Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: sensitization

69 Study of Intergranular Corrosion in Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Satish Kolli, Adriana Ferancova, David Porter, Jukka Kömi

Abstract:

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to detect sensitization in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated in the temperature regime 600-820 °C to produce different degrees of sensitization in the material. The tests were conducted at five different DC potentials in the transpassive region. The quantitative determination of degree of sensitization has been done using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests (DL-EPR). The correlation between EIS Nyquist diagrams and DL-EPR degree of sensitization values has been studied. The EIS technique can be used as a qualitative tool in determining the intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated at a given temperature.

Keywords: electrochemical technique, intergranular corrosion, sensitization, stainless steels

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68 Recent Progress in the Uncooled Mid-Infrared Lead Selenide Polycrystalline Photodetector

Authors: Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Ting Mei, Jianbang Zheng

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Currently, the uncooled PbSe photodetectors in the mid-infrared range (2-5μm) with sensitization technology extract more photoelectric response than traditional ones, and enable the room temperature (300K) photo-detection with high detectivity, which have attracted wide attentions in many fields. This technology generally contains the film fabrication with vapor phase deposition (VPD) and a sensitizing process with doping of oxygen and iodine. Many works presented in the recent years almost provide and high temperature activation method with oxygen/iodine vapor diffusion, which reveals that oxygen or iodine plays an important role in the sensitization of PbSe material. In this paper, we provide our latest experimental results and discussions in the stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine and its influence on the polycrystalline structure and photo-response. The experimental results revealed that crystal orientation was transformed from (200) to (420) by sensitization, and the responsivity of 5.42 A/W was gained by the optimal stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine with molecular density of I2 of ~1.51×1012 mm-3 and oxygen pressure of ~1Mpa. We verified that I2 plays a role in transporting oxygen into the lattice of crystal, which is actually not its major role. It is revealed that samples sensitized with iodine transform atomic proportion of Pb from 34.5% to 25.0% compared with samples without iodine from XPS data, which result in the proportion of about 1:1 between Pb and Se atoms by sublimation of PbI2 during sensitization process, and Pb/Se atomic proportion is controlled by I/O atomic proportion in the polycrystalline grains, which is very an important factor for improving responsivity of uncooled PbSe photodetector. Moreover, a novel sensitization and dopant activation method is proposed using oxygen ion implantation with low ion energy of < 500eV and beam current of ~120μA/cm2. These results may be helpful to understanding the sensitization mechanism of polycrystalline lead salt materials.

Keywords: polycrystalline PbSe, sensitization, transport, stoichiometry

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67 Impacts of E-Learning on Educational Policy: Policy of Sensitization and Training in E-Learning in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Layla Albdr

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Saudi Arabia instituted the policy of Sensitizing and Training Stakeholders for E-learning and witnessed wide adoption in many institutions. However, it is at the infancy stage and needs time to develop to mirror the US and UK. The majority of the higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia have adopted E-learning as an alternative to traditional methods to advance education. Conversely, effective implementation of the policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders for E-learning implementation has not been attained because of various challenges. The objectives included determining the challenges and opportunities of the E-learning policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders in Saudi Arabia's higher education and examining if sensitization and training of stakeholder's policy will help promote the implementation of E-learning in institutions. The study employed a descriptive research design based on qualitative analysis. The researcher recruited 295 students and 60 academic staff from four Saudi Arabian universities to participate in the study. An online questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was then analyzed and reported both quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis provided an in-depth understanding of the opportunities and challenges of E-learning policy in Saudi Arabian universities. The main challenges identified as internal challenges were the lack of educators’ interest in adopting the policy, and external challenges entailed lack of ICT infrastructure and Internet connectivity. The study recommends encouraging, sensitizing, and training all stakeholders to address these challenges and adopt the policy.

Keywords: e-learning, educational policy, Saudi Arabia, policy of sensitization and training

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66 A Study of the Weld Properties of Inconel 625 Based on Nb Content

Authors: JongWon Han, NoHoon Kim, HyoIk Ahn, HaeWoo Lee

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In this study, shielded metal arc welding was performed as a function of Nb content at 2.24 wt%, 3.25 wt%, and 4.26 wt%. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and showed the development of a columnar dendrite structure in the specimen having the least Nb content. From the hardness test, the hardness value was confirmed to reduce with decreasing Nb content. From electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the largest grain size was found in the specimen with Nb content of 2.24 wt%. The potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out to determine the pitting corrosion resistance; there was no significant difference in the pitting corrosion resistance with increasing Nb content. To evaluate the degree of sensitization to intergranular corrosion, the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation(DL-EPR test) was conducted. A similar degree of sensitization was found in two specimens except with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%, while a relatively high degree of sensitization was found in the specimen with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%.

Keywords: inconel 625, Nb content, potentiodynamic test, DL-EPR test

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65 Study the Effect of Sensitization on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 304 Stainless Steel Joints

Authors: Viranshu Kumar, Hitesh Arora, Pradeep Joshi

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SS 304 is Austenitic stainless steel with Chromium and Nickel as basic constituents. It has excellent corrosion resistance properties and very good weldability. Austenitic stainless steels have superior mechanical properties at high temperatures and are used extensively in a range of applications. SS 304L has wide applications in various industries viz. Nuclear, Pharmaceutical, marine, chemical etc. due to its excellent applications and ease of joining this material has become very popular for fabrication as well as weld surfacing. Austenitic stainless steels have a tendency to form chromium depleted zones at the grain boundaries during welding and heat treatment, where chromium combines with available carbon in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, to produce an area depleted in chromium, and thus becomes susceptible to intergranular corrosion. This phenomenon is known as sensitization.

Keywords: sensitization, SS 304, GTAW, mechanical properties, carbideprecipitationHAZ, microstructure, micro hardness, tensile strength

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64 Psychosocial Determinants of School Violent Behavior and the Efficacy of Covert Sensitization in Combination with Systematic approach Therapy among Male Students in Lagos Metropolis: Implications for Student Counselors

Authors: Fidel O. Okopi, Aminu Kazeem Ibrahim

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The study investigated psychosocial determinants ‘attitudes and self-esteem’ of school violent behaviors and the efficacy of covert sensitization therapy in combination with systematic approach therapy among male students in Lagos metropolis. Ex-post facto experimental research design was adopted for the study. The samples consisted of 39 school violent behavior students identified through the School Disciplinary Record Books and another 39 non-school violent behavior students identified through randomization. The two groups were from four randomly selected Public Senior Secondary Schools. School Violent Behavior Attitudes Scale (SVBAS) and School Violent Behavior Self-Esteem Scale (SVBSES) were used to collect data for the study. Face and Content validity with the Reliability coefficient of 0.772 for SVBAS and 0.813 for SVBSES were obtained. The results showed that the attitude of school violent behavior students do not significantly differ from that of school non-violent behavior students; the self-esteem of school violent behavior students differs significantly from that of school non-violent behavior students and that Covert Sensitization therapy in combination with Systematic Approach therapy were effective in modifying the self-esteem and attitude of school violent behavior students as surf iced in the pre-test and post-test analysis of school violent behavior students’ responses. The School counselors can modify male school violent behaviors that are traced to attitude and self-esteem with Covert Sensitization therapy in combination with Systematic Approach therapy in metropolitan areas.

Keywords: psychosocial determinants, violent behavior, covert sensitization therapy, systematic approach therapy

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63 Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of Pulsed Current Gas Metal Arc Welded Narrow Groove and Ultra-Narrow Groove of 304 LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Nikki A. Barla, P. K. Ghosh, Sourav Das

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Two different groove sizes 13.6 mm (narrow groove) and 7.5 mm (ultra-narrow groove) of 304 LN austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plate was welded using pulse gas metal arc welding (P-GMAW). These grooves were welded using multi-pass single seam per layer (MSPPL) deposition technique with full assurance of groove wall fusion. During bead on plate deposition process, the thermal cycle was recorded using strain buster (temperature measuring device). Both the groove has heat affected Zone (HAZ) width of 1-2 mm. After welding, the microstructure studies was done which revealed that there was higher sensitization (Chromium carbide formation in grain boundary) in the HAZ of 13.6 mm groove weldment as compared to the HAZ of 7.5 mm weldment. Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test (EPR) was done in 0.5 N H₂SO₄ + 1 M KSCN solution to study the degree of sensitization (DOS) and it was observed that 7.5 mm groove HAZ has lower DOS. Mass deposition in the 13.6 mm weld is higher than 7.5mm groove weld, which naturally induces higher residual stress in 13.6 mm weld. Comparison between microstructural studies and corrosion test summarized that the residual stress affects the sensitization property of welded ASS.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel (ASS), electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test (EPR), microstructure, pulse gas metal arc welding (P-GMAW), sensitization

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62 Heterodimetallic Ferrocenyl Dithiophosphonate Complexes of Nickel(II), Zinc(II) and Cadmium(II) as High Efficiency Co-Sensitizers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Tomilola J. Ajayi, Moses Ollengo, Lukas le Roux, Michael N. Pillay, Richard J. Staples, Shannon M. Biros Werner E. van Zyl

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The formation, characterization, and dye-sensitized solar cell application of nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) ferrocenyl dithiophosphonate complexes were investigated. The multidentate monoanionic ligand [S₂PFc(OH)]¯ (L1) was synthesized from the reaction between ferrocenyl Lawesson’s reagent, [FcP(=S)μ-S]₂ (FcLR), (Fc = ferrocenyl) and water. Ligand L1 could potentially coordinate to metal centers through the S, S’ and O donor atoms. The reaction between metal salt precursors and L1 produced a Ni(II) complex of the type [Ni{S₂P(Fc)(OH)}₂] (1) (molar ratio 1:2), a tetranickel (II) complex of the type [Ni₂{S₂OP(Fc)}₂]₂ (2) (molar ratio (1:1), as well as a Zn(II) complex [Zn{S₂P(Fc)(OH)}₂]₂ (3), and a Cd(II) complex [Cd{S₂P(Fc)(OH)}₂]₂ (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterized by 1H and 31P NMR and FT-IR, and complexes 1 and 2 were additionally analysed by X-Ray crystallography. After co-sensitization, the DSSCs were characterized using UV-Vis, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and photovoltaic measurements (I-V curves). Overall finding shows that co-sensitization of our compounds with ruthenium dye N719 resulted in a better overall solar conversion efficiency than only pure N719 dye under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, we report the first examples of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) co-sensitized with ferrocenyl dithiophosphonate complexes.

Keywords: dithiophosphonate, dye sensitized solar cell, co-sensitization, solar efficiency

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61 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

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Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

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60 Enhancing Sensitization of Cervical Cancer Cells to γ-Radiation Ellagic Acid

Authors: Vidhula Ahire, Amit Kumar, K. P. Mishra, Gauri Kulkarni

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Herbal polyphenols have gained significance because of their increasing promise in prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, development of a dietary compound as an effective radiosensitizer and a radioprotector is highly warranted for cervical cancer patients undergoing therapy. This study describes the cytotoxic effects of the flavonoid, ellagic acid (EA) when administered either alone or in combination with gamma radiation on cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro. Apoptotic index and proliferation were measured by using trypan blue assay. Reproductive cell death was analyzed by clonogenic assay. Propidium iodide staining for flowcytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle modulation. Nuclear and mitochondrial changes were studied with specific dyes. DNA repair kinetics was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Evaluation and comparison of EA effects were performed with other clinically used breast cancer drugs. When tumor cells were exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of irradiation in presence of EA (10 μM), it yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect on cervical cancer cells whereas in NIH3T3 cells it reversed the injury caused by irradiation and abetted in the regaining of normal healthy cells. At 24h ~25foci/cell was observed and 2.6 fold decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Up to 40% cell were arrested in the G1 phase and 20-36% cells exhibited apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the role of increased apoptosis and cell cycle modulation in the mechanism of EA mediated radiosensitization of cervical cancer cells and thus advocating EA as an adjuvant for preclinical trials in cancer chemo- radiotherapy.

Keywords: cervical cancer, ellagic acid, sensitization, radiation therapy

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59 Diversity: Understanding Multicultural Concerns in Counseling

Authors: Zuwaira Abdullahi

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In this increasing changing world, it is important to be aware of the needs of clients when it comes to race and ethnic diversities. These diversities create difficulties for multicultural counselling: the counsellor’s own culture, attitudes, and theoretical perspective; the client's culture; and the multiplicity of variables comprising an individual's identity. This paper examines the level of realization, sensitization and attitude of counsellors towards individuals that come from different cultural, social and economic background.

Keywords: multicultural, diversities, counselling, needs

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58 Aerofloral Studies and Allergenicity Potentials of Dominant Atmospheric Pollen Types at Some Locations in Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: Olugbenga S. Alebiosu, Olusola H. Adekanmbi, Oluwatoyin T. Ogundipe

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Pollen and spores have been identified as major airborne bio-particles inducing respiratory disorders such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis among hypersensitive individuals. An aeropalynological study was conducted within a one year sampling period with a view to investigating the monthly depositional rate of atmospheric pollen and spores; influence of the immediate vegetation on airborne pollen distribution; allergenic potentials of dominant atmospheric pollen types at selected study locations in Bauchi and Taraba states, Northwestern Nigeria. A tauber-like pollen trap was employed in aerosampling with the sampler positioned at a height of 5 feet above the ground, followed by a monthly collection of the recipient solution for the sampling period. The collected samples were subjected to acetolysis treatment, examined microscopically with the identification of pollen grains and spores using reference materials and published photomicrographs. Plants within the surrounding vegetation were enumerated. Crude protein contents extracted from pollen types found to be commonly dominant at both study locations; Senna siamea, Terminalia cattapa, Panicum maximum and Zea mays were used to sensitize Musmusculus. Histopathological studies of bronchi and lung sections from certain dead M.musculus in the test groups was conducted. Blood samples were collected from the pre-orbital vein of M.musculus and processed for serological and haematological (differential and total white blood cell counts) studies. ELISA was used in determining the levels of serological parameters: IgE and cytokines (TNF-, IL-5, and IL-13). Statistical significance was observed in the correlation between the levels of serological and haematological parameters elicited by each test group, differences between the levels of serological and haematological parameters elicited by each test group and those of the control, as well as at varying sensitization periods. The results from this study revealed dominant airborne pollen types across the study locations; Syzygiumguineense, Tridaxprocumbens, Elaeisguineensis, Mimosa sp., Borreria sp., Terminalia sp., Senna sp. and Poaceae. Nephrolepis sp., Pteris sp. and a trilete fern also produced spores. This study also revealed that some of the airborne pollen types were produced by local plants at the study locations. Bronchi sections of M.musculus after first and second sensitizations, as well as lung section after first sensitization with Senna siamea, showed areas of necrosis. Statistical significance was recorded in the correlation between the levels of some serological and haematological parameters produced by each test group and those of the control, as well as at certain sensitization periods. The study revealed some candidate pollen allergens at the study locations allergy sufferers and also established a complexity of interaction between immune cells, IgE and cytokines at varied periods of mice sensitization and forming a paradigm of human immune response to different pollen allergens. However, it is expedient that further studies should be conducted on these candidate pollen allergens for their allergenicity potential in humans within their immediate environment.

Keywords: airborne, hypersensitive, mus musculus, pollen allergens, respiratory, tauber-like

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57 Influence of Nutritional and Health Education of Families and Communities on the School-Age Children for the Attainment of Universal Basic Education Goals in the Rural Riverine Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Folasade R. Sulaiman

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Pupils’ health and nutrition are basically important to their schooling. The preponderance of avoidable deaths among children in Africa (WHO, 2000) may not be unconnected with the nutritional and health education status of families and communities that have their children as school clients. This study adopted a descriptive survey design focusing on the assessment of the level of nutritional and health education of families and community members in the rural riverine areas of Ogun State. Two research questions were raised. The Nutritional and Health Education of Families and Communities Inventory (NHEFCI) was used to collect data from 250 rural child-bearing aged women, and 0.73 test-retest reliability coefficient was established to determine the strength of the instrument. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages and mean in accordance with research questions raised in the study. The findings revealed amongst others: that 65% of the respondents had low level of nutritional and health education among the families and community members; while 72% had low level of awareness of the possible influence of nutritional and health education on the learning outcomes of the children. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should intensify efforts on sensitization, mass literacy campaign etc.; also improve upon the already existing School Feeding Programme in Nigerian primary schools to provide at least one balanced diet for children while in school; community health workers, social workers, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) should collaborate with international Organizations like UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO etc. to organize sensitization programmes for members of the rural riverine communities on the importance of meeting the health and nutritional needs of their children in order to attain their educational potentials.

Keywords: nutritional and health education, learning capacities, school-age children, universal basic education, rural riverine areas

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56 Cultural Barriers in the Communication of Breast Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Kayum Fokoue Carole

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This paper aims at verifying the effectiveness of reaching target populations while paying attention to their cultural background when communicating new knowledge, ideas or technology in a multicultural world. Our case study is an experiment on the communication of knowledge on breast cancer in three sub-Saharan countries (Ghana, Tchad, and Cameroon health). The methodology consisted of submitting a semi-structured questionnaire to local populations in some localities in these target countries in order to determine the cultural barriers hindering the effective communication of knowledge on breast cancer. Once this done, sensitization documents on breast cancer were translated into Ewe (Ghana), Mbaye (Tchad), Ghomala’, Ewondo, and Fufulde (Cameroon). In each locality, a sensitization programme was organised for two groups. For one group, the cultural barriers discovered were taken into consideration while communicating during the programme whereas in the other group, they were not. Another questionnaire was disseminated after three months to verify the level of appropriation of those who attended the campaign based on Chumbow’s appropriation theory. This paper, therefore, discusses some spiritual beliefs, representations and practices in the target African communities hindering effective communication of issues on breast cancer in the target localities. Findings reveal that only 38% of respondents in the group of those for whom cultural barriers were not taken into account during the programme had a high level of appropriation while for the other group, 86% had a high level of appropriation. This is evidence that the communication of issues on breast cancer can be more effective by reaching different populations in a language they best master while paying attention to their culture. Therefore, international communication of new knowledge should be culturally contextualised. Suggestions at the end of the paper are directed towards the achievement of these goals. The present work promotes international partnership in addressing and resolving global health preoccupations since research findings from one community/country can be mutualized in partnership with other communities and countries.

Keywords: cultural barriers, communication, health, breast cancer

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55 Targeting Mre11 Nuclease Overcomes Platinum Resistance and Induces Synthetic Lethality in Platinum Sensitive XRCC1 Deficient Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

Authors: Adel Alblihy, Reem Ali, Mashael Algethami, Ahmed Shoqafi, Michael S. Toss, Juliette Brownlie, Natalie J. Tatum, Ian Hickson, Paloma Ordonez Moran, Anna Grabowska, Jennie N. Jeyapalan, Nigel P. Mongan, Emad A. Rakha, Srinivasan Madhusudan

Abstract:

Platinum resistance is a clinical challenge in ovarian cancer. Platinating agents induce DNA damage which activate Mre11 nuclease directed DNA damage signalling and response (DDR). Upregulation of DDR may promote chemotherapy resistance. Here we have comprehensively evaluated Mre11 in epithelial ovarian cancers. In clinical cohort that received platinum- based chemotherapy (n=331), Mre11 protein overexpression was associated with aggressive phenotype and poor progression free survival (PFS) (p=0.002). In the ovarian cancer genome atlas (TCGA) cohort (n=498), Mre11 gene amplification was observed in a subset of serous tumours (5%) which correlated highly with Mre11 mRNA levels (p<0.0001). Altered Mre11 levels was linked with genome wide alterations that can influence platinum sensitivity. At the transcriptomic level (n=1259), Mre11 overexpression was associated with poor PFS (p=0.003). ROC analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.642 for response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Pre-clinically, Mre11 depletion by gene knock down or blockade by small molecule inhibitor (Mirin) reversed platinum resistance in ovarian cancer cells and in 3D spheroid models. Importantly, Mre11 inhibition was synthetically lethal in platinum sensitive XRCC1 deficient ovarian cancer cells and 3D-spheroids. Selective cytotoxicity was associated with DNA double strand break (DSB) accumulation, S-phase cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. We conclude that pharmaceutical development of Mre11 inhibitors is a viable clinical strategy for platinum sensitization and synthetic lethality in ovarian cancer.

Keywords: MRE11; XRCC1, ovarian cancer, platinum sensitization, synthetic lethality

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54 The Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Murine Fibromyalgia Model

Authors: Bernice Jeanne Lottering, Yi-Wen Lin

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Introduction: Chronic pain has a definitive lack of objective parameters in the measurement and treatment efficacy of diseases such as Fibromyalgia (FM). Persistent widespread pain and generalized tenderness are the characteristic symptoms affecting a large majority of the global population, particularly females. This disease has indicated a refractory tendency to conventional treatment ventures, largely resultant from a lack of etiological and pathogenic understanding of the disease development. Emerging evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a critical role in the amplification of pain signals and the neurotransmitters associated therewith. Various stimuli have been found to activate the channels existent on nociceptor terminals, thereby actuating nociceptive impulses along the pain pathways. The transient receptor potential vanalloid 1 (TRPV1) channel functions as a molecular integrator for numerous sensory inputs, such as nociception, and was explored in the current study. Current intervention approaches face a multitude challenges, ranging from effective therapeutic interventions to the limitation of pathognomonic criteria resultant from incomplete understanding and partial evidence on the mechanisms of action of FM. It remains unclear whether electroacupuncture (EA) plays an integral role in the functioning of the TRPV1 pathway, and whether or not it can reduce the chronic pain induced by FM. Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the activation and modulation of the TRPV1 channel pathway in a cold stress model of FM applied to a murine model. Furthermore, the effect of EA in the treatment of mechanical and thermal pain, as expressed in FM was also to be investigated. Methods: 18 C57BL/6 wild type and 6 TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice, aged 8-12 weeks, were exposed to an intermittent cold stress-induced fibromyalgia-like pain model, with or without EA treatment at ZusanLi ST36 (2Hz/20min) on day 3 to 5. Von Frey and Hargreaves behaviour tests were implemented in order to analyze the mechanical and thermal pain thresholds on day 0, 3 and 5 in control group (C), FM group (FM), FM mice with EA treated group (FM + EA) and FM in KO group. Results: An increase in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was observed in the FM, EA and KO groups when compared to the control group. This initial increase was reduced in the EA group, which directs focus at the treatment efficacy of EA in nociceptive sensitization, and the analgesic effect EA has attenuating FM associated pain. Discussion: An increase in the nociceptive sensitization was observed through higher withdrawal thresholds in the von Frey mechanical test and the Hargreaves thermal test. TRPV1 function in mice has been scientifically associated with these nociceptive conduits, and the increased behaviour test results suggest that TRPV1 upregulation is central to the FM induced hyperalgesia. This data was supported by the decrease in sensitivity observed in results of the TRPV1 KO group. Moreover, the treatment of EA showed a decrease in this FM induced nociceptive sensitization, suggesting TRPV1 upregulation and overexpression can be attenuated by EA at bilateral ST36. This evidence compellingly implies that the analgesic effect of EA is associated with TRPV1 downregulation.

Keywords: fibromyalgia, electroacupuncture, TRPV1, nociception

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53 Increasing Prevalence of Multi-Allergen Sensitivities in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Eastern India

Authors: Sujoy Khan

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There is a rising concern with increasing allergies affecting both adults and children in rural and urban India. Recent report on adults in a densely populated North Indian city showed sensitization rates for house dust mite, parthenium, and cockroach at 60%, 40% and 18.75% that is now comparable to allergy prevalence in cities in the United States. Data from patients residing in the eastern part of India is scarce. A retrospective study (over 2 years) was done on patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma where allergen-specific IgE levels were measured to see the aero-allergen sensitization pattern in a large metropolitan city of East India. Total IgE and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured using ImmunoCAP (Phadia 100, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sweden) using region-specific aeroallergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (d1); Dermatophagoides farinae (d2); cockroach (i206); grass pollen mix (gx2) consisted of Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Sorghum halepense, Paspalum notatum; tree pollen mix (tx3) consisted of Juniperus sabinoides, Quercus alba, Ulmus americana, Populus deltoides, Prosopis juliflora; food mix 1 (fx1) consisted of Peanut, Hazel nut, Brazil nut, Almond, Coconut; mould mix (mx1) consisted of Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternate; animal dander mix (ex1) consisted of cat, dog, cow and horse dander; and weed mix (wx1) consists of Ambrosia elatior, Artemisia vulgaris, Plantago lanceolata, Chenopodium album, Salsola kali, following manufacturer’s instructions. As the IgE levels were not uniformly distributed, median values were used to represent the data. 92 patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma (united airways disease) were studied over 2 years including 21 children (age < 12 years) who had total IgE and allergen-specific IgE levels measured. The median IgE level was higher in 2016 than in 2015 with 60% of patients (adults and children) being sensitized to house dust mite (dual positivity for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae). Of 11 children in 2015, whose total IgE ranged from 16.5 to >5000 kU/L, 36% of children were polysensitized (≥4 allergens), and 55% were sensitized to dust mites. Of 10 children in 2016, total IgE levels ranged from 37.5 to 2628 kU/L, and 20% were polysensitized with 60% sensitized to dust mites. Mould sensitivity was 10% in both of the years in the children studied. A consistent finding was that ragweed sensitization (molecular homology to Parthenium hysterophorus) appeared to be increasing across all age groups, and throughout the year, as reported previously by us where 25% of patients were sensitized. In the study sample overall, sensitizations to dust mite, cockroach, and parthenium were important risks in our patients with moderate to severe asthma that reinforces the importance of controlling indoor exposure to these allergens. Sensitizations to dust mite, cockroach and parthenium allergens are important predictors of asthma morbidity not only among children but also among adults in Eastern India.

Keywords: aAeroallergens, asthma, dust mite, parthenium, rhinitis

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52 Association of 105A/C IL-18 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism with House Dust Mite Allergy in an Atopic Filipino Population

Authors: Eisha Vienna M. Fernandez, Cristan Q. Cabanilla, Hiyasmin Lim, John Donnie A. Ramos

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Allergy is a multifactorial disease affecting a significant proportion of the population. It is developed through the interaction of allergens and the presence of certain polymorphisms in various susceptibility genes. In this study, the correlation of the 105A/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL-18 gene and house dust mite-specific IgE among Filipino allergic and non-allergic population was investigated. Atopic status was defined by serum total IgE concentration of ≥100 IU/mL, while house dust mite allergy was defined by specific IgE value ≥ +1SD of IgE of nonatopic participants. Two hundred twenty match-paired Filipino cases and controls aged 6-60 were the subjects of this investigation. The level of total IgE and Specific IgE were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) while Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was used in the SNP detection. Sensitization profiles of the allergic patients revealed that 97.3% were sensitized to Blomia tropicalis, 40.0% to Dermatophagoides farinae, and 29.1% to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Multiple sensitization to HDMs was also observed among the 47.27% of the atopic participants. Any of the allergy classes of the atopic triad were exhibited by the cases (allergic asthma: 48.18%; allergic rhinitis: 62.73%; atopic dermatitis: 19.09%), and two or all of these atopic states are concurrently occurring in 26.36% of the cases. A greater proportion of the atopic participants with allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis were sensitized to D. farinae, and D. pteronyssinus, while more of those with atopic dermatitis were sensitized to D. pteronyssinus than D. farinae. Results show that there is overrepresentation of the allele “A” of the 105A/C IL-18 gene SNP in both cases and control groups of the population. The genotype that predominate the population is the heterozygous “AC”, followed by the homozygous wild “AA”, and the homozygous variant “CC” being the least. The study confirmed a positive association between serum specific IgE against B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus and the allele “C” (Bt P=0.021, Dp P=0.027) and “AC” (Bt P=0.003, Dp P=0.026) genotype. Findings also revealed that the genotypes “AA” (OR:1.217; 95% CI: 0.701-2.113) and “CC” (OR, 3.5; 95% CI: 0.727-16.849) increase the risk of developing allergy. This indicates that the 105A/C IL-18 gene SNP is a candidate genetic marker for HDM allergy among Filipino patients.

Keywords: house dust mite allergy, interleukin-18 (IL-18), single nucleotide polymorphism,

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51 Culture Sensitization: Understanding German Culture by Learning German

Authors: Lakshmi Shenoy

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In today’s era of Globalization, arises the need that students and professionals relocate temporarily or permanently to another country in order to pursue their respective academic and career goals. This involves not only learning the local language of the country but also integrating oneself into the native culture. This paper explains the method of understanding a nation’s culture through the study of its language. The method uses language not as a series of rules that connect words together but as a social practice in which one can actively participate. It emphasizes on how culture provides an environment in which languages can flourish and how culture dictates the interpretation of the language especially in case of German. This paper introduces language and culture as inseparable entities, as two sides of the same coin.

Keywords: language and culture, sociolinguistics, Ronald Wardhaugh, German

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50 Efficacy and Safety of Tapentadol Nasal Spray Versus Oral Tramadol for the Treatment of Acute Postoperative Pain Management

Authors: Kamal Tolani, Sandeep Kumar, Rohit Luthra, Ankit Dadhania, Krishnaprasad K., Ram Gupta, Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Background: Post-operative analgesia remains a clinical challenge, with central and peripheral sensitization playing a pivotal role in treatment related complications and impaired QoL. Centrally acting opioids offer poor risk benefit profile with increased intensity of gastrointestinal or central side effects and slow onset of clinical analgesia. The clinical efficacy and safety of Tapentadol nasal spray (NS) formulation was assessed as compared to Switch therapy with Tramadol for severe or acute post-operative pain in hospitalized cases undergoing major surgeries. Methods: Phase III, randomized, active- controlled, clinical trial was planned at 21 centres in India involving 294 cases who had undergone surgical procedures. These patients were randomized to receive either Tapentadol NS 45 mg (one spray/each nostril) or Tramadol 100mg i.v/oral every 4-6 hours for five days for pain management. The statistical analysis plan was envisaged as a non-inferiority trial involving comparison with Tramadol for Sum of Pain intensity difference (SPID60min) and PGA24 hrs. Results: The per-protocol analyses involved 255 hospitalized cases (Median age: 38 years) undergoing surgical procedures, of which most common were fracture reduction surgeries. The most common concomitant medications were anti-bacterials (98.3%). PID60min and PGA24hrs on NRS showed that Tapentadol NS was non–inferior to Tramadol. However, on further assessment on day 2, 3, and 5, there was clinically greater pain relief with the NS formulation (p <0.05). Secondary efficacy measures, including onset of Clinical analgesia and TOTPAR showed non-inferiority to IV Tramadol formulation. The safety profile and need for rescue medication was also similar in both the groups at the end of 5 days therapy. Conclusion: Tapentadol NS is an effective strategy for the management of moderate to severe post –operative pain with ease of administration and better clinical benefit and may prevent complications related to central sensitization in post-surgical settings.

Keywords: tapentadol nasal spray, acute pain, tramadol, post-operative pain

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49 Effect of Solution Heat Treatment on Intergranular Corrosion Resistance of Welded Stainless Steel AISI 321

Authors: Amir Mahmoudi

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In this investigation, AISI321 steel after welding by Shilded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) was solution heat treated in various temperatures and times, and then was sensitizied. Results indicated, increasing of temperature in solution heat treatment raises the sensitization and creates the cavity structure in grain boundaries. Besides, in order to examine the effect of time on solution heat treatment, all samples were solution heat treated at different times and fixed temperature (1050°C). By increasing the time, more chrome carbides were created due to dissolution of delta ferrite phase and reproduce titanium carbides. Additionally, the best process for solution heat treatment for this steel was suggested.

Keywords: stainless steel, solution heat treatment, intergranular corrosion, DLEPR

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48 Sexual Harassment at Workplace in Cuttack District

Authors: Anasuya P. Pradhan, Netajee Abhinandan

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Today's workplace is diverse and keeps changing continuously. Sexual harassment in the work place has emerged as a growing obstacle in women’s progress and being a sex discrimination issue has made the society vulnerable.Such issues indicate that, today women are comparatively more insecure in our society irrespective of their social status, position, and educational qualification. Hence, it needs to be addressed in the academic pedagogy.The study aimed to learn how far people are gender-sensitized, how far they are aware about the laws related to the issue, and how far women employees raise their voice against it. The findings revealed that even being educated and working in the organized sectors, people are unaware and are not sensitized. The study therefore recommends both the Government and managers of institutions how to critically identify the root causes of sexual harassment, its implications on our society and how best to address it.

Keywords: workplace power, gender discrimination, gender sensitization, sexual harassment

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47 Resource Efficiency within Current Production

Authors: Sarah Majid Ansari, Serjosha Wulf, Matthias Goerke

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In times of global warming and the increasing shortage of resources, sustainable production is becoming more and more inevitable. Companies cannot only heighten their competitiveness but also contribute positively to environmental protection through efficient energy and resource consumption. Regarding this, technical solutions are often preferred during production, although organizational and process-related approaches also offer great potential. This project focuses on reducing resource usage, with a special emphasis on the human factor. It is the aspiration to develop a methodology that systematically implements and embeds suitable and individual measures and methods regarding resource efficiency throughout the entire production. The measures and methods established help employees handle resources and energy more sensitively. With this in mind, this paper also deals with the difficulties that can occur during the sensitization of employees and the implementation of these measures and methods. In addition, recommendations are given on how to avoid such difficulties.

Keywords: implementation, human factors, production plants, resource efficiency

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46 Memorializing the Holocaust in the Present Century

Authors: Mehak Burza

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As we pause to observe the Holocaust Remembrance Day each year on 27 January, it becomes important to consider how the Holocaust is witnessed, and its education is perceived across the globe. The dissemination of knowledge of the Holocaust becomes more pertinent in the countries that were not directly affected by it. The Holocaust education is not widespread in Asian countries and is thus not mandatory as an academic discipline for school and university students. One such Asian country that often considers Holocaust as an isolated event is India. Though the struggle for freedom began with the 1857 mutiny (the first war of Indian independence) but the freedom revolts gained momentum specifically during the years 1944-1947, when India was steeped in a battery of rebellions. However, freedom for the Indian subcontinent from the domination of British Raj came at the cost of partition of India that resulted in widespread bloodshed and immigration. For India, it is this backdrop of her freedom struggle that always outweighs the incidents of the Second World War, including the catastrophic event of the Holocaust. As a result, the knowledge about the Holocaust is available through secondary sources such as Holocaust documentaries and movies. Besides Anne Frank’s diary, the knowledge about the Holocaust is disseminated through the course readings in the universities. The most common literary acquaintances with the Jewish faith for university students are when they come across the Jewish characters in their course readings. The Prioress’s Tale in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, the character of Shylock in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, and the Jewish protagonist, Barabas, in Christopher Marlow’s Jew of Malta. Apart from this, the school textbooks mention a detailed chapter on Holocaust and Hitler, which is an encouraging turn. However, there still exists a yawning gap between dissemination and sensitization of Holocaust education owing to different geographical locales. My paper presentation aims to trace the intersectional elements between India and the Holocaust that can serve as the required pivotal stand-board to foster sensitization towards Holocaust education in the Indian subcontinent. For instance, Maharaja Jam SahebDigvijaysinhjiRanjitsinhji, the ruler of Nawanagar, a princely state in British India, helped save thousand Polish Jewish children in 1945 at the time when India herself was steeped in its struggle for freedom. Famously known as the ‘Indian Oskar Schindler’ Polish government has named a street after him in Krakow, Poland. Another example that deserves mention is the spy princess, Noor Inayat Khan, a descendent of Tipu Sultan, who became the most celebrated British spyand fought against the Nazis. Additionally, by offering refuge to Jews, India has proved to be a distant haven for them. Researching further the domain of Jewish refugees in India will not only illuminate a dull/gray zone of investigation but also enable the educators to provide appropriate entry points for introducing the subject of Shoah/Holocaust in India, a subject which unfortunately hitherto is either seldom discussed or is equated with the Partition of India.

Keywords: awareness, dissemination, holocaust, India

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45 Anisakidosis in Turkey: Serological Survey and Risk for Humans

Authors: E. Akdur Öztürk, F. İrvasa Bilgiç, A. Ludovisi , O. Gülbahar, D. Dirim Erdoğan, M. Korkmaz, M. Á. Gómez Morales

Abstract:

Anisakidosis is a zoonotic human fish-borne parasitic disease caused by accidental ingestion of anisakid third-stage larvae (L3) of members of the Anisakidae family present in infected marine fish or cephalopods. Infection with anisakid larvae can lead to gastric, intestinal, extra-gastrointestinal and gastroallergic forms of the disease. Anisakid parasites have been reported in almost all seas, particularly in the Mediterranean Sea. There is a remarkably high level of risk exposure to these zoonotic parasites as they are present in economically and ecologically important fish of Europe. Anisakid L3 larvae have been also detected in several fish species from the Aegean Sea. Turkey is a peninsular country surrounded by Black, Aegean and the Mediterranean Sea. In this country, fishing habit and fishery product consumption are highly common. In recent years, there was also an increase in the consumption of raw fish due to the increasing interest in the cuisine of the Far East countries. In different regions of Turkey, A. simplex (inMerluccius Merluccius Scomber japonicus, Trachurus mediterraneus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, etc.), Anisakis spp., Contraceucum spp., Pseudoterronova spp. and, C. aduncum were identified as well. Although it is accepted both the presence of anisakid parasites in fish and fishery products in Turkey and the presence of Turkish people with allergic manifestations after fish consumption, there are no reports of human anisakiasis in this country. Given the high prevalence of anisakid parasites in the country, the absence of reports is likely not due to the absence of clinical cases rather to the unavailability of diagnostic tools and the low awareness of the presence of this infection. The aim of the study was to set up an IgE-Western Blot (WB) based test to detect the anisakidosis sensitization among Turkish people with a history of allergic manifestation related to fish consumption. To this end, crude worm antigens (CWA) and allergen enriched fraction (50-66% ) were prepared from L3 of A. simplex (s.l.) collected from Lepidopus caudatus fished in the Mediterranean Sea. These proteins were electrophoretically separated and transferred into the nitrocellulose membranes. By WB, specific proteins recognized by positive control serum samples from sensitized patients were visualized on nitrocellulose membranes by a colorimetric reaction. The CWA and 50–66% fraction showed specific bands, mainly due to Ani s 1 (20-22 kD) and Ani s 4 (9-10 kD). So far, a total of 7 serum samples from people with allergic manifestation and positive skin prick test (SPT) after fish consumption, have been tested and all of them resulted negative by WB, indicating the lack of sensitization to anisakids. This preliminary study allowed to set up a specific test and evidence the lack of correlation between both tests, SPT and WB. However, the sample size should be increased to estimate the anisakidosis burden in Turkish people.

Keywords: anisakidosis, fish parasite, serodiagnosis, Turkey

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44 Stigmatisation of People Living with HIV/AIDS as an Obstacle to Prevention of HIV

Authors: Vicent Lwanga

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Background: Despite sensitization workshops that have been going on in rural areas in Kapchorwa District in Uganda to prevent stigmatization of People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), interview with PLWHA sows that they are still being stigmatized. This behavior of some people within the community possesses a serious danger to the successful prevention and control of HIV in our society. Evidence exists that some people still believe that eating, living together, and even discussing with PLWHA might make them infected, too, despite all persuasions against such attitude. Description: A face to face interview with some selected PLWHA in Kapchorwa, testified that stigmatization against those who have disclosed their status still lingers on. The interviews with the PLWHA reveals that people still believe that they are being bewitched and cursed by God for their sins, and as such, people keep away from them to avoid the wrath of God. Findings: The more the stigmatization against the PLWHA persists, the more difficult it will be to successfully prevent, control, and eradicate HIV in the society. This is because many PLWHA would prefer not to be identified if they are not shown love and care. Conclusion: A more continuous campaign to stop the stigmatization of PLWHA needs to be on-going. This could be done more effectively by Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) with workshops, print media, and seminars.

Keywords: aids, community, HIV, stigma

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43 Deconstructing the Dialectics of Gender: An Analysis of Nigerian Igbo Women's Writing

Authors: R. Vidhya

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Nigeria, the seat of canonical literature in Africa, though widely acclaimed as the literary capital of the continent, it failed to produce women writers in its literary arena till the 1960s. Only after 1966, with the publication of the first novel by a women writer, Nigeria saw the emergence of women’s writing through which the world witnessed an upsurge in the sensitization of women’s issues in Africa. The Nigerian Igbo women’s writing threw light on gender discrimination in postcolonial Africa. Their works were instrumental in bringing a remarkable change in the perception of gender in a male dominated society. The social mindscape of the land which strongly believed that feminist ideologies could be highly detrimental to its patriarchal setup is slowly changed through the changing perspectives of gender. This paper aims to analyse the select works of Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie to deconstruct the dialectics of gender, which has been realised in the works of these women writers.

Keywords: gender discrimination, Igbo women's writings, postcolonial Africa, changing perspective

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42 Electrodeposition of NiO Films from Organic Solvent-Based Electrolytic Solutions for Solar Cell Application

Authors: Thierry Pauporté, Sana Koussi, Fabrice Odobel

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The preparation of semiconductor oxide layers and structures by soft techniques is an important field of research. Higher performances are expected from the optimizing of the oxide films and then use of new methods of preparation for a better control of their chemical, morphological, electrical and optical properties. We present the preparation of NiO by electrodeposition from pure polar aprotic medium and mixtures with water. The effect of the solvent, of the electrochemical deposition parameters and post-deposition annealing treatment on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films is investigated. We remarkably show that the solvent is inserted in the deposited layer and act as a blowing agent, giving rise to mesoporous films after elimination by thermal annealing. These layers of p-type oxide have been successfully used, after sensitization by a dye, in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The effects of the solvent on the layer properties and the application of these layers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells are described.

Keywords: NiO, layer, p-type sensitized solar cells, electrodeposition

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41 Study of Sustainability Practices Ingrained in Indian Culture

Authors: Shraddha Mahore Manjrekar

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Culture has been an integral part of the civilizations in the world. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Author has observed and thought about the relation of Indian traditional cultural beliefs and their relation to the sustainable environment. There are some unwritten norms regarding the use of resources and the environment in Indian continent, that have been commonly accepted by the people for building houses and settlements since the Vedic period . The research has been done on the chanting and prayers done in a number of houses and temples in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. After doing some research, it was also found that resource assessment had also been done for the entire country, and an idea of conservation of these resources was imbibed in the common people by means of some traditions, customs and beliefs. The sensitization and gratefulness about natural resources have been observed in the major beliefs and customs. This paper describes few of such beliefs and customs that are directly linked with the built environment and landscape.

Keywords: Indian culture, sacred groves, sustainability in built environment, sustainability practices

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40 Effect of Welding Heat Input on Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Metal

Authors: Joon-Suk Kim, Hae-Woo Lee

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This study discusses the effect of welding heat input on intergranular corrosion of the weld metal of Inconel 625 alloy. A specimen of Inconel 625 with a weld metal that controlled welding heat input was manufactured, and aging heat treatment was conducted to investigate sensitization by chromium carbides. The electrochemical SL and DL EPR experiments, together with the chemical ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid and nitric acid tests, were conducted to determine intergranular corrosion susceptibility between the specimens. In the SL and DL EPR experiments, specimens were stabilized in the weld metal, and therefore intergranular corrosion susceptibility could not be determined. However, in the ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid and nitric acid tests, the corrosion speed increased as heat input increased. This was because the amount of diluted Fe increased as the welding heat input increased, leading to microsegregation between the dendrites, which had a negative effect on the corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Inconel 625, weling, overlay, heat input, intergranular corrosion

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