Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1494

Search results for: Suresh Kumar Soni

1494 An Overview of Heating and Cooling Techniques Used in Green Buildings

Authors: Umesh Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Soni, S. R. Awasthi

Abstract:

Worldwide biggest difficulties are climate change, future availability of fossil fuels, and economical feasibility of renewable energy. They force us to use to a greater extent renewable energy and develop suitable hybrid renewable systems. Building heating/cooling consumes significant amount of energy. It can be conserved by use of proper heating/cooling techniques. This paper reviews and critically analyzes various active, passive and hybrid heating/cooling techniques used in green buildings.

Keywords: natural ventilation, energy conservation, hybrid ventilation techniques, climate change

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1493 Volatility Spillover Among the Stock Markets of South Asian Countries

Authors: Tariq Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Vikesh Kumar, Sheraz Mustafa, Jhanzeb Marwat

Abstract:

The paper provides an updated version of volatility spillover among the equity markets of South Asian countries, including Pakistan, India, Srilanka, and Bangladesh. The analysis uses both symmetric and asymmetric Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models to investigate volatility persistence and leverage effect. The bivariate EGARCH model is used to test for volatility transmission between two equity markets. Weekly data for the period February 2013 to August 2019 is used for empirical analysis. The findings indicate that the leverage effect exists in the equity markets of all the countries except Bangladesh. The volatility spillover from the equity market of Bangladesh to all other countries is negative and significant whereas the volatility of the equity market of Sri-Lanka does influence the volatility of any other country’s equity market. Indian equity market influence only the volatility of the Sri-Lankan equity market; and there is bidirectional volatility spillover between the equity markets of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The findings are important for policy-makers and international investors.

Keywords: volatility spillover, volatility persistence, garch, egarch

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1492 In vitro Plant Regeneration of Gonystylus Bancanus (Miq) Kurz. Through Direct Organogenesis

Authors: Grippin Akeng, Suresh Kumar Muniandy, Nor Aini Ab Shukor

Abstract:

Plant regeneration was achieved from shoot tip and nodal segment of Gonystylus bancanus (Miq) Kurz. cultured in Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The most optimum concentration of BAP for shoot initiation is 10.0 mgl⁻¹ with approximately 10% of shoot tip and 15% of nodal segment produced single shoot after 28 and 15 days of culture incubation respectively. Rooting was achieved when shoots were transferred into MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mgl⁻¹ Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Synthesizing results developed through this research can be a starting point for the upscalling and optimization process in future.

Keywords: gonystylus bancanus, organogenesis, shoot initiation, shoot tip

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1491 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
1490 Course Outcomes to Programme Outcomes Mapping: A Methodology Based on Key Elements

Authors: Twarakavi Venkata Suresh Kumar, Sailaja Kumar, B. Eswara Reddy

Abstract:

In a world of tremendous technical developments, effective and efficient higher education has always been a major challenge. The rising number of educational institutions have made it mandatory for healthy competitions among the institutions. To evaluate the qualitative competence of these educations institutions in engineering and technology and related disciplines, an efficient assessment technique in internal and external quality has to be followed. To achieve this, the curriculum is to be developed into courses, and each course has to be presented in the form teaching lesson plan consisting of topics and session outcome known as Course Outcomes (COs), that easily map into different Programme Outcomes (POs). The major objective of these methodologies is to provide quality technical education to its students. Detailed clear weightage in CO-PO mapping helps in proper measurable COs and to devise the POs attainment is an important issue. This ensures in assisting the achievement of the POs with proper weightage to POs, and also improves the successive curriculum development. In this paper, we presented a methodology for mapping CO and PO considering the key elements supported by each PO. This approach is useful in evaluating the attainment of POs which is based on the attainment of COs using the existing data from students' marks taken from various test items. Such direct assessment tools are used to measure the degree to which each student has achieved each course learning outcome by the completion of the course. Hence, these results are also useful in measuring the PO attainment for improving the programme vision and mission.

Keywords: attainment, course outcomes, programme outcomes, educational institutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1489 Implementation of Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Techniques in Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper proposed the Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation for the minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method uses Alternate Position of Disposition scheme to determine the appropriate switching angle to Multi-Level Inverter. In this paper simulation results shows that the validation of Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage waveform.

Keywords: alternate position, fast fourier analysis, multi-carrier pulse width modulation, multi-level inverter, total harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
1488 Performance Evaluation of Solid Lubricant Characteristics at Different Sliding Conditions

Authors: Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala, Rakesh Kumar Gunda

Abstract:

In modern industry, mechanical parts are subjected to friction and wear, leading to heat generation, which affects the reliability, life and power consumption of machinery. To overcome the tribological losses due to friction and wear, a significant portion of lubricant with high viscous properties allows very smooth relative motion between two sliding surfaces. Advancement in modern tribology has facilitated the use of applying solid lubricants in various industrial applications. Solid lubricant additives with high viscous thin film formation between the sliding surfaces can adequately wet and adhere to a work surface. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to investigate and evaluate the tribological studies of various solid lubricants like MoS¬2, graphite, and boric acid at different sliding conditions. The base oil used in this study was SAE 40 oil with a viscosity of 220 cSt at 400C. The tribological properties were measured on pin-on-disc tribometer. An experimental set-up has been developed for effective supply of solid lubricants to the pin-disc interface zone. The results obtained from the experiments show that the friction coefficient increases with increase in applied load for all the considered environments. The tribological properties with MoS2 solid lubricant exhibit larger load carrying capacity than that of graphite and boric acid. The present research work also contributes to the understanding of the behavior of film thickness distribution of solid lubricant using potential contact technique under different sliding conditions. The results presented in this research work are expected to form a scientific basis for selecting the best solid lubricant in various industrial applications for possible minimization of friction and wear.

Keywords: friction, wear, temperature, solid lubricant

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1487 Execution of Optimization Algorithm in Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper proposed the harmonic elimination of Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter by using Selective Harmonic Elimination-Pulse Width Modulation method programmed with Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. PSO method determine proficiently the required switching angles to eliminate low order harmonics up to the 11th order from the inverter output voltage waveform while keeping the magnitude of the fundamental harmonics at the desired value. Results demonstrate that the proposed method does efficiently eliminate a great number of specific harmonics and the output voltage is resulted in minimum Total Harmonic Distortion. The results shown that the PSO algorithm attain successfully to the global solution faster than other algorithms.

Keywords: multi-level inverter, Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
1486 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
1485 Characterization of Vegetable Wastes and Its Potential Use for Hydrogen and Methane Production via Dark Anaerobic Fermentation

Authors: Ajay Dwivedi, M. Suresh Kumar, A. N. Vaidya

Abstract:

The problem of fruit and vegetable waste management is a grave one and with ever increasing need to feed the exponentially growing population, more and more solid waste in the form of fruit and vegetables waste are generated and its management has become one of the key issues in protection of environment. Energy generation from fruit and vegetables waste by dark anaerobic fermentation is a recent an interesting avenue effective management of solid waste as well as for generating free and cheap energy. In the present study 17 vegetables were characterized for their physical as well as chemical properties, these characteristics were used to determine the hydrogen and methane potentials of vegetable from various models, and also lab scale batch experiments were performed to determine their actual hydrogen and methane production capacity. Lab scale batch experiments proved that vegetable waste can be used as effective substrate for bio hydrogen and methane production, however the expected yield of bio hydrogen and methane was much lower than predicted by models, this was due to the fact that other vital experimental parameters such as pH, total solids content, food to microorganism ratio was not optimized.

Keywords: vegetable waste, physico-chemical characteristics, hydrogen, methane

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1484 Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Upper Airway

Authors: Ramkumar Gunasekaran, John Cater, Vinod Suresh, Haribalan Kumar

Abstract:

The main objective of this project is to develop a statistical shape model using principal component analysis that could be used for analyzing the shape of the human airway. The ultimate goal of this project is to identify geometric risk factors for diagnosis and management of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Anonymous CBCT scans of 25 individuals were obtained from the Otago Radiology Group. The airways were segmented between the hard-palate and the aryepiglottic fold using snake active contour segmentation. The point data cloud of the segmented images was then fitted with a bi-cubic mesh, and pseudo landmarks were placed to perform PCA on the segmented airway to analyze the shape of the airway and to find the relationship between the shape and OSA risk factors. From the PCA results, the first four modes of variation were found to be significant. Mode 1 was interpreted to be the overall length of the airway, Mode 2 was related to the anterior-posterior width of the retroglossal region, Mode 3 was related to the lateral dimension of the oropharyngeal region and Mode 4 was related to the anterior-posterior width of the oropharyngeal region. All these regions are subjected to the risk factors of OSA.

Keywords: medical imaging, image processing, FEM/BEM, statistical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1483 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
1482 Identification and Characterization of Genes Expressed in Diseased Condition Silkworms (Bombyx mori): A Systematic Investigation

Authors: Siddharth Soni, Gourav Kumar Pandey, Sneha Kumari, Dev Mani Pandey, Koel Mukherjee

Abstract:

The silkworm Bombyx mori is a commercially important insect, but a major roadblock in silk production are silkworm diseases. Flacherie is one of the diseases of the silkworm, that affects the midgut of the 4th and 5th instar larvae and eventually makes them lethargic, stop feeding and finally result in their death. The concerned disease is a result of bacterial and viral infection and in some instances a combination of both. The present study aims to identify and study the expression level of genes in the flacherie condition. For the said work, total RNA was isolated from the infected larvae at their most probable infectious instar and cDNA was synthesized using Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). This cDNA was then used to amplify disease relalted genes whose expression levels were checked using quantitaive PCR (qPCR) using the double delta Ct method. Cry toxin receptors like APN and BtR-175, ROS mediator Dual Oxidase are few proteins whose genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) C-type lectins' genes were found to be downregulated. The results explain about the strong expression of genes that can distinguish the concerned protein in the midgut of diseased silkworm and thereby aiding knowledge in the field of inhibitor designing research.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, flacherie disease, inhibitor designing, up and down regulation

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1481 Mechanical Characterization and Metallography of Sintered Aluminium-Titanium Diboride Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Sai Harshini Irigineni, Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala

Abstract:

The industrial applicability of aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) has been rapidly growing due to their exceptional materials traits such as low weight, high strength, excellent thermal performance, and corrosion resistance. The increasing demand for AMMCs in automobile, aviation, aerospace and defence ventures has opened up windows of opportunity for the development of processing methods that facilitate low-cost production of AMMCs with superior properties. In the present work, owing to its economy, efficiency, and suitability, powder metallurgy (P/M) technique was employed to develop AMMCs with pure aluminium as matrix material and titanium diboride (TiB₂) as reinforcement. AMMC samples with different weight compositions (Al-0.1%TiB₂, Al-5%TiB₂, Al-10%TiB₂, and Al-15% TiB₂) were prepared through hot press compacting followed by traditional sintering. The developed AMMC was subjected to metallographic studies and mechanical characterization. Experimental evidences show significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness with increasing reinforcement content. The current study demonstrates the superiority of AMMCs over conventional metals and alloys and the results obtained may be of immense in material selection for different structural applications.

Keywords: AMMCs, mechanical characterization, powder metallurgy, TiB₂

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1480 Development and in vitro Characterization of Loteprednol Etabonate-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Sah, Preeti K. Suresh

Abstract:

Effective drug delivery to the eye is a massive challenge, due to complicated physiological ocular barriers, rapid washout by tear and nasolachrymal drainage. Thus, most of the conventional ophthalmic formulations face the problem of low ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic drug therapy can be improved by enhancing the precorneal drug retention along with improved drug penetration. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a biodegradable polymer poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) coated nanoparticulate carrier of loteprednol etabonate. PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method using high-speed homogenizer followed by sonication. The nanoparticles were characterized for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release profile and stability. The prepared nanocarriers displayed mean particle size in the range of 271.7 to 424.4 nm, with zeta potential less than –10 mV. In vitro release in simulated tear fluid (STF) nanocarrier showed an extended release profile of loteprednol etabonate. TEM confirmed the spherical morphology and smooth surface of the particles. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable at varying temperatures.

Keywords: drug delivery, ocular delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, loteprednol etabonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
1479 Sustainable and Efficient Recovery of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymer from Cupriavidus necator Using Environment Friendly Solvents

Authors: Geeta Gahlawat, Sanjeev Kumar Soni

Abstract:

An imprudent use of environmentally hazardous petrochemical-based plastics and limited availability of fossil fuels have provoked research interests towards production of biodegradable plastics - polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs). However, the industrial application of PHAs based products is primarily restricted by their high cost of recovery and extraction protocols. Moreover, solvents used for the extraction and purification are toxic and volatile which causes adverse environmental hazards. Development of efficient downstream recovery strategies along with utilization of non-toxic solvents will accelerate their commercialization. In this study, various extraction strategies were designed for sustainable and cost-effective recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator using non-toxic environment friendly solvents viz. 1,2-propylene carbonate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, butyl acetate. The effect of incubation time i.e. 10, 30 and 50 min and temperature i.e. 60, 80, 100, 120°C was tested to identify the most suitable solvent. PHAs extraction using a recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C and 30 min incubation. Ethyl acetate showed the better capacity to recover PHAs from cells than butyl acetate. Extraction with ethyl acetate exhibited high recovery yield and purity of 96% and 92%, respectively at 100°C. Effect of non-toxic surfactant such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LAS) was also studied at 40, 60 and 80°C, and detergent pH range of 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 for the extraction of PHAs from the cells. LAS gave highest yield of 86% and purity of 88% at temperature 80°C and 5.0 pH.

Keywords: polyhydroxyalkanoates, Cupriavidus necator, extraction, recovery yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
1478 An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal

Authors: R. Suresh, Pavan Kumar Nimmagadda, Ming Zo Tan, Shane Hart, Sharp Ugwuocha

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.

Keywords: ANSYS Fluent, computational fluid dynamics, nozzle configuration, OpenFOAM, PDC dill bit

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1477 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Venkateswaran A. R., Bharat Narasimhan, Ratnakar Kini S., Kani Sheikh M., Prem Kumar K., Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Arun Murugan, Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Amit Soni

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: CLD, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, lipid profile, triglycerides, VLDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
1476 Influence of Preparation, Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nano Tube

Authors: Dhaivat S. Soni, Snehal Thakor, Afroz Bhatti

Abstract:

The prepare CNTs in bulk quantity by as easiest as possible method with highly pure and small diameter. Prepared CNTs first charactered its structural parameter for the conformation of CNTs and purity. Surface morphology of CNTs stured by using various instruments finally study application of prepared CNTs in various field. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized in large scale by pyrolyzing activated carbon in sealed autoclaves.

Keywords: nanostructures, nanotubes, carbon, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
1475 Eco-Environmental Vulnerability Evaluation in Mountain Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System: A Case Study of Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya, India

Authors: Suresh Kumar Bandooni, Mirana Laishram

Abstract:

The Mid Himalaya of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand (India) has a complex Physiographic features withdiversified climatic conditions and therefore it is suspect to environmental vulnerability. Thenatural disasters and also anthropogenic activities accelerate the rate of environmental vulnerability. To analyse the environmental vulnerability, we have used geoinformatics technologies and numerical models and it is adoptedby using Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA). The model consist of many factors such as slope, landuse/landcover, soil, forest fire risk, landslide susceptibility zone, human population density and vegetation index. From this model, the environmental vulnerability integrated index (EVSI) is calculated for Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya for the years 1987, 2000, and 2013 and the Vulnerability is classified into five levelsi.e. Very low, low, medium, high and very highby means of cluster principle. The resultsforeco-environmental vulnerability distribution in study area shows that medium, high and very high levels are dominating in the area and it is mainly caused by the anthropogenic activities and natural disasters. Therefore, proper management forconservation of resources is utmost necessity of present century. It is strongly believed that participation at community level along with social worker, institutions and Non-governmental organization (NGOs) have become a must to conserve and protect the environment.

Keywords: eco-environment vulnerability, spatial principal component analysis, remote sensing, geographic information system, institutions, Himalaya

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1474 Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR

Authors: A. Rajesh Kanna, G. Suresh Kumar, Sathyanaryana N. Gummadi

Abstract:

There are various sources of energies available worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms. Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since, bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily recovered from the porous sand packed column.

Keywords: bio-surfactant, bacteria, interfacial tension, sand column

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1473 Application of the Best Technique for Estimating the Rest-Activity Rhythm Period in Shift Workers

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Soni

Abstract:

Under free living conditions, human biological clocks show a periodicity of 24 hour for numerous physiological, behavioral and biochemical variables. However, this period is not the original period; rather it merely exhibits synchronization with the solar clock. It is, therefore, most important to investigate characteristics of human circadian clock, essentially in shift workers, who normally confront with contrasting social clocks. Aim of the present study was to investigate rest-activity rhythm and to vouch for the best technique for the computation of periods in this rhythm in subjects randomly selected from different groups of shift workers. The rest-activity rhythm was studied in forty-eight shift workers from three different organizations, namely Newspaper Printing Press (NPP), Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) and Raipur Alloys (RA). Shift workers of NPP (N = 20) were working on a permanent night shift schedule (NS; 20:00-04:00). However, in CSEB (N = 14) and RA (N = 14), shift workers were working in a 3-shift system comprising of rotations from night (NS; 22:00-06:00) to afternoon (AS; 14:00-22:00) and to morning shift (MS; 06:00-14:00). Each subject wore an Actiwatch (AW64, Mini Mitter Co. Inc., USA) for 7 and/or 21 consecutive days, only after furnishing a certificate of consent. One-minute epoch length was chosen for the collection of wrist activity data. Period was determined by using Actiware sleep software (Periodogram), Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Spectral analysis software (Spectre). Other statistical techniques, such as ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test were also used whenever required. A statistically significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity, gauged by cosinor, was documented in all shift workers, irrespective of shift work. Results indicate that the efficiency of the technique to determine the period (τ) depended upon the clipping limits of the τs. It appears that the technique of spectre is more reliable.

Keywords: biological clock, rest activity rhythm, spectre, periodogram

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1472 Investigation of Delivery of Triple Play Service in GE-PON Fiber to the Home Network

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rahul Malhotra, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.

Keywords: BER, PON, TDMPON, GPON, CWDM, OLT, ONT

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1471 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
1470 Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation

Authors: G. Kaushik, A. Gupta, S. Lalwani, K. D. Soni, S. Kumar, S. Sagar

Abstract:

Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.

Keywords: road traffic injuries, alcohol, trauma, emergency department

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1469 In silico Subtractive Genomics Approach for Identification of Strain-Specific Putative Drug Targets among Hypothetical Proteins of Drug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain 825795-1

Authors: Umairah Natasya Binti Mohd Omeershffudin, Suresh Kumar

Abstract:

Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes nosocomial and urinary tract infections. Particular concern is the global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Characterization of antibiotic resistance determinants at the genomic level plays a critical role in understanding, and potentially controlling, the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. In this study, drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 825795-1 was investigated with extensive computational approaches aimed at identifying novel drug targets among hypothetical proteins. We have analyzed 1099 hypothetical proteins available in genome. We have used in-silico genome subtraction methodology to design potential and pathogen-specific drug targets against Klebsiella pneumoniae. We employed bioinformatics tools to subtract the strain-specific paralogous and host-specific homologous sequences from the bacterial proteome. The sorted 645 proteins were further refined to identify the essential genes in the pathogenic bacterium using the database of essential genes (DEG). We found 135 unique essential proteins in the target proteome that could be utilized as novel targets to design newer drugs. Further, we identified 49 cytoplasmic protein as potential drug targets through sub-cellular localization prediction. Further, we investigated these proteins in the DrugBank databases, and 11 of the unique essential proteins showed druggability according to the FDA approved drug bank databases with diverse broad-spectrum property. The results of this study will facilitate discovery of new drugs against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Keywords: pneumonia, drug target, hypothetical protein, subtractive genomics

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1468 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar

Abstract:

m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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1467 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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1466 Investigations on Utilization of Chrome Sludge, Chemical Industry Waste, in Cement Manufacturing and Its Effect on Clinker Mineralogy

Authors: Suresh Vanguri, Suresh Palla, Prasad G., Ramaswamy V., Kalyani K. V., Chaturvedi S. K., Mohapatra B. N., Sunder Rao TBVN

Abstract:

The utilization of industrial waste materials and by-products in the cement industry helps in the conservation of natural resources besides avoiding the problems arising due to waste dumping. The use of non-carbonated materials as raw mix components in clinker manufacturing is identified as one of the key areas to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Chrome sludge is a waste material generated from the manufacturing process of sodium dichromate. This paper aims to present studies on the use of chrome sludge in clinker manufacturing, its impact on the development of clinker mineral phases and on the cement properties. Chrome sludge was found to contain substantial amounts of CaO, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 and therefore was used to replace some conventional sources of alumina and iron in the raw mix. Different mixes were prepared by varying the chrome sludge content from 0 to 5 % and the mixes were evaluated for burnability. Laboratory prepared clinker samples were evaluated for qualitative and quantitative mineralogy using X-ray Diffraction Studies (XRD). Optical microscopy was employed to study the distribution of clinker phases, their granulometry and mineralogy. Since chrome sludge also contains considerable amounts of chromium, studies were conducted on the leachability of heavy elements in the chrome sludge as well as in the resultant cement samples. Estimation of heavy elements, including chromium was carried out using ICP-OES. Further, the state of chromium valence, Cr (III) & Cr (VI), was studied using conventional chemical analysis methods coupled with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Assimilation of chromium in the clinker phases was investigated using SEM-EDXA studies. Bulk cement was prepared from the clinker to study the effect of chromium sludge on the cement properties such as setting time, soundness, strength development against the control cement. Studies indicated that chrome sludge can be successfully utilized and its content needs to be optimized based on raw material characteristics.

Keywords: chrome sludge, leaching, mineralogy, non-carbonate materials

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1465 Investigations on Enhancement of Fly Ash in Cement Manufacturing through Optimization of Clinker Quality and Fly Ash Fineness

Authors: Suresh Vanguri, Suresh Palla, K. V. Kalyani, S. K. Chaturvedi, B. N. Mohapatra

Abstract:

Enhancing the fly ash utilization in the manufacture of cement is identified as one of the key areas to mitigate the Green House Gas emissions from the cement industry. Though increasing the fly ash content in cement has economic and environmental benefits, it results in a decrease in the compressive strength values, particularly at early ages. Quality of clinker and fly ash were identified as predominant factors that govern the extent of absorption of fly ash in the manufacturing of cement. This paper presents systematic investigations on the effect of clinker and fly ash quality on the properties of resultant cement. Since mechanical activation alters the physicochemical properties such as particle size distribution, surface area, phase morphology, understanding the variation of these properties with activation is required for its applications. The effect of mechanical activation on fly ash surface area, specific gravity, flow properties, lime reactivity, comparative compressive strength (CCS), reactive silica and mineralogical properties were also studied. The fineness of fly ash was determined by Blaine’s method, specific gravity, lime reactivity, CCS were determined as per the method IS 1727-1967. The phase composition of fly ash was studied using the X-ray Diffraction technique. The changes in the microstructure and morphology with activation were examined using the scanning electron microscope. The studies presented in this paper also include evaluation of Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), prepared using high volume fly ash. Studies are being carried out using clinker from cement plants located in different regions/clusters in India. Blends of PPC containing higher contents of activated fly ash have been prepared and investigated for their chemical and physical properties, as per Indian Standard procedures. Changes in the microstructure of fly ash with activation and mechanical properties of resultant cement containing high volumes of fly ash indicated the significance of optimization of the quality of clinker and fly ash fineness for better techno-economical benefits.

Keywords: flow properties, fly ash enhancement, lime reactivity, microstructure, mineralogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 112