Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: hydrazide

11 Some Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Body and Hepato-Biliary System under the Influence of Hydrazine Derivatives

Authors: G. Y. Saspugayeva, R. R. Beysenova, M. R. Khanturin, E. T. Abseitov, K. B. Massenov


This research is devoted to the problems of rocket fuel and impact of its derivatives on environment and living things. Hydrazine derivatives are used in different spheres, in aero-space activity, medical practice, laboratory-diagnosis practice and etc. For Kazakhstan, which has the cosmodrome "Baikonur", the problem of environmental pollution by rocket fuel and its components is important issue. An unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is mostly used as rocket fuel for launch vehicles which has high toxicity to humans and animals referred to the World Health Organization. The question about influence of hydrazine derivatives on human organism and ways of detoxication is very actual and requires special approaches in solving these problems. In connection with this situation, we set the goal: study the negative influence of hydrazine derivatives-hydrazine sulphur, nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), phenylhydrazine, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH) on some biochemical parameters of blood, hepatobiliary system and correction of functional damages of organism with “Salsocollin” drugs.

Keywords: isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), AlAT-alanine aminotransferase, AsAT-aspartate aminotransaminase

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10 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Profile of Newer Schiff Bases and Thiazolidinone Derivatives

Authors: N. K. Fuloria, S. Fuloria, R. Gupta


Esterification of p-bromo-m-cresol offered 2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetate (1), which was hydrazinated to yield 2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)aceto hydrazide (2). Compound (2) was reacted with different aromatic aldehydes to yield N-(substituted benzylidiene)-2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetamide(3a-c). Cyclization of compound (3a-c) with thioglycolic acid yielded 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy)-N-(4-oxo-2-arylthiazolidin-3-yl) acetamide (4a-c). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral studies and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Keywords: imines, thiazolidinone, schiff base, antimicrobial

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9 Discerning of Antimicrobial Potential of Phenylpropanoic Acid Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Amit Singh


2-Phenyl propionic acid and oxadiazoles possess antimicrobial potential. 2-Phenyl propane hydrazide (1), on cyclization with aromatic acids offered 2-aryl-5-(1-phenylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (1A-E). The PPA derived oxadiazoles were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial potential. The compound 1D bearing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to a certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the PPA derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antimicrobial, imines, oxadiazoles, PPA

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8 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar


m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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7 Biodegradability and Thermal Properties of Polycaprolactone/Starch Nanocomposite as a Biopolymer

Authors: Emad A. Jaffar Al-Mulla


In this study, a biopolymer-based nanocomposite was successfully prepared through melt blending technique. Two biodegradable polymers, polycaprolactone and starch, environmental friendly and obtained from renewable, easily available raw materials, have been chosen. Fatty hydrazide, synthesized from palm oil, has been used as a surfactant to modify montmorillonite (natural clay) for preparation of polycaprolactone/starch nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize nanocomposite formation. Compatibility of the blend was improved by adding 3% weight modified clay. Higher biodegradability and thermal stability of nanocomopeite were also observed compared to those of the polycaprolactone/starch blend. This product will solve the problem of plastic waste, especially disposable packaging, and reduce the dependence on petroleum-based polymers and surfactants.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, starch, biodegradable, nanocomposite

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6 Synthesis of Some 1h-Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase

Authors: İsmail Çeli̇k, Gülgün Ayhan-Kılcıgi̇l, Arzu Onay-Beşi̇kçi̇


In this study, some 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)- lH-benzo[d]'imidazol-l-yl)-N'-(alkylthiosemicarbazide were designed and prepared. Firstly, 2-phenyl/ suhstitutedphenyl-lH-Benzo[d]imidazole was prepared via oxidative condensation of o-phenylenediamine, benzaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. Treatment of the benzimidazole compound with ethyl chloroacetate in KOH/DMSO gave the ester compound ethyl 2-(2-substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetate. Hydrazine hydrate and the ester in ethanol were refluxed for 4 h to give 2-(2-phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-l-yl)acetohydrazide. Thiosemicarbazides were obtained by condensing acyl hydrazide with the alkylisothiocyanate in ethanol. Following the structure elucidation, benzimidazole compounds were tested for their EGFR kinase inhibitory activities by using ADP-GloTM Kinase Assay.

Keywords: benzimidazole, EGFR kinase inhibitor, synthesis, thiosemicarbazide

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5 Formation of the Water Assisted Supramolecular Assembly in the Transition Structure of Organocatalytic Asymmetric Aldol Reaction: A DFT Study

Authors: Kuheli Chakrabarty, Animesh Ghosh, Atanu Roy, Gourab Kanti Das


Aldol reaction is an important class of carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. One of the popular ways to impose asymmetry in aldol reaction is the introduction of chiral auxiliary that binds the approaching reactants and create dissymmetry in the reaction environment, which finally evolves to enantiomeric excess in the aldol products. The last decade witnesses the usage of natural amino acids as chiral auxiliary to control the stereoselectivity in various carbon-carbon bond forming processes. In this context, L-proline was found to be an effective organocatalyst in asymmetric aldol additions. In last few decades the use of water as solvent or co-solvent in asymmetric organocatalytic reaction is increased sharply. Simple amino acids like L-proline does not catalyze asymmetric aldol reaction in aqueous medium not only that, In organic solvent medium high catalytic loading (~30 mol%) is required to achieve moderate to high asymmetric induction. In this context, huge efforts have been made to modify L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-proline to prepare organocatalyst for aqueous medium asymmetric aldol reaction. Here, we report the result of our DFT calculations on asymmetric aldol reaction of benzaldehyde, p-NO2 benzaldehyde and t-butyraldehyde with a number of ketones using L-proline hydrazide as organocatalyst in wet solvent free condition. Gaussian 09 program package and Gauss View program were used for the present work. Geometry optimizations were performed using B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Transition structures were confirmed by hessian calculation and IRC calculation. As the reactions were carried out in solvent free condition, No solvent effect were studied theoretically. Present study has revealed for the first time, the direct involvement of two water molecules in the aldol transition structures. In the TS, the enamine and the aldehyde is connected through hydrogen bonding by the assistance of two intervening water molecules forming a supramolecular network. Formation of this type of supramolecular assembly is possible due to the presence of protonated -NH2 group in the L-proline hydrazide moiety, which is responsible for the favorable entropy contribution to the aldol reaction. It is also revealed from the present study that, water assisted TS is energetically more favorable than the TS without involving any water molecule. It can be concluded from this study that, insertion of polar group capable of hydrogen bond formation in the L-proline skeleton can lead to a favorable aldol reaction with significantly high enantiomeric excess in wet solvent free condition by reducing the activation barrier of this reaction.

Keywords: aldol reaction, DFT, organocatalysis, transition structure

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4 Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Medium Using an Aromatic Hydrazide Derivative

Authors: Preethi Kumari P., Shetty Prakasha, Rao Suma A.


Mild steel has been widely employed as construction materials for pipe work in the oil and gas production such as down hole tubular, flow lines and transmission pipelines, in chemical and allied industries for handling acids, alkalis and salt solutions due to its excellent mechanical property and low cost. Acid solutions are widely used for removal of undesirable scale and rust in many industrial processes. Among the commercially available acids hydrochloric acid is widely used for pickling, cleaning, de-scaling and acidization of oil process. Mild steel exhibits poor corrosion resistance in presence of hydrochloric acid. The high reactivity of mild steel in presence of hydrochloric acid is due to the soluble nature of ferrous chloride formed and the cementite phase (Fe3C) normally present in the steel is also readily soluble in hydrochloric acid. Pitting attack is also reported to be a major form of corrosion in mild steel in the presence of high concentrations of acids and thereby causing the complete destruction of metal. Hydrogen from acid reacts with the metal surface and makes it brittle and causes cracks, which leads to pitting type of corrosion. The use of chemical inhibitor to minimize the rate of corrosion has been considered to be the first line of defense against corrosion. In spite of long history of corrosion inhibition, a highly efficient and durable inhibitor that can completely protect mild steel in aggressive environment is yet to be realized. It is clear from the literature review that there is ample scope for the development of new organic inhibitors, which can be conveniently synthesized from relatively cheap raw materials and provide good inhibition efficiency with least risk of environmental pollution. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the electrochemical parameters for the corrosion inhibition behavior of an aromatic hydrazide derivative, 4-hydroxy- N '-[(E)-1H-indole-2-ylmethylidene)] benzohydrazide (HIBH) on mild steel in 2M hydrochloric acid using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques at 30-60 °C. The results showed that inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased marginally with increase in temperature. HIBH showed a maximum inhibition efficiency of 95 % at 8×10-4 M concentration at 30 °C. Polarization curves showed that HIBH act as a mixed-type inhibitor. The adsorption of HIBH on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process of HIBH at the mild steel/hydrochloric acid solution interface followed mixed adsorption with predominantly physisorption at lower temperature and chemisorption at higher temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process and kinetic parameters for the metal dissolution reaction were determined.

Keywords: electrochemical parameters, EIS, mild steel, tafel polarization

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3 Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate

Authors: Richa Mardianingrum, Srie R. N. Endah


In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis, docking, Inhibin alpha subunit, InhA, inhibition, synthesis, isonicotinohydrazide

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2 Synthesis and Solubilization of Flurbiprofen Derivatives and Investigation of Their Biological Activities

Authors: Muhammad Mustaqeem, Musa Kaleem Baloch, Irfan Ullah, Ammarah Luqman, Afshan Ahmad


Flurbiprofen is one of the most potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is widely used for relief of pain in patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, migraine, sore throat and primary dysmenorrhea. However, its aqueous solubility is very low and hinders the skin permeation. Thus, it is imperative to develop such a drug delivery systems which can improve its aqueous solubility and hence improve the skin permeation and therapeutic compliance. Microemulsions have been also proven to increase the cutaneous absorption of lipophilic drugs as compared to conventional vehicles. Micro-emulsion is thermodynamically stable emulsion that has the capacity to ‘hide/solubilize’ water-insoluble molecules within a continuous oil phase. Therefore, flurbiprofen was converted to Easters through chemical reactions with alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. The product was further treated with hydrazine to get hydrazide. The solubility of the parent drug Flurbiprofen and the products were solubilized in microemulsions formed using various surfactants like ionic, non-ionic and zwitterions. It has been concluded that the product was more soluble than the parent compound. The biological activities of these were also investigated. The outcome was very promising and the product was more active than the parent compound. It, therefore, concluded that in this way, we can not only enhance the solubility of the drug and increase its bioactivity, but also reduce the risk of stomach cancer.

Keywords: Flurbiprofen, microemulsion, surfactants, hyrazides

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1 Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical Crystal Structures and Antitubercular Activity Study of (E)-N'-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene) Nicotinohydrazide and Some of Its Metal Complexes

Authors: Ogunniran Kehinde Olurotimi, Adekoya Joseph, Ehi-Eromosele Cyril, Mehdi Shihab, Mesubi Adediran, Tadigoppula Narender


Nicotinic acid hydrazide and 2,4-dihydoxylbenzaldehyde were condensed at 20°C to form an acylhydrazone (H3L) with ONO coordination pattern. The structure of the acylhydrazone was elucidated by using CHN analyzer, ESI mass spectrometry, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 2D NMR such as COSY and HSQC. Thereafter, five novel metal complexes [Mn(II), Fe(II), Pt(II) Zn(II) and Pd(II)] of the hydrazone ligand were synthesized and their structural characterization were achieved by several physicochemical methods, namely elemental analysis, electronic spectra, infrared, EPR, molar conductivity and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Structural geometries of some of the compounds were supported by using Hyper Chem-8 program for the molecular mechanics and semi-empirical calculations. The stability energy (E) and electron potentials (eV) for the frontier molecules were calculated by using PM3 method. An octahedral geometry was suggested for both Pd(II) and Zn(II) complexes while both Mn(II) and Fe(II) complexes conformed with tetrahedral pyramidal. However, Pt(II) complex agreed with tetrahedral geometry. In vitro antitubercular activity study of the ligand and the metal complexes were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, by using micro-diluted method. The results obtained revealed that (PtL1) (MIC = 0.56 µg/mL), (ZnL1) (MIC = 0.61 µg/mL), (MnL1) (MIC = 0.71 µg/mL) and (FeL1) (MIC = 0.82 µg/mL), exhibited a significant activity when compared with first line drugs such as isoniazid (INH) (MIC = 0.9 µg/mL). H3L1 exhibited lesser antitubercular activity with MIC value of 1.02 µg/mL. However, the metal complexes displayed higher cytoxicity but were found to be non-significant different (P ˂ 0.05) to isoniazid drug.

Keywords: hydrazones, electron spin resonance, thermogravimetric, powder X-ray diffraction, antitubercular agents

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