Paul

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The most popular mesoporous molecular sieves, Mobil Composition of Matter (MCM) are keenly studied by researchers because of these materials possess amorphous silica wall and have a long range of ordered framework with uniform mesopores. These materials also possess large surface area, which can be up to more than 1000 m2g−1. Herein the investigation is focused upon the synthesis and characterization of chromium and aluminum doped MCM-41 using XRD and FTIR. Acid-base properties of Cr-Al-MCM 41 was investigated by molecularly sensitive transmission FT-IR spectroscopy by adsorbing pyridine. In addition, these MCM nanomaterial was used to catalyze C-C bond formation from acetaldehyde adsorption. The assignment of all infrared peaks during adsorption of pyridine provided detail information on the presence of acid-base sites which in turn helped us to explain the roles of these in the condensation reaction of aldehyde. Reaction mechanisms of C-C bond formation is therefore explored to shed some light on this elusive reaction detail.

Keywords: mesoporous nanomaterial, MCM 41, FTIR studies, acid-base studies

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44 Environmental Fate and Toxicity of Aged Titanium Dioxide Nano-Composites Used in Sunscreen

Authors: Danielle Slomberg, Jerome Labille, Riccardo Catalano, Jean-Claude Hubaud, Alexandra Lopes, Alice Tagliati, Teresa Fernandes

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In the assessment and management of cosmetics and personal care products, sunscreens are of emerging concern regarding both human and environmental health. Organic UV blockers in many sunscreens have been evidenced to undergo rapid photodegradation, induce dermal allergic reactions due to skin penetration, and to cause adverse effects on marine systems. While mineral UV-blockers may offer a safer alternative, their fate and impact and resulting regulation are still under consideration, largely related to the potential influence of nanotechnology-based products on both consumers and the environment. Nanometric titanium dioxide (TiO₂) UV-blockers have many advantages in terms of sun protection and asthetics (i.e., transparency). These UV-blockers typically consist of rutile nanoparticles coated with a primary mineral layer (silica or alumina) aimed at blocking the nanomaterial photoactivity and can include a secondary organic coating (e.g., stearic acid, methicone) aimed at favouring dispersion of the nanomaterial in the sunscreen formulation. The nanomaterials contained in the sunscreen can leave the skin either through a bathing of everyday usage, with subsequent release into rivers, lakes, seashores, and/or sewage treatment plants. The nanomaterial behaviour, fate and impact in these different systems is largely determined by its surface properties, (e.g. the nanomaterial coating type) and lifetime. The present work aims to develop the eco-design of sunscreens through the minimisation of risks associated with nanomaterials incorporated into the formulation. All stages of the sunscreen’s life cycle must be considered in this aspect, from its manufacture to its end-of-life, through its use by the consumer to its impact on the exposed environment. Reducing the potential release and/or toxicity of the nanomaterial from the sunscreen is a decisive criterion for its eco-design. TiO₂ UV-blockers of varied size and surface coating (e.g., stearic acid and silica) have been selected for this study. Hydrophobic TiO₂ UV-blockers (i.e., stearic acid-coated) were incorporated into a typical water-in-oil (w/o) formulation while hydrophilic, silica-coated TiO₂ UV-blockers were dispersed into an oil-in-water (o/w) formulation. The resulting sunscreens were characterised in terms of nanomaterial localisation, sun protection factor, and photo-passivation. The risk to the direct aquatic environment was assessed by evaluating the release of nanomaterials from the sunscreen through a simulated laboratory aging procedure. The size distribution, surface charge, and degradation state of the nano-composite by-products, as well as their nanomaterial concentration and colloidal behaviour were determined in a variety of aqueous environments (e.g., seawater and freshwater). Release of the hydrophobic nanocomposites into the aqueous environment was driven by oil droplet formation while hydrophilic nano-composites were readily dispersed. Ecotoxicity of the sunscreen by-products (from both w/o and o/w formulations) and their risk to marine organisms were assessed using coral symbiotes and tropical corals, evaluating both lethal and sublethal toxicities. The data dissemination and provided risk knowledge from the present work will help guide regulation related to nanomaterials in sunscreen, provide better information for consumers, and allow for easier decision-making for manufacturers.

Keywords: alteration, environmental fate, sunscreens, titanium dioxide nanoparticles

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43 Chitosan Modified Halloysite Nanomaterials for Efficient and Effective Vaccine Delivery in Farmed Fish

Authors: Saji George, Eng Khuan Seng, Christof Luda

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Nanotechnology has been recognized as an important tool for modern agriculture and has the potential to overcome some of the pressing challenges faced by aquaculture industry. A strategy for optimizing nanotechnology-based therapeutic delivery platform for immunizing farmed fish was developed. Accordingly, a compositional library of nanomaterials of natural chemistry (Halloysite (clay), Chitosan, Hydroxyapatite, Mesoporous Silica and a composite material of clay-chitosan) was screened for their toxicity and efficiency in delivering models antigens in cellular and zebrafish embryo models using high throughput screening platforms. Through multi-parametric optimization, chitosan modified halloysite (clay) nanomaterial was identified as an optimal vaccine delivery platform. Further, studies conducted in juvenile seabass showed the potential of clay-chitosan in delivering outer membrane protein of Tenacibaculum maritimum- TIMA (pathogenic bacteria) to and its efficiency in eliciting immune responses in fish. In short, as exemplified by this work, the strategy of using compositional nanomaterial libraries and their biological profiling using high-throughput screening platform could fasten the discovery process of nanomaterials with potential applications in food and agriculture.

Keywords: nanotechnology, fish-vaccine, drug-delivery, halloysite-chitosan

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42 Photocatalytic Degradation of Lead from Aqueous Solution Using TiO2 as Adsorbent

Authors: Navven Desai, Veena Soraganvi

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Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury do not have biological significance hence they are known to be extremely toxic heavy metals. Water contains various heavy metals like Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) etc., when it gets polluted with industrial waste water. These heavy metals cause various health effects even at low concentration when consumed by humans. Most of the heavy metals are poisonous to living organisms. Heavy metals are non-degradable and are preserved in the environment through bioaccumulation. Therefore removal of heavy metals from water is necessary. In recent years, a great deal of attentions has been focused on to the application of nanosized metal oxides to treat heavy metals, especially titanium oxides, ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminium oxides and magnesium oxides as adsorbent and photocatalyst. TiO2 based photocatalysts have attracted continuously increasing attention because of the excellent properties such as high light -conversion efficiency, chemical stability, nontoxic nature, low cost. The catalyst displays high photocatalytic activity because of its large surface area. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of Lead (Pb) from aqueous solution was investigated in natural sunlight by using TiO2 as Nanomaterial. This study was performed at laboratory scale. All the experiments were carried out in the batch process. The concentration of lead was constant (25mg/lit) in the experiment and effect of titanium dioxide dose and pH were varied to study the removal efficiency of the lead by adsorption. Further study was performed on the dependence of photocatalytic reaction on the reaction temperature. The aqueous solution was prepared by Lead metal powder. TiO2 photo catalyst nanopowder used was Sisco-74629 grade. The heavy metal is analyzed with VARIAN AA 240 atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The study shows, with increasing TiO2 dose and pH the lead removal increases. According to study, it can be concluded that the utilization of titanium dioxide accounted for higher efficiency in the removal of lead from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, heavy metals, nanomaterial, photocatalysis

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41 Noncovalent Antibody-Nanomaterial Conjugates: A Simple Approach to Produce Targeted Nanomedicines

Authors: Nicholas Fletcher, Zachary Houston, Yongmei Zhao, Christopher Howard, Kristofer Thurecht

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One promising approach to enhance nanomedicine therapeutic efficacy is to include a targeting agent, such as an antibody, to increase accumulation at the tumor site. However, the application of such targeted nanomedicines remains limited, in part due to difficulties involved with biomolecule conjugation to synthetic nanomaterials. One approach recently developed to overcome this has been to engineer bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) with dual specificity, whereby one portion binds to methoxy polyethyleneglycol (mPEG) epitopes present on synthetic nanomedicines, while the other binds to molecular disease markers of interest. In this way, noncovalent complexes of nanomedicine core, comprising a hyperbranched polymer (HBP) of primarily mPEG, decorated with targeting ligands are able to be produced by simple mixing. Further work in this area has now demonstrated such complexes targeting the breast cancer marker epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to show enhanced binding to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed the enhanced accumulation at the tumor site resulted in improved therapeutic outcomes compared to untargeted nanomedicines and free chemotherapeutics. The current work on these BsAb-HBP conjugates focuses on further probing antibody-nanomaterial interactions and demonstrating broad applicability to a range of cancer types. Herein are reported BsAb-HBP materials targeted towards prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and study of their behavior in vivo using ⁸⁹Zr positron emission tomography (PET) in a dual-tumor prostate cancer xenograft model. In this model mice bearing both PSMA+ and PSMA- tumors allow for PET imaging to discriminate between nonspecific and targeted uptake in tumors, and better quantify the increased accumulation following BsAb conjugation. Also examined is the potential for formation of these targeted complexes in situ following injection of individual components? The aim of this approach being to avoid undesirable clearance of proteinaceous complexes upon injection limiting available therapeutic. Ultimately these results demonstrate BsAb functionalized nanomaterials as a powerful and versatile approach for producing targeted nanomedicines for a variety of cancers.

Keywords: bioengineering, cancer, nanomedicine, polymer chemistry

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40 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Doped Zeolite: An Antimicrobial Nanomaterial for Drinking Water Purification Applications

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan, Rabia Nazir, Lubna Tahir

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Low cost filter based on iron doped zeolite (Fe-Z) and pottery clay was developed for an effective and efficient treatment of the drinking water contaminated with microbes. Fe-Z was characterized using powder XRD, SEM and EDX and shown to have average particle size of 49 nm with spongy appearance. The simulated samples of water self-contaminated with six microbes (S. typhi, B. subtilus, E. coli, S. aures, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa) after treatment with Fe-Z indicated effective removal of all the microbes in less than 30 min. Equally good results were obtained when actual drinking water samples, totally unfit for human consumption, were treated with Fe-Z.

Keywords: iron doped zeolite, biological and chemical treatment, drinking water

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39 Microfluidic Continuous Approaches to Produce Magnetic Nanoparticles with Homogeneous Size Distribution

Authors: Ane Larrea, Victor Sebastian, Manuel Arruebo, Jesus Santamaria

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We present a gas-liquid microfluidic system as a reactor to obtain magnetite nanoparticles with an excellent degree of control regarding their crystalline phase, shape and size. Several types of microflow approaches were selected to prevent nanomaterial aggregation and to promote homogenous size distribution. The selected reactor consists of a mixer stage aided by ultrasound waves and a reaction stage using a N2-liquid segmented flow to prevent magnetite oxidation to non-magnetic phases. A milli-fluidic reactor was developed to increase the production rate where a magnetite throughput close to 450 mg/h in a continuous fashion was obtained.

Keywords: continuous production, magnetic nanoparticles, microfluidics, nanomaterials

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38 Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future

Authors: Ayşin Sev, Meltem Ezel

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Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forces for the sustainability of construction industry are explained. Then, the term NT is defined, and significance of innovations in NT for a sustainable construction industry is revealed. After presenting the application areas of NT and nanomaterials for buildings with a number of cases, challenges in the adoption of this technology are put forward, and finally the impacts of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on human health and environment are discussed.

Keywords: nanomaterial, self-healing concrete, self cleaning sensor, nanosensor, steel, wood, aerogel, flexible solar panel

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37 Defect Detection for Nanofibrous Images with Deep Learning-Based Approaches

Authors: Gaokai Liu

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Automatic defect detection for nanomaterial images is widely required in industrial scenarios. Deep learning approaches are considered as the most effective solutions for the great majority of image-based tasks. In this paper, an edge guidance network for defect segmentation is proposed. First, the encoder path with multiple convolution and downsampling operations is applied to the acquisition of shared features. Then two decoder paths both are connected to the last convolution layer of the encoder and supervised by the edge and segmentation labels, respectively, to guide the whole training process. Meanwhile, the edge and encoder outputs from the same stage are concatenated to the segmentation corresponding part to further tune the segmentation result. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via the experiments on open nanofibrous datasets.

Keywords: deep learning, defect detection, image segmentation, nanomaterials

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36 Two-Dimensional WO₃ and TiO₂ Semiconductor Oxides Developed by Atomic Layer Deposition with Controllable Nano-Thickness on Wafer-Scale

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Z. Wei

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Conformal defect-free two-dimensional (2D) WO₃ and TiO₂ semiconductors have been developed by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on wafer scale with unique approach to the thickness control with precision of ± 10% from the monolayer of nanomaterial (less than 1.0 nm thick) to the nano-layered 2D structures with thickness of ~3.0-7.0 nm. Developed 2D nanostructures exhibited unique, distinguishable properties at nanoscale compare to their thicker counterparts. Specifically, 2D TiO₂-Au bilayer demonstrated improved photocatalytic degradation of palmitic acid under UV and visible light illumination. Improved functional capabilities of 2D semiconductors would be advantageous to various environmental, nano-energy and bio-sensing applications. The ALD-enabled approach is proven to be versatile, scalable and applicable to the broader range of 2D semiconductors.

Keywords: two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, ALD, WO₃, TiO₂, wafer scale

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35 Propylene Self-Metathesis to Ethylene and Butene over WOx/SiO2, Effect of Nano-Sized Extra Supports (SiO2 and TiO2)

Authors: Adisak Guntida

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Propylene self-metathesis to ethylene and butene was studied over WOx/SiO2 catalysts at 450 °C and atmospheric pressure. The WOx/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of ammonium metatungstate aqueous solution. It was found that, adding nano-sized extra supports (SiO2 and TiO2) by physical mixing with the WOx/SiO2 enhanced propylene conversion. The UV-Vis and FT-Raman results revealed that WOx could migrate from the original silica support to the extra support, leading to a better dispersion of WOx. The ICP-OES results also indicate that WOx existed on the extra support. Coke formation was investigated on the catalysts after 10 h time-on-stream by TPO. However, adding nano-sized extra supports led to higher coke formation which may be related to acidity as characterized by NH3-TPD.

Keywords: extra support, nanomaterial, propylene self-metathesis, tungsten oxide

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34 Gas Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes: A Review

Authors: Brian Yuliarto, Ni Luh Wulan Septiani

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Carbon nanotubes are one of the carbon nanomaterial that very popular in the field of gas sensors. It has unique properties, large surface area and has hollow structure that makes its potentially used as a gas sensor. Several attempts have been made to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of CNTs by modifying CNTs with a noble metals, metal oxides and polymers. From these studies, there are evidents that modification of CNTs with these materials can improve the sensitivity and selectivity of CNTs against some harmful gases. Decorating carbon nano tubes with metal oxides improve CNTs with the highest sensitivity and increased sensitivity of polymer/CNTs is higher than the metal/CNTs. The used of metal in CNTs aims to accelerate the reaction surface and as channel for electrons path from or to the CNTs. The used of metal oxides on CNTs built a p-n junction that can increase sensitivity. While the addition of polymer can increase the charge carriers density in CNTs.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, gas sensors, modification of CNT, sensitivity

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33 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav

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Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: degradation, nanocomposite, photocatalyst, spectroscopy, XRD

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32 Characterization Techniques for Studying Properties of Nanomaterials

Authors: Nandini Sharma

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Monitoring the characteristics of a nanostructured material comprises measurements of structural, morphological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties of the synthesized nanopowder and different layers and coatings of nanomaterials coated on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) substrates like fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) or Indium doped tin oxide (ITO). This article focuses on structural and optical characterization with emphasis on measurements of the photocatalytic efficiency as a photocatalyst and their interpretation to extract relevant information about various TCOs and materials, their emitter regions, and surface passivation. It also covers a brief description of techniques based on photoluminescence that can portray high resolution pictorial graphs for application as solar energy devices. With the advancement in the scientific techniques, detailed information about the structural, morphological, and optical properties can be investigated, which is further useful for engineering and designing of an efficient device. The common principles involved in the prevalent characterization techniques aid to illustrate the range of options that can be broadened in near future for acurate device characterization and diagnosis.

Keywords: characterization, structural, optical, nanomaterial

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31 Barrier Lowering in Contacts between Graphene and Semiconductor Materials

Authors: Zhipeng Dong, Jing Guo

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Graphene-semiconductor contacts have been extensively studied recently, both as a stand-alone diode device for potential applications in photodetectors and solar cells, and as a building block to vertical transistors. Graphene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, which differs from conventional metal. In this work, image-charge-induced barrier lowering (BL) in graphene-semiconductor contacts is studied and compared to that in metal Schottky contacts. The results show that despite of being a semimetal with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, the image-charge-induced BL is significant. The BL value can be over 50% of that of metal contacts even in an intrinsic graphene contacted to an organic semiconductor, and it increases as the graphene doping increases. The dependences of the BL on the electric field and semiconductor dielectric constant are examined, and an empirical expression for estimating the image-charge-induced BL in graphene-semiconductor contacts is provided.

Keywords: graphene, semiconductor materials, schottky barrier, image charge, contacts

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30 Three-Dimensional State with Doublet Mechanics

Authors: Hilal Koc, Ekrem Tufekci

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In this study, it is aimed to obtain general stress expressions for the examination of mechanical behaviours of planar straight axis nano rods by using doublet mechanics. The superiority of this method, according to other scale-dependent methods, is that it is directly related to the structure of nanomaterial, and it models solid structure with points at finite distances between them. In other words, the value of the small scale effect is known exactly. To the best of authors’ knowledge, after micro modulus matrix is obtained by using Generalized Hooke’s Law and the essential transformation matrix expressing relationships between macro and micro stress and strain matrix, the stress equations that include the effect of axial extension are acquired for the three-dimensional state for the first time in the literature. In plane and out of plane static and dynamic behaviors can be studied using analytical and/or numerical approaches without any restrictions. Since the value of the small scale size parameter is precisely known in the theory used, it is thought that the results to be obtained will be more accurate than other scale size theories.

Keywords: axial extension, doublet mechanics, granular material, three-dimensional state

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29 Detoxification of Hazardous Organic/Inorganic Contaminants in Automobile Shredder Residue by Multi-Functioned Nano-Size Metallic Calcium Composite

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Simion Cristian

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In recent years, environmental nanotechnology has risen to the forefront and the new properties and enhanced reactivates offered by nanomaterial may offer a new, low-cost paradigm to solving complex environmental pollution problems. This study assessed the synthesis and application of multi-functioned nano-size metallic calcium (nMC) composite for detoxification of hazardous inorganic (heavy metals (HMs)/organic chlorinated/brominated compound (CBCs) contaminants in automobile shredder residue (ASR). ASR residues ball milled with nMC composite can achieve about 90-100% of HMs immobilization and CBCs decomposition. The results highlight the low quantity of HMs leached from ASR residues after treatment with nMC, which was found to be lower than the standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The use of nMC composite in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is a simple and innovative approach to remediate hazardous inorganic/organic cross-contaminates in ASR.

Keywords: nano-sized metallic calcium, automobile shredder residue, organic/inorganic contaminants, immobilization, detoxification

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28 Exfoliation of Functionalized High Structural Integrity Graphene Nanoplatelets at Extremely Low Temperature

Authors: Mohannad N. H. Al-Malichi

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Because of its exceptional properties, graphene has become the most promising nanomaterial for the development of a new generation of advanced materials from battery electrodes to structural composites. However, current methods to meet requirements for the mass production of high-quality graphene are limited by harsh oxidation, high temperatures, and tedious processing steps. To extend the scope of the bulk production of graphene, herein, a facile, reproducible and cost-effective approach has been developed. This involved heating a specific mixture of chemical materials at an extremely low temperature (70 C) for a short period (7 minutes) to exfoliate functionalized graphene platelets with high structural integrity. The obtained graphene platelets have an average thickness of 3.86±0.71 nm and a lateral size less than ~2 µm with a low defect intensity ID/IG ~0.06. The thin film (~2 µm thick) exhibited a low surface resistance of ~0.63 Ω/sq⁻¹, confirming its high electrical conductivity. Additionally, these nanoplatelets were decorated with polar functional groups (epoxy and carboxyl groups), thus have the potential to toughen and provide multifunctional polymer nanocomposites. Moreover, such a simple method can be further exploited for the novel exfoliation of other layered two-dimensional materials such as MXenes.

Keywords: functionalized graphene nanoplatelets, high structural integrity graphene, low temperature exfoliation of graphene, functional graphene platelets

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27 Posttranslational Modifications of Histone H3 in Tumor Tissue Isolated from Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Treated Mice

Authors: Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak, Barbara Sochanowicz, Magdalena Matysiak-Kucharek, Magdalena Czajka, Krzysztof Sawicki, Marcin Kruszewski

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Due to the strong antimicrobial activity silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in various medical and general applications, among others, in cosmetics, odour resistant textiles, etc. The aim of this study was to compare effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on histones posttranslational modifications. Histone molecule posttranscriptional modifications are responsible for chromatin compaction and repackaging. In this study, BALB/c mice were inoculated with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. Thereafter the histone H3 acetylation on Lys9 and H3 methylation on Lys4, Lys9, Lys29 was investigated. All NPs tested decreased H3 methylation, while no effect was observed for H3 acetylation. Modification of histone H3 methylation dependent on type of NPs used its coating, site of methylation and treatment used. Conclusion, epigenetic effects of nanomaterials depend on nanomaterial composition, its coating, and way of application. This work was supported by National Science Centre grant No. 2014/15/B/NZ7/01036 (MK, LKS, MMK, MC, KS), statutory funding for INTC (BS).

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, histone, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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26 Interfacial Investigation and Chemical Bonding in Graphene Reinforced Alumina Ceramic Nanocomposites

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Mohammad Islam

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Thermally exfoliated graphene nanomaterial was reinforced into Al2O3 ceramic and the nanocomposites were consolidated using rapid high-frequency induction heat sintering route. The resulting nanocomposites demonstrated higher mechanical properties due to efficient GNS incorporation and chemical interaction with the Al2O3 matrix grains. The enhancement in mechanical properties is attributed to (i) uniformly-dispersed GNS in the consolidated structure (ii) ability of GNS to decorate Al2O3 nanoparticles and (iii) strong GNS/Al2O3 chemical interaction during colloidal mixing and pullout/crack bridging toughening mechanisms during mechanical testing. The GNS/Al2O3 interaction during different processing stages was thoroughly examined by thermal and structural investigation of the interfacial area. The formation of an intermediate aluminum oxycarbide phase (Al2OC) via a confined carbothermal reduction reaction at the GNS/Al2O3 interface was observed using advanced electron microscopes. The GNS surface roughness improves GNS/Al2O3 mechanical locking and chemical compatibility. The sturdy interface phase facilitates efficient load transfer and delayed failure through impediment of crack propagation. The resulting nanocomposites, therefore, offer superior toughness.

Keywords: ceramics, nanocomposites, interfaces, nanostructures, electron microscopy, Al2O3

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25 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Wastewater Using Magnetically Recoverable Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed K. Sharaby, Ahmed S. El-Gendy

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Phenolic compounds (PCs) exist in the wastewater effluents of some industries such as oil refinery, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. Phenolic compounds are extremely hazardous pollutants that can cause severe problems to the aquatic life and human beings if disposed of without treatment. One of the most efficient treatment methods of PCs is photocatalytic degradation. The current work studies the performance of composite nanomaterial of titanium dioxide with magnetite as a photo-catalyst in the degradation of PCs. The current work aims at optimizing the synthesized photocatalyst dosage and contact time as part of the operational parameters at different initial concentrations of PCs and pH values in the wastewater. The study was performed in a lab-scale batch reactor under fixed conditions of light intensity and aeration rate. The initial concentrations of PCs and the pH values were in the range of (10-200 mg/l) and (3-9), respectively. Results of the study indicate that the dosage of the catalyst and contact time for total mineralization is proportional to the initial concentrations of PCs, while the optimum pH conditions for highly efficient degradation is at pH 3. Exceeding the concentration levels of the catalyst beyond certain limits leads to the decrease in the degradation efficiency due to the dissipation of light. The performance of the catalyst for degradation was also investigated in comparison to the pure TiO2 Degussa (P-25). The dosage required for the synthesized catalyst for photocatalytic degradation was approximately 1.5 times that needed from the pure titania.

Keywords: industrial, optimization, phenolic compounds, photocatalysis, wastewater

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24 The Comparation of Limits of Detection of Lateral Flow Immunochromatographic Strips of Different Types of Mycotoxins

Authors: Xinyi Zhao, Furong Tian

Abstract:

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolic products of fungi. These are poisonous, carcinogens and mutagens in nature and pose a serious health threat to both humans and animals, causing severe illnesses and even deaths. The rapid, simple and cheap detection methods of mycotoxins are of immense importance and in great demand in the food and beverage industry as well as in agriculture and environmental monitoring. Lateral flow immunochromatographic strips (ICSTs) have been widely used in food safety, environment monitoring. Forty-six papers were identified and reviewed on Google Scholar and Scopus for their limit of detection and nanomaterial on Lateral flow immunochromatographic strips on different types of mycotoxins. The papers were dated 2001-2021. Twenty five papers were compared to identify the lowest limit of detection of among different mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1: 10, Zearalenone:5, Fumonisin B1: 5, Trichothecene-A: 5). Most of these highly sensitive strips are competitive. Sandwich structure are usually used in large scale detection. In conclusion, the mycotoxin receives that most researches is aflatoxin B1 and its limit of detection is the lowest. Gold-nanopaticle based immunochromatographic test strips has the lowest limit of detection. Five papers involve smartphone detection and they all detect aflatoxin B1 with gold nanoparticles. In these papers, quantitative concentration results can be obtained when the user uploads the photograph of test lines using the smartphone application.

Keywords: aflatoxin B1, limit of detection, gold nanoparticle, lateral flow immunochromatographic strips, mycotoxins

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23 Electrical Properties of Cement-Based Piezoelectric Nanoparticles

Authors: Moustafa Shawkey, Ahmed G. El-Deen, H. M. Mahmoud, M. M. Rashad

Abstract:

Piezoelectric based cement nanocomposite is a promising technology for generating an electric charge upon mechanical stress of concrete structure. Moreover, piezoelectric nanomaterials play a vital role for providing accurate system of structural health monitoring (SHM) of the concrete structure. In light of increasing awareness of environmental protection and energy crises, generating renewable and green energy form cement based on piezoelectric nanomaterials attracts the attention of the researchers. Herein, we introduce a facial synthesis for bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BiFeO3 NPs) as piezoelectric nanomaterial via sol gel strategy. The fabricated piezoelectric nanoparticles are uniformly distributed to cement-based nanomaterials with different ratios. The morphological shape was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) as well as the crystal structure has been confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ferroelectric and magnetic behaviours of BiFeO3 NPs have been investigated. Then, dielectric constant for the prepared cement samples nanocomposites (εr) is calculated. Intercalating BiFeO3 NPs into cement materials achieved remarkable results as piezoelectric cement materials, distinct enhancement in ferroelectric and magnetic properties. Overall, this present study introduces an effective approach to improve the electrical properties based cement applications.

Keywords: piezoelectric nanomaterials, cement technology, bismuth ferrite nanoparticles, dielectric

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22 Hybrid Graphene Based Nanomaterial as Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Electrochemical Determination of Ciprofloxacin

Authors: Tien S. H. Pham, Peter J. Mahon, Aimin Yu

Abstract:

The detection of drug molecules by voltammetry has attracted great interest over the past years. However, many drug molecules exhibit poor electrochemical signals at common electrodes which result in low sensitivity in detection. An efficient way to overcome this problem is to modify electrodes with functional materials. Since discovered in 2004, graphene (or reduced graphene oxide) has emerged as one of the most studied two-dimensional carbon materials in condensed matter physics, electrochemistry, and so on due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. Additionally, the continuous development of technology has opened the new window for the successful fabrications of many novel graphene-based nanomaterials to serve in electrochemical analysis. This research aims to synthesize and characterize gold nanoparticle coated beta-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au NP–β-CD–RGO) nanocomposites with highly conductive and strongly electro-catalytic properties as well as excellent supramolecular recognition abilities for the modification of electrodes. The electrochemical responses of ciprofloxacin at the as-prepared nanocomposite modified electrode was effectively amplified was much higher in comparison with that at the bare electrode. The linear concentration range was from 0.01 to 120 µM, with a detection limit of 2.7 nM using differential pulse voltammetry. Thus, Au NP–β-CD–RGO nanocomposite has great potential as an ideal material to construct sensitive sensors for the electrochemical determination of ciprofloxacin or similar antibacterial drugs in the future based on its excellent stability, selectivity, and reproducibility.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, β-CD, ciprofloxacin, electrochemical determination, graphene based nanomaterials

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21 Synthesis of Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xS Nanocomposites and Their Application to the Photodegradation of Methylene Blue

Authors: H. Boukhatem, L. Djouadi, H. Khalaf, R. M. Navarro, F. V. Ganzalez

Abstract:

Synthetic organic dyes are used in various industries, such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, hair dye production, etc. Wastewaters containing these dyes may be harmful to the environment and living organisms. Therefore, it is very important to remove or degrade these dyes before discharging them into the environment. In addition to standard technologies for the degradation and/or removal of dyes, several new specific technologies, the so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have been developed to eliminate dangerous compounds from polluted waters. AOPs are all characterized by the same chemical feature: production of radicals (•OH) through a multistep process, although different reaction systems are used. These radicals show little selectivity of attack and are able to oxidize various organic pollutants due to their high oxidative capacity (reduction potential of HO• Eo = 2.8 V). Heterogeneous photocatalysis, as one of the AOPs, could be effective in the oxidation/degradation of organic dyes. A major advantage of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for this purpose is the total mineralization of organic dyes, which results in CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids. In this study, nanomaterials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) were utilized for the degradation of the commercial cationic textile dye Methylene blue (MB), used as a model pollutant. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). Test results of photocatalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nanomaterials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increases with the increasing of Cu concentration. The kinetics of the degradation of the MB dye was described with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photocatalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nanomaterial

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20 Magnetic Cellulase/Halloysite Nanotubes as Biocatalytic System for Converting Agro-Waste into Value-Added Product

Authors: Devendra Sillu, Shekhar Agnihotri

Abstract:

The 'nano-biocatalyst' utilizes an ordered assembling of enzyme on to nanomaterial carriers to catalyze desirable biochemical kinetics and substrate selectivity. The current study describes an inter-disciplinary approach for converting agriculture waste, sugarcane bagasse into D-glucose exploiting halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) decorated cellulase enzyme as nano-biocatalytic system. Cellulase was successfully immobilized on HNTs employing polydopamine as an eco-friendly crosslinker while iron oxide nanoparticles were attached to facilitate magnetic recovery of material. The characterization studies (UV-Vis, TEM, SEM, and XRD) displayed the characteristic features of both cellulase and magnetic HNTs in the resulting nanocomposite. Various factors (i.e., working pH, temp., crosslinker conc., enzyme conc.) which may influence the activity of biocatalytic system were investigated. The experimental design was performed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for process optimization. Analyses data demonstrated that the nanobiocatalysts retained 80.30% activity even at elevated temperature (55°C) and excellent storage stabilities after 10 days. The repeated usage of system revealed a remarkable consistent relative activity over several cycles. The immobilized cellulase was employed to decompose agro-waste and the maximum decomposition rate of 67.2 % was achieved. Conclusively, magnetic HNTs can serve as a potential support for enzyme immobilization with long term usage, good efficacy, reusability and easy recovery from solution.

Keywords: halloysite nanotubes, enzyme immobilization, cellulase, response surface methodology, magnetic recovery

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19 White Light Emitting Carbon Dots- Surface Modification of Carbon Dots Using Auxochromes

Authors: Manasa Perikala, Asha Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs), a young member of Carbon nanomaterial family, has gained a lot of research attention across the globe due to its highly luminescent emission properties, non-toxic behavior, stable emission properties, and zero re-absorption lose. These dots have the potential to replace the use of traditional semiconductor quantum dots in light-emitting devices (LED’s, fiber lasers) and other photonic devices (temperature sensor, UV detector). However, One major drawback of Carbon dots is that, till date, the actual mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) in carbon dots is still an open topic of discussion among various researchers across the globe. PL mechanism of CDs based on wide particle size distribution, the effect of surface groups, hybridization in carbon, and charge transfer mechanisms have been proposed. Although these mechanisms explain PL of CDs to an extent, no universally accepted mechanism to explain complete PL behavior of these dots is put forth. In our work, we report parameters affecting the size and surface of CDs, such as time of the reaction, synthesis temperature and concentration of precursors and their effects on the optical properties of the carbon dots. The effect of auxochromes on the emission properties and re-modification of carbon surface using an external surface functionalizing agent is discussed in detail. All the explanations have been supported by UV-Visible absorption, emission spectroscopies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. Once the origin of PL in CDs is understood, parameters affecting PL centers can be modified to tailor the optical properties of these dots, which can enhance their applications in the fabrication of LED’s and other photonic devices out of these carbon dots.

Keywords: carbon dots, photoluminescence, size effects on emission in CDs, surface modification of carbon dots

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