Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: heterostructure

25 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen

Abstract:

This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: graphene, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction, solar cells

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24 Photo-Induced Reversible Surface Wettability Analysis of GLAD Synthesized In2O3/TiO2 Heterostructure Nanocolumn

Authors: Pheiroijam Pooja, P. Chinnamuthu

Abstract:

A novel vertical 1D In2O3/TiO2 nanocolumn (NC) axial heterostructure has been successfully synthesized using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique inside E-Beam Evaporator chamber. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) has been used to evaluate the morphology of the structure grown. The estimated length of In2O3/TiO2 NC is ~250 nm and ~300nm for In2O3 and TiO2 respectively with diameter ~60-90 nm. The surface of the heterostructure is porous in nature which can affect the interfacial wettability properties. The grown structure has been further characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible absorption measurement. The polycrystalline nature of the sample has been examined using XRD with prominent peaks obtained with phase (101) for anatase TiO2 and (211) for In2O3. Here, 1D axial heterostructure NC thus favors efficient segregation of photo-excited carriers due to their type II band alignment between the constituent materials. Moreover, the 1D nanostructure is known for their large surface area and excellent ionic charge transport property. On exposure to UV light illumination, the surface properties of In2O3/TiO2 NC changes whereby the hydrophobic nature of the heterostructure changes to hydrophilic. As a result, the reversible surface wettability of heterostructure on interaction with UV light can give potential applications as antifogging and self-cleaning surfaces.

Keywords: GLAD, heterostructure, In2O3/TiO2 NC, surface wettability

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23 Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure Interconnects

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Yang Xu, Bin Yu

Abstract:

The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h- BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h- BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure, interconnects

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22 Half-Metallicity in a BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 Superlattice: A First-Principles Study

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Ulrich Eckern, Udo Schwingenschlogl

Abstract:

We present first principles results for the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of the BiFeO3 /La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 heterostructure as obtained by spin polarized calculations using density functional theory. The electronic states of the heterostructure are compared to those of the bulk compounds. Structural relaxation turns out to have only a minor impact on the chemical bonding, even though the oxygen octahedra in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 develop some distortions due to the interface strain. While a small charge transfer affects the heterointerfaces, our results demonstrate that the half-metallic character of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 is fully maintained.

Keywords: BiFeO3, La2/3Sr1/3MnO3, superlattice, half-metallicity

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21 Effect of Built in Polarization on Thermal Properties of InGaN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

An important feature of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures is strong built-in polarization (BIP) electric field at the hetero-interface due to spontaneous (sp) and piezoelectric (pz) polarizations. The intensity of this electric field reaches several MV/cm. This field has profound impact on optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, the effect of BIP field on thermal conductivity of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure has been investigated theoretically. The interaction between the elastic strain and built in electric field induces additional electric polarization. This additional polarization contributes to the elastic constant of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. This in turn modifies material parameters of InₓGa₁-ₓN. The BIP mechanism enhances elastic constant, phonon velocity and Debye temperature and their bowing constants in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. These enhanced thermal parameters increase phonon mean free path which boost thermal conduction process. The thermal conductivity (k) of InxGa1-xN alloy has been estimated for x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9. Computation finds that irrespective of In content, the room temperature k of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure is enhanced by BIP mechanism. Our analysis shows that at a certain temperature both k with and without BIP show crossover. Below this temperature k with BIP field is lower than k without BIP; however, above this temperature k with BIP field is significantly contributed by BIP mechanism leading to k with BIP field become higher than k without BIP field. The crossover temperature is primary pyroelectric transition temperature. The pyroelectric transition temperature of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy has been predicted for different x. This signature of pyroelectric nature suggests that thermal conductivity can reveal pyroelectricity in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. The composition dependent room temperature k for x=0.1 and 0.3 are in line with prior experimental studies. The result can be used to minimize the self-heating effect in InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures.

Keywords: built-in polarization, phonon relaxation time, thermal properties of InₓGa₁-ₓN /GaN heterostructure, self-heating

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20 Pyroelectric Effect on Thermoelectricity of AlInN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: B. K. Sahoo

Abstract:

Superior thermoelectric (TE) efficiency of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN /GaN heterostructure (HS) requires a minimum value of thermal conductivity (k). A smaller k would lead to even further increase of TE figure of merit (ZT). The built-in polarization (BIP) electric field of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN /GaN HS enhances S, and σ of the HS, however, the effect of BIP field on k of the HS has not been explored. Study of thermal conductivities (k: without BIP and kp: including BIP) vs temperature predicts pyroelectric behavior of HS. Both k and kp show crossover at a temperature Tp. The result shows that below Tp, kp < k due to negative thermal expansion coefficient (TEC). However, above Tp, kp > k. Above Tp, piezoelectric polarization dominates over spontaneous polarization due to positive TEC. This generates more lattice mismatch resulting in the significant contribution of BIP field to thermal conductivity. Thus, Tp can be considered as primary pyroelectric transition temperature of the material as above Tp thermal expansion takes place which is the reason for the secondary pyroelectric effect. It is found that below Tp, kp is decreased; thus enhancing TE efficiency. For x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; Tp are close to 200, 210 and 260 K, respectively. Thus, k of the HS can be modified as per requirement by tailoring the Al composition; making it suitable simultaneously for the design of high-temperature pyroelectric sensors and TE module for maximum power production.

Keywords: AlₓIn₁₋ₓN/GaN heterostructure, built in polarization, pyroelectric behavior, thermoelectric efficiency

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19 Two-Dimensional Nanostack Based On Chip Wiring

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Bin Yu

Abstract:

The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h-BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure, interconnects

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18 Characteristics of GaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP Npn Heterostructural Optoelectronic Switches

Authors: Der-Feng Guo

Abstract:

Optoelectronic switches have attracted a considerable attention in the semiconductor research field due to their potential applications in optical computing systems and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs). With high gains and high-speed operations, npn heterostructures can be used to produce promising optoelectronic switches. It is known that the bulk barrier and heterostructure-induced potential spike act important roles in the characteristics of the npn heterostructures. To investigate the effects of bulk barrier and potential spike heights on the optoelectronic switching of the npn heterostructures, GaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP npn heterostructural optoelectronic switches (HSOSs) have been fabricated in this work. It is seen that the illumination decreases the switching voltage Vs and increases the switching current Is, and thus the OFF state is under dark and ON state under illumination in the optical switching of the GaAs/InGaP HSOS characteristics. But in the AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP HSOS characteristics, the Vs and Is present contrary trends, and the OFF state is under illumination and ON state under dark. The studied HSOSs show quite different switching variations with incident light, which are mainly attributed to the bulk barrier and potential spike heights affected by photogenerated carriers.

Keywords: bulk barrier, heterostructure, optoelectronic switch, potential spike

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17 Electrical Transport in Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅ /α-RuCl₃ Heterostructure Nanodevices

Authors: Shoubhik Mandal, Debarghya Mallick, Abhishek Banerjee, R. Ganesan, P. S. Anil Kumar

Abstract:

We report magnetotransport measurements in Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅/RuCl₃ heterostructure nanodevices. Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅ (BSTS) is a strong three-dimensional topological insulator (3D-TI) that hosts conducting topological surface states (TSS) enclosing an insulating bulk. α-RuCl₃ (namely, RuCl₃) is an anti-ferromagnet that is predicted to behave as a Kitaev-like quantum spin liquid carrying Majorana excitations. Temperature (T)-dependent resistivity measurements show the interplay between parallel bulk and surface transport channels. At T < 150 K, surface state transport dominates over bulk transport. Multi-channel weak anti-localization (WAL) is observed, as a sharp cusp in the magnetoconductivity, indicating strong spin-orbit coupling. The presence of top and bottom topological surface states (TSS), including a pair of electrically coupled Rashba surface states (RSS), are indicated. Non-linear Hall effect, explained by a two-band model, further supports this interpretation. Finally, a low-T logarithmic resistance upturn is analyzed using the Lu-Shen model, supporting the presence of gapless surface states with a π Berry phase.

Keywords: topological materials, electrical transport, Lu-Shen model, quantum spin liquid

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16 Suspended Nickel Oxide Nano-Beam and Its Heterostructure Device for Gas Sensing

Authors: Kusuma Urs M. B., Navakant Bhat, Vinayak B. Kamble

Abstract:

Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are known to be excellent candidates for solid-state gas sensor devices. However, in spite of high sensitivities, their high operating temperatures and lack of selectivity is a big concern limiting their practical applications. A lot of research has been devoted so far to enhance their sensitivity and selectivity, often empirically. Some of the promising routes to achieve the same are reducing dimensionality and formation of heterostructures. These heterostructures offer improved sensitivity, selectivity even at relatively low operating temperatures compared to bare metal oxides. Thus, a combination of n-type and p-type metal oxides leads to the formation of p-n junction at the interface resulting in the diffusion of the carriers across the barrier along with the surface adsorption. In order to achieve this and to study their sensing mechanism, we have designed and lithographically fabricated a suspended nanobeam of NiO, which is a p-type semiconductor. The response of the same has been studied for various gases and is found to exhibit selective response towards hydrogen gas at room temperature. Further, the same has been radially coated with TiO₂ shell of varying thicknesses, in order to study the effect of radial p-n junction thus formed. Subsequently, efforts have been made to study the effect of shell thickness on the space charge region and to shed some light on the basic mechanism involved in gas sensing of MOS sensors.

Keywords: gas sensing, heterostructure, metal oxide semiconductor, space charge region

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15 In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design

Authors: C. S Lee, W. C. Hsu, H. Y. Liu, C. J. Lin, S. C. Yao, Y. T. Shen, Y. C. Lin

Abstract:

In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.

Keywords: backside metal-trench, InAlN/AlN/GaN, MOS-HFET, non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition

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14 Formation of ZnS/ZnO Heterojunction for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Using Partial Oxidation and Chemical Precipitation Synthesis Methods

Authors: Saba Didarataee, Abbas Ali Khodadadi, Yadollah Mortazavi, Fatemeh Mousavi

Abstract:

Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most attractive alternative methods for hydrogen evolution. A variety of nanoparticle engineering techniques were introduced to improve the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Among these methods, heterojunction formation is an appealing method due to its ability to effectively preventing electron-hole recombination and improving photocatalytic activity. Reaching an optimal ratio of the two target semiconductors for the formation of heterojunctions is still an open question. Considering environmental issues as well as the cost and availability, ZnS and ZnO are frequently studied as potential choices. In this study, first, the ZnS nanoparticle was synthesized in a hydrothermal process; the formation of ZnS nanorods with a diameter of 14-30 nm was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Then two different methods, partial oxidation and chemical precipitation were employed to construct ZnS/ZnO core-shell heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis were carried out to determine crystallite phase, surface area, and bandgap of photocatalysts. Furthermore, the temperature of oxidation was specified by a temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and was fixed at 510℃, at which mild oxidation occurred. The bandgap was calculated by the Kubelka-Munk method and decreased by increasing oxide content from 3.53 (pure ZnS) to 3.18 (pure ZnO). The optimal samples were determined by testing the photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution in a quartz photoreactor with side irradiation of UVC lamps with a wavelength of 254 nm. In both procedures, it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnS/ZnO composite was sensibly higher than the pure ZnS and ZnO, which is attributed to forming a type-II heterostructure. The best ratio of oxide to sulfide was 0.24 and 0.37 in partial oxidation and chemical precipitation, respectively. The highest hydrogen evolution was 1081 µmol/gr.h, gained from partial oxidizing of ZnS nanoparticles at 510℃ for 30 minutes.

Keywords: heterostructure, hydrogen, partial oxidation, photocatalyst, water splitting, ZnS

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13 Trions in Semiconductor Quantum Dot System

Authors: Jayden Leonard, Nguyen Que Huong

Abstract:

In this work, we study the Trion state in a spherical quantum dot of a direct band gap semiconductor with a shell of organic material. The electronic structure of the Trion due to degenerate valence band will be considered. The coupling between the wannier exciton inside the dot and the Frenkel exciton in the shell will make the Trion state become hybrid. The competition between “semiconductor” and “organic” phases of the Trion and the transitions between them depend on Parameters of the system such as the materials, the size of the dot and the thickness of the shell, etc… and could be manipulated using those parameters.

Keywords: trion, exciton, quantum dot, heterostructure

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12 Thermal Effect in Power Electrical for HEMTs Devices with InAlN/GaN

Authors: Zakarya Kourdi, Mohammed Khaouani, Benyounes Bouazza, Ahlam Guen-Bouazza, Amine Boursali

Abstract:

In this paper, we have evaluated the thermal effect for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) heterostructure InAlN/GaN with a gate length 30nm high-performance. It also shows the analysis and simulated these devices, and how can be used in different application. The simulator Tcad-Silvaco software has used for predictive results good for the DC, AC and RF characteristic, Devices offered max drain current 0.67A; transconductance is 720 mS/mm the unilateral power gain of 180 dB. A cutoff frequency of 385 GHz, and max frequency 810 GHz These results confirm the feasibility of using HEMTs with InAlN/GaN in high power amplifiers, as well as thermal places.

Keywords: HEMT, Thermal Effect, Silvaco, InAlN/GaN

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11 Fabrication of InGaAs P-I-N Micro-Photodiode Sensor Array

Authors: Jyun-Hao Liao, Chien-Ju Chen, Chia-Jui Yu, Meng Chyi Wu, Chia-Ching Wu

Abstract:

In this letter, we reported the fabrication of InGaAs micro-photodiode sensor array with the rapid thermal diffusion (RTD) technique. The spin-on dopant source Zn was used to form the p-type region in InP layer. Through the RTD technique, the InP/InGaAs heterostructure was formed. We improved our fabrication on the p-i-n photodiode to micro size which pixel is 7.8um, and the pitch is 12.8um. The proper SiNx was deposited to form the passivation layer. The leakage current of single pixel decrease to 3.3pA at -5V, and 35fA at -10mV. The leakage current densities of each voltage are 21uA/cm² at -5V and 0.223uA/cm² at -10mV. As we focus on the wavelength from 0.9um to 1.7um, the optimized Si/Al₂O₃ bilayers are deposited to form the AR-coating.

Keywords: InGaAs, micro sensor array, p-i-n photodiode, rapid thermal diffusion, Zn diffusion

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10 Unique NiO Based 1 D Core/Shell Nano-Heterostructure Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitor

Authors: Gobinda Gopal Khan, Ashutosh K. Singh, Debasish Sarkar

Abstract:

Unique one-dimensional (1D) Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures are fabricated by combining the electrochemical deposition and annealing. The high-performance pseudo-capacitor electrode based on the Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures is designed and demonstrated. The Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures exhibit high specific capacitance (2013 Fg-1 at 2.5 Ag-1), high energy and power density (23 Wh kg-1 and 5.5 kW kg-1, at the discharge current density of 20.8 A g-1.), good capacitance retention, and long cyclicality. The remarkable electrochemical property of the large surface area nano-heterostructures is demonstrated based on the novel nano-architectural design of the electrode with the coexistence of the two highly redox active materials at the surface supported by highly conducting metal alloy channel at the core for faster charge transport.

Keywords: nano-heterostructures, energy storage, supercapacitors, electrochemical deposition

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9 Etude 3D Quantum Numerical Simulation of Performance in the HEMT

Authors: A. Boursali, A. Guen-Bouazza

Abstract:

We present a simulation of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structure with and without a field plate. We extract the device characteristics through the analysis of DC, AC and high frequency regimes, as shown in this paper. This work demonstrates the optimal device with a gate length of 15 nm, InAlN/GaN heterostructure and field plate structure, making it superior to modern HEMTs when compared with otherwise equivalent devices. This improves the ability to bear the burden of the current density passes in the channel. We have demonstrated an excellent current density, as high as 2.05 A/m, a peak extrinsic transconductance of 0.59S/m at VDS=2 V, and cutting frequency cutoffs of 638 GHz in the first HEMT and 463 GHz for Field plate HEMT., maximum frequency of 1.7 THz, maximum efficiency of 73%, maximum breakdown voltage of 400 V, leakage current density IFuite=1 x 10-26 A, DIBL=33.52 mV/V and an ON/OFF current density ratio higher than 1 x 1010. These values were determined through the simulation by deriving genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms that optimize the design and the future of this technology.

Keywords: HEMT, silvaco, field plate, genetic algorithm, quantum

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8 3D Quantum Simulation of a HEMT Device Performance

Authors: Z. Kourdi, B. Bouazza, M. Khaouani, A. Guen-Bouazza, Z. Djennati, A. Boursali

Abstract:

We present a simulation of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structure with and without a field plate. We extract the device characteristics through the analysis of DC, AC and high frequency regimes, as shown in this paper. This work demonstrates the optimal device with a gate length of 15 nm, InAlN/GaN heterostructure and field plate structure, making it superior to modern HEMTs when compared with otherwise equivalent devices. This improves the ability to bear the burden of the current density passes in the channel. We have demonstrated an excellent current density, as high as 2.05 A/mm, a peak extrinsic transconductance of 590 mS/mm at VDS=2 V, and cutting frequency cutoffs of 638 GHz in the first HEMT and 463 GHz for Field plate HEMT., maximum frequency of 1.7 THz, maximum efficiency of 73%, maximum breakdown voltage of 400 V, DIBL=33.52 mV/V and an ON/OFF current density ratio higher than 1 x 1010. These values were determined through the simulation by deriving genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms that optimize the design and the future of this technology.

Keywords: HEMT, Silvaco, field plate, genetic algorithm, quantum

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7 Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots

Authors: H. Paredes Gutiérrez, S. T. Pérez-Merchancano

Abstract:

Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.

Keywords: quantum semiconductors, nanostructures, quantum dots, spin polarization

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6 Fabrication of High-Power AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode with Field Plate Design

Authors: Chia-Jui Yu, Chien-Ju Chen, Jyun-Hao Liao, Chia-Ching Wu, Meng-Chyi Wu

Abstract:

In this letter, we demonstrate high-performance AlGaN/GaN planar Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the silicon substrate with field plate structure for increasing breakdown voltage VB. A low turn-on resistance RON (3.55 mΩ-cm2), low reverse leakage current (< 0.1 µA) at -100 V, and high reverse breakdown voltage VB (> 1.1 kV) SBD has been fabricated. A virgin SBD exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 615 V, and with the field plate technology device exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 1525 V (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 40 µm). Devices without the field plate design exhibit a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 60.2 MW/cm2, whereas devices with the field plate design show a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 340.9 MW/cm2 (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 20 µm).

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, silicon substrate, Schottky barrier diode (SBD), high breakdown voltage, Baliga’s figure-of-merit, field plate

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5 Design and Modelling of Ge/GaAs Hetero-structure Bipolar Transistor

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal N. Asthana

Abstract:

The presented heterostructure n-p-n bipolar transistor is comprised of Ge/GaAs heterojunctions consisting of 0.15µm thick emitter and 0.65µm collector junctions. High diffusivity of carriers in GaAs base was major motivation of current design. We avoided grading of the base which is common in heterojunction bipolar transistors, in order to keep the electron diffusivity as high as possible. The electrons injected into the 0.25µm thick p-type GaAs base with not very high doping (1017cm-3). The designed HBT enables cut off frequency on the order of 150GHz. The Ge/GaAs heterojunctions presented in our paper have proved to work better than comparable HBTs having GaAs bases and emitter/collector junctions made, for example, of AlGaAs/GaAs or other III-V compound semiconductors. The difference in lattice constants between Ge and GaAs is less than 2%. Therefore, there is no need of transition layers between Ge emitter and GaAs base. Significant difference in energy gap of these two materials presents new scope for improving performance of the emitter. With the complete structure being modelled and simulated using TCAD SILVACO, the collector/ emitter offset voltage of the device has been limited to a reasonable value of 63 millivolts by the dint of low energy band gap value associated with Ge emitter. The efficiency of the emitter in our HBT is 86%. Use of Germanium in the emitter and collector regions presents new opportunities for integration of this vertical device structure into silicon substrate.

Keywords: Germanium, Gallium Arsenide, heterojunction bipolar transistor, high cut-off frequency

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4 Infrared Photodetectors Based on Nanowire Arrays: Towards Far Infrared Region

Authors: Mohammad Karimi, Magnus Heurlin, Lars Samuelson, Magnus Borgstrom, Hakan Pettersson

Abstract:

Nanowire semiconductors are promising candidates for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and lasers due to their quasi-1D geometry and large surface to volume ratio. The functional wavelength range of NW-based detectors is typically limited to the visible/near-infrared region. In this work, we present electrical and optical properties of IR photodetectors based on large square millimeter ensembles (>1million) of vertically processed semiconductor heterostructure nanowires (NWs) grown on InP substrates which operate in longer wavelengths. InP NWs comprising single or multiple (20) InAs/InAsP QDics axially embedded in an n-i-n geometry, have been grown on InP substrates using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The NWs are contacted in vertical direction by atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposition of 50 nm SiO2 as an insulating layer followed by sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) and evaporation of Ti and Au as top contact layer. In order to extend the sensitivity range to the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength regions, the intersubband transition within conduction band of InAsP QDisc is suggested. We present first experimental indications of intersubband photocurrent in NW geometry and discuss important design parameters for realization of intersubband detectors. Key advantages with the proposed design include large degree of freedom in choice of materials compositions, possible enhanced optical resonance effects due to periodically ordered NW arrays and the compatibility with silicon substrates. We believe that the proposed detector design offers the route towards monolithic integration of compact and sensitive III-V NW long wavelength detectors with Si technology.

Keywords: intersubband photodetector, infrared, nanowire, quantum disc

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3 Two-Dimensional Material-Based Negative Differential Resistance Device with High Peak-to- Valley Current Ratio for Multi-Valued Logic Circuits

Authors: Kwan-Ho Kim, Jin-Hong Park

Abstract:

The multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits, which can handle more than two logic states, are one of the promising solutions to overcome the bit density limitations of conventional binary logic systems. Recently, tunneling devices such as Esaki diode and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) have been extensively explored to construct the MVL circuits. These tunneling devices present a negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon in which a current decreases as a voltage increases in a specific applied voltage region. Due to this non-monotonic current behavior, the tunneling devices have more than two threshold voltages, consequently enabling construction of MVL circuits. Recently, the emergence of two dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) crystals has opened up the possibility to fabricate such tunneling devices easily. Owing to the defect-free surface of the 2D crystals, a very abrupt junction interface could be formed through a simple stacking process, which subsequently allowed the implementation of a high-performance tunneling device. Here, we report a vdW heterostructure based tunneling device with multiple threshold voltages, which was fabricated with black phosphorus (BP) and hafnium diselenide (HfSe₂). First, we exfoliated BP on the SiO₂ substrate and then transferred HfSe₂ on BP using dry transfer method. The BP and HfSe₂ form type-Ⅲ heterojunction so that the highly doped n+/p+ interface can be easily implemented without additional electrical or chemical doping process. Owing to high natural doping at the junction, record high peak to valley ratio (PVCR) of 16 was observed to the best our knowledge in 2D materials based NDR device. Furthermore, based on this, we first demonstrate the feasibility of the ternary latch by connecting two multi-threshold voltage devices in series.

Keywords: two dimensional van der Waals crystal, multi-valued logic, negative differential resistnace, tunneling device

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2 Improved Non-Ideal Effects in AlGaN/GaN-Based Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Wei-Chou Hsu, Ching-Sung Lee, Han-Yin Liu

Abstract:

This work uses H2O2 oxidation technique to improve the pH sensitivity of the AlGaN/GaN-based ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). 10-nm-thick Al2O3 was grown on the surface of the AlGaN. It was found that the pH sensitivity was improved from 41.6 mV/pH to 55.2 mV/pH. Since the H2O2-grown Al2O3 was served as a passivation layer and the problem of Fermi-level pinning was suppressed for the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process. Hysteresis effect in the ISFET with the H2O2 treatment also became insignificant. The hysteresis effect was observed by dipping the ISFETs into different pH value solutions and comparing the voltage difference between the initial and final conditions. The hysteresis voltage (Vhys) of the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process was improved from 8.7 mV to 4.8 mV. The hysteresis effect is related to the buried binding sites which are related to the material defects like threading dislocations in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure which was grown by the hetero-epitaxy technique. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 passivate these material defects and the Al2O3 has less material defects. The long-term stability of the ISFET is estimated by the drift effect measurement. The drift measurement was conducted by dipping the ISFETs into a specific pH value solution for 12 hours and the ISFETs were operating at a specific quiescent point. The drift rate is estimated by the drift voltage divided by the total measuring time. It was found that the drift rate of the ISFET was improved from 10.1 mV/hour to 1.91 mV/hour in the pH 7 solution, from 14.06 mV/hour to 6.38 mV/pH in the pH 2 solution, and from 12.8 mV/hour to 5.48 mV/hour in the pH 12 solution. The drift effect results from the capacitance variation in the electric double layer. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 provides an additional capacitance connection in series with the electric double layer. Therefore, the capacitance variation of the electric double layer became insignificant. Generally, the H2O2 oxidation process is a simple, fast, and cost-effective method for the AlGaN/GaN-based ISFET. Furthermore, the performance of the AlGaN/GaN ISFET was improved effectively and the non-ideal effects were suppressed.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN, Al2O3, hysteresis effect, drift effect, reliability, passivation, pH sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1 Tailoring Quantum Oscillations of Excitonic Schrodinger’s Cats as Qubits

Authors: Amit Bhunia, Mohit Kumar Singh, Maryam Al Huwayz, Mohamed Henini, Shouvik Datta

Abstract:

We report [https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.13518] experimental detection and control of Schrodinger’s Cat like macroscopically large, quantum coherent state of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate of spatially indirect electron-hole pairs or excitons using a resonant tunneling diode of III-V Semiconductors. This provides access to millions of excitons as qubits to allow efficient, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this work, we measure phase-coherent periodic oscillations in photo-generated capacitance as a function of an applied voltage bias and light intensity over a macroscopically large area. Periodic presence and absence of splitting of excitonic peaks in the optical spectra measured by photocapacitance point towards tunneling induced variations in capacitive coupling between the quantum well and quantum dots. Observation of negative ‘quantum capacitance’ due to a screening of charge carriers by the quantum well indicates Coulomb correlations of interacting excitons in the plane of the sample. We also establish that coherent resonant tunneling in this well-dot heterostructure restricts the available momentum space of the charge carriers within this quantum well. Consequently, the electric polarization vector of the associated indirect excitons collective orients along the direction of applied bias and these excitons undergo Bose-Einstein condensation below ~100 K. Generation of interference beats in photocapacitance oscillation even with incoherent white light further confirm the presence of stable, long-range spatial correlation among these indirect excitons. We finally demonstrate collective Rabi oscillations of these macroscopically large, ‘multipartite’, two-level, coupled and uncoupled quantum states of excitonic condensate as qubits. Therefore, our study not only brings the physics and technology of Bose-Einstein condensation within the reaches of semiconductor chips but also opens up experimental investigations of the fundamentals of quantum physics using similar techniques. Operational temperatures of such two-component excitonic BEC can be raised further with a more densely packed, ordered array of QDs and/or using materials having larger excitonic binding energies. However, fabrications of single crystals of 0D-2D heterostructures using 2D materials (e.g. transition metal di-chalcogenides, oxides, perovskites etc.) having higher excitonic binding energies are still an open challenge for semiconductor optoelectronics. As of now, these 0D-2D heterostructures can already be scaled up for mass production of miniaturized, portable quantum optoelectronic devices using the existing III-V and/or Nitride based semiconductor fabrication technologies.

Keywords: exciton, Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum computation, heterostructures, semiconductor Physics, quantum fluids, Schrodinger's Cat

Procedia PDF Downloads 102